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Full text of "The new cook book; a volume of tried, tested and proven recipes by the ladies of Toronto and other cities and towns"

irg 

The Estate of the late 
Effie M. K. Glass 






THE 



New Cook Book 



A VOLUME OF 
TRIED. TESTED AND PROVEN RECIPES 

BY 

The Ladies of Toronto 

AND OTHER CITIES AND TOWNS 



REVISED EDITION, 



EDITED BY 

GRACE E. DENISON 

(Lady Gay of Saturday Nifjht) 



TORONTO, OXT. : 

ROSE PUBLISHING CO. 






Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in tLe year one 
thousand nine hundred and six, by Rose Publishing Co., at the 
Department of Agriculture. 




812148 



PREFACE. 



I gratefully acknowledge the kindness of the Ladies of 
Toronto and other cities, who have sent me, in answer to my 
circulars, over one thousand tested and tried recipes — from 
which I have compiled the New Cook Book. I also thank the 
chefs who have been good enough to disclose some of the 
culinary mysteries which have won them special praise from 
their patrons. Some of the recipes were so late in reaching 
me that the departments to which they belong were closed, 
but th'^y will in this edition be found under Miscellaneous 
Recipes; also over a hundred recipes have been sent anony- 
mously, and I am therefore unable to acknowledge them in the 
list of contributors which is given. Trusting that the New 
Cook Book may be found of practical value, and being sure 
of its worth as an epitome of the experience and skill of our 
best housekeepers and chefs, I am glad to record myself 
theirs most gratefully. 

GRACE E. DENISON. 
(Lady Gay.) 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

AETICLES EEQUIEED IN THE KITCHEN 26 

BEVERAGES 349 

BISCUITS 259 

BREAD 259 

BUTTER 355 

CAKES 225 

CANDIES 331 

CHAFING DISH 340 

CREAMS 201 

CHEESE ^55 

CONTRIBUTORS vi. 

CUSTARDS 201 

DESSERTS 201 

DINNER GIVING 387 

EGGS 290 

FISH 57 

FOREIGN RECIPES 34.3 

FOR THE SICK 371 

GAME Ill 

HOUSEKEEPER'S TIME TABLE 24 

HOW TO CARVE 17 

INDEX 399 



CONTKNTS. V 

TAGE. 

JELLIES 317 

MEATS S2 

MISCELLANEOUS 365 

MUFFINS 259 

OMELETS 290 

PASTEY 219 

PICKLES 289 

PIES 219 

POULTEY Ill 

PEEFACE ' iii. 

PEESEEVES 317 

PUDDINGS AND SAUCES 169 

EOLLS 259 

SANDWICHES 281 

SALADS AND SAUCES 29r, 

SOUPS 31 

TAETS 219 

TOAST 279 

TOILET EECIPES 382 

VEGETABLES . . . . ; 147 

WEIGHTS AND MEASUEES 29 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Mrs. J, M. Alexander, 

Mrs. W. H. B. Aikins, 

Mrs. H. Alley, 

Mrs. Allen, 

Mrs. Ardagh (Barrie), 

Mrs. Adams, 

Mrs. Becher, 

Miss M. A. Beatty, 

Mrs. J. L. Blaikie, 

Miss Bessie Bethune, 

Miss Brown, 

Mrs. S. B. Brush, 

Mrs. Douglas Burni;, 

Mrs. Frank D. Benjamin, 

Mrs. Melfort Boulton, 

Miss Athol Boulton, 

Mrs. S. Percy Beatty, 

Mrs, Frank Bradney (Argentine), 

Mrs. Bland (Hamilton), 

Mrs. G. E. R. Cockburn, 

Miss Clegg (Owen Sound), 

Mr. Coles, 

Mrs. Cringan, 

Carlton Club (London, Eng.), 

Mrs. Cattermole, 

Mrs. ArchM Campbell (Toronto 

Junction), 
Mrs. \7. B. Campbell, 
Mrs. Coady, 
Mrs. A. D. Cartwright, 
Miss Mortimer Clark, 
Mrs. Charles J. Catto, 



Mrs. Cockburn Clemow (Ottawa), 

Mrs. Clifford Cameron, 

Mrs. Lud K. Cameron, 

Mrs. Cross, 

Mrs. J. M. Delamero, 

Mrs. T. Delamere, 

Mrs. G. D. Dawson, 

Mrs. Eobert Darling, 

Mrs. Hartley Dewart, 

Mrs. P. G. Doolittle, 

Delmonico's (New York), 

Miss Sara Dallas, 

Mrs. C. C. Dalton, 

Miss Dora Denison, 

Miss Jessie Denison, 

Miss Denzil, 

Mrs. T. H. bavies, 

Mrs. Henry Duck, 

Mrs. T. G. Elwood, 

Mrs. Timothy Eaton, 

Mrs. J. F. Edgar, 

Mrs. J. Elwood, 

Mrs. 'George Evans, 

Mrs. Falconbridge, 

Mrs. Charles Fleming, 

Mrs. Charles Fuller, 

Miss Ruth Fuller, 

Mrs. J. J. Foy, 

Mrs. Field, 

Mrs. W. Claude Fox, 

Mrs. M. A. Farley, 

Mrs. J. Fleury, 



C<)NTHIBUT()Jl«. 



vn 



Mrs. H. C. Fortier, 

Mrs. Stanbury Finch, 

Mrs. J. T. Fotheringham, 

Miss E. F. Forsythe, 

Miss Gooderham, 

Mrs. James George, 

Mrs. J. T. Gilmour, 

Miss Aileen Gooderham, 

Lady Howland, 

Mrs. H. H. Humphrey, 

Mrs. George Hees, 

Miss Harrison, 

Mrs. L, P. Heaven, 

Miss L. Harris, 

Mrs. W. Hyslop, 

Mrs. Gerhard Heintzman, 

Mrs. Hadyn Horsey. 

Mrs. E. F. B. Johnstone, 

Mrs. Wallace Jouos, 

Mrs. J. T. Jones, 

Miss A, Jennings, 

Mrs. J. E. Jones, 

Mrs. Jarvis, 

Mrs. Edgar Jarvis, 

Mrs, Kleiser, 

Mrs. A. H. R. Kertland, 

Mrs. King, 

Mrs. Land, 

Mrs. Lumbers, 

Mrs. J. F. Lash, 

Mrs. Hector Lamont, 

Mrs. E. J. Lennox, 

Mrs. Lewis Lukes, 

Miss Labatt, 

Mrs. Lynn, 

Lady Meredith, 

Lady Mulock, 

Mrs. Charles Moss, 

Mrs. Mulock, 

Mrs. J. S. Monahan, 

Mrs. 0. R. Macklem, 



Mrs. James Mason, 

Mrs. C. A. Moss, 

Mrs. Morrison (Owen Sound), 

Mrs. C. F. Moore, 

Mrs. C. Musson, 

Mrs. Hugh Macklem, 

Mrs. James Mays (Chatham), 

Mrs. J. L. Munro, 

Mrs. L. B. Mason, 

Mrs. Sutherland Macklem, 

Mrs. J. Moore, 

Mrs. John Massey, 

Mrs. Manning (Fredericton), 

Mrs. ^richie, 

]\Iiss Monck, 

Mrs. T. McGaw, 

Miss Charlo McLeod, 

Miss McDougall, 

Mrs. R. S. F. McMaster, 

Mrs. S. F. McKinnon, 

Mrs. T. K. MacKeand (Chatham), 

Mrs. Wm. McKeough (Chatham), 

Mr. Ernest McConkey, 

Mrs. J. S. McMurray, 

Miss Sheila Macdougall, 

Mrs. Nordheimer, 

Mrs. Wm. Nattress, 

Mrs. Nelles (Brantford), 

Mrs. Barrington Nevitt, 

Mrs. R. L. Nelles, 

Mrs. W. D. Otter, 

Mrs. Arthur Pepler, 

Mrs. R. L. Patterson, 

Mrs. Paterson, 

Mrs. A. Dickson Patterson, 

Dr. Politzin (Vienna, Austria), 

Mrs. Plummer (Barrie), 

Mrs. Edmund Phillips, 

Mrs. Ravenshaw, 

Mrs. Rigby, 

Mrs. Bruce Riordan, 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Mrs. D. A. Eose, 

Mrs. J. Eoss, 

Mrs. Fred. W. Eose, 

Miss Eo8S, 

Miss Smith, 

Mrs. Gold win Smith, 

Mrs. G. P. Sylvester, 

Madame Eochereau de la Sabliere, 

Mrs. Smallman (London), 

Mrs. S. S. Stephenson (Chatham), 

Mrs. Beverley Smith (Chatham), 

Mrs. Charles Sheard. 

Mrs. Arthur Spragge, 

Mrs. C. Carrington Smith, 

Mrs. Fletcher Snider, 

Mrs. Walter Stewart, 

Sherry's (New York), 

Mrs. E. S. Smellie, 

Mrs. W. Smith. 

Mrs. Sandys (Chatham), 



Mrs. E. A. Smith, 

Mrs. Sydney Sykes, 

Mrs. Eobert A. Smith, 

Mrs. Fred. Stupart, 

Lady Thompson, 

Mrs. T. B. Taylor, 

Mrs. A. W. Thompson, 

Mrs. James Tucker, 

Mile. Toronta, 

The Ladies of Fredericton, 

Miss Unwin, 

Mrs. Jette Vickers. 

Mrs. Vogt. 

Mr. Harry Webb (che^), 

Miss Grace Williams, 

Mrs. Giles Williams, 

Waldorf-Astoria, 

Mrs. J. W. B. Walshe, 

Mrs. Charles Winstanley, 



HOW TO CARVE 




/"^ARVING 18 really an art, and should be cultivated as 
one, for much of the success of a gjood dinner depends 
upon it, but whether the bad carving so often met witli is 
really due, as is sometimes said, to stupidity, awkward- 
ness, or laziness, 
is an open ques- 
tion. Practice 
has much to do 
with it, and a 
good knife much 
more. The carv- 
ing-knife should 
be very sharp, 
and kept forthis 
use alone. A 
tine steel knife 
should neve r 
come in contact 
witli intense heat. Table carving-knives should never be 
used around the kitchen range, or for cutting bread, meats, 

or vegetables. 
The di>h upon 
which the meat 
or fowl is served 
should be of 
sufficient size to 
allow room for 
the carved slices 
before serving. 
If this is not 
the case another 
dish should be 
provided for 



-SIRLOIN OP BERF. 




18 



HOW TO CARVE. 




m.— SADDIiK OF MUTTON. 



their reception. 
When carving, 

a cliair should 

l)e used slightly 

higher than the 

ordinary dining- 

chair, as this 

gives a better 

purchase f o r 

using the carv- 
ing-knife and 

fork, and is more graceful than standing, which is often 

resorted to. Skill is the chief requisite of carving, not 

strength. 

The platter containing the meat should be placed 

opposite, and sufficiently near the carver to give perfect 

command over the article to be carved. Cut the meat in 

thin slices, laying them on one side of the platter, then 

afterward place the desired amount on each guest's plate, 

to be passed in turn by the servant. 

Gravies or sauces should be sent to the table very hot. 

Plates also should be thoroughly heated, as otherwise the 

eatables will 
soon get cold 
and the dinner 
will be spoiled. 
When serving 
gravy, be care- 
ful to place it 
by the side of 
and not over the 
meat. Then the 
guest can xif-e 




IV.- SHOCLDEE OF MUTTON. 



HOW TO CARVE. 



19 




-SHOULDKR OK MUTTON. 



much, or little, as preferred. It is not possible to carve 

meat in any way without the gravy escaping, but avoid 

hacking and chopping, which results in a dish full of gravy. 

P In serving any 
fowl or meat 
that is accom- 
panied by stuff- 
ing or dressing, 
guests should be 
asked if a por- 
tion is desired, 
as there are some 
to whom the 

flavor is disagreeable. Do not heap plates too full, and 

keep each article separate, thus insuring a good appearance. 
To sharpen the carver, hold the steel in the left hand, 

which should be on a level with the elbow, so that 

the point of the 

steel is towards 

the right shoul- 
der, and hold 

the knife almost 

perpendicular, 

in the right 

hand. Place the 

hiltoftheknife's 

edge at the top 

of the steel, and 

<lraw the blade v..-round of beef. 

downvrards the whole length of both steel and knife 
first on one side and then on the other — e.g., so that 
the point of the knife finishes at the hilt of the steel. The 
blade should be almost flat on the steel, with the back 
slightly raised and only the edge touching it. 




20 



HOW TO CARVE. 



When carving a slice of meat, after the first incision 
has been made, the angle at which the knife is held must 
never be altered, 
or a jagged slice 
will be obtained. 
When the way 
to control the 
knife has been 
mastered, the 
keystone to 
successful carv- 
ing has been 
acquired. 

The cut should 

be direct, sharp and incisive. A saw-like action should 
never enter into the operation. 

Ham and beef should be carved into very thin slices, 
and mutton and pork into fairly thick ones. 




VII.— LEO OF MUTTON. 



SIRLOIN OF BEEF. 

To carve the uppercut (Fig. I.) : 




Make an incision 
about three in- 
ches deep, just 
above the bone 
that runs thro' 
the centre of 
the joint, and 
run the knife 
along, so that 
when carved in 
the manner il- 
lustrated the 



slices are quite detached from the bone. 



HOW TO CARVE. 



21 




Turn the meat over for the undercut, or fillet, and 
carve in slices across the joint, as in Fig. II. 

Fat will be found just below where the fork is inserted 
in Fig. II. 

SADDLE OF MUTTON. 

Carve as Fig. III., either side of the spinal bone, 

cutting close to 
this bone and 
then working 
round. This 
joint can be car- 
ved in several 
ways, but tluit 
mentioned is 
generally ac- 
counted best. 
Another very 
IX. .ALt > nr.A... good Way is to 

carve in straight strips the whole length of the spinal bone. 
Fat will be found at the bottom of the sides, where 

the joint rests on the dish. 

SHOULDEIl OF MUTTON. 

Raise the furthermost side of the meat, and cut into 
slices as shown 
on Fig IV. 

When carved 
in this manner 
only the primest 
cut is served, 
but considerable 
waste ensues. A 
more economical 
way is to carve 
the under part 




X. — TI'RKKY. 



22 



HOW TO CARVE. 




of the joint, cutting round in the manner shown in Fig. V. 
In this way every particle of meat will be utilized. 

ROUND OF BEEF. 

First remove the outside cut, and then carve in thin 
slices as Fig. VI. 

LEG OF MUTTON. 

Carve as Fig. 
VII. Fat will 
be found at the 
bottom corner 
of the thick end. 
This joint may 
also be carved 
to advantage by 
starting at the 
knuckle endand xi.-tubkky. 

slanting towards the middle. 

HAM. 

Should be carved in the manner shown in Fig. VIII. 

as this at once 
enables the choi- 
cest cut to be 
served. For 
economical pur- 
poses many start 
carving at the 
knuckle end, 
gradually slant- 
ing towards the 
xn.— DUCK. middle. 

CAi.F's HEAD. 

Carve in straight strips, extending from the ear to the 
mouth, as Fig. IX. Cut through to the bone, and each 
piece will become detached naturally. 




HOW TO CARVE. 



23 




XIII.— BOILED FOWL. 



TUllKEY. 

Make an incision about an incli from the breast bone 
(of course, the size of the bird may cause the distance to 
vary), cut right through, as Fig. X., and remove the wing. 
which will naturally fall away, as Fig. XI.; sever the leg 

at the socket, 
and this can then 
be removed in 
the same way 
then carve small 
slices from the 
breast. The legs 
and wings of 
the tui'key aie 
not often eaten at table, for only the breast is considered 
really "fine." Figs. XII. (duck) and XIII. and XIV. 
(chicken) show in a different manner, and perhaps more 
clearly, how the leg and wing are removed. 

DUCK. 

The winof and 
leg are removed 
in the same WMy 
as those of the 
turkey, and the 
bird then carved 
in the same style 
(Fig. XII.) 

BOILED CHICK l<:.N 
First remove 
the wing, as Fig. 
XIII., and then 
the leji, as Fig. X[V^ The knife should then be inserted 
straight through the centre of the bird at the point where 
the wing has been removed from, and then cut straight out to 
the end of the bird. The meat can then be more easily served. 




XIV. — CHICKEN. 



HOUSEKEEPER'S TIME TABLE, 



Apples, sour, hard 

Apples, sweet and mellow . 

Asparagus 

Beans (pod) 

Beans with green corn . . . . 

Beef 

Beefsteak 

Beefsteak .... 

Beef, salted . 

Bass, fresh 

Beets, young 

Beets, old 

Bread, corn . i 

Bread, wheat 

Butter 

Cabbage : 

Cabbage and vinegar 

Cabbage 

Cauliflower 

Cake, sponge 

Carrot, orange 

Cheese, old 

Chicken ... 

Codfi.^h, dry and whole ... 

Custard (one quart) 

Duck, tame 

Duck, wild 

Dumpling, apple 

Eggs, hard 

Eggs, soft 

Eggs 

Eggs 

Fowls, domestic, roasted, or. 
Gelatine 




Raw 
Raw 

Boiled 

Boiled 

Boiled 

Roasted 

Broiled 

Fried 

Boiled 

Broiled 

Boiled 

Boiled 

Baked 

Baked 

Melted 

Raw 

Raw 

Boiled 

Boiled 

Baked 

Boiled 

Raw 

Fricasseed 

Boiled 

Baked 

Roasted 

Roasted 

Boiled 

Boiled 

Boiled 

l<ried 

Raw 

B(.iled 

Boiled 



00 
45 
25 
15 
15 
35 
20 
00 
30 
45 
00 



1 00 

-2 00 

45 

1 00 

i '66 

15 

30 

] 30 

1 00 

1 00 

10 

3 

5 



M. 

50 

50 

30 

30 

45 

00 

00 

00 

15 

00 

45 

00 

15 

30 

30 

30 

00 

30 

30 

30 

15 

30 

45 

00 

45 

00 

50 



1 00 



3 00 
3 30 
3 00 

3 30 
2 00 

4 00 
2 30 



*Minutes to the poinid 



HOUSEKEEPER S TIME TABLE. 



25 



GrOOSti, wild 

Lamb 

Meat and vegetables 

Milk 

Milk 

Mutton 

Mutton 

Onions 

Oysters 

Oysters 

Parsnips 

Pigs' feet 

Pork 

Pork 

Pork, raw or 

Pork 

Potatoes 

Potatoes 

PotatoesJ 

Rice 

Salmon, fresh 

Sausage 

Sausage 

Soup, vegetable .... 

Soup, chicken ....... 

Soup, oyster or mutton 

Spinach 

Tapioca 

Tomatoes 

Tomatoes 

Trout, salmon, fresh, boiled or 

Turkey, boiled or 

Turnips 

Veal 

Venison steak 



Mode of 


Time of 


'I'iine of 


Preparation. 


Cookinp. 
H. M. 


Digestion. 




H. M. 


Roasted 


- 20 


2 30 


Boiled 
Hashed 


* 20 
30 


2 30 


2 30 


Raw 




2 15 


Boiled 




2 00 


Roast 


=:= 26 


3 15 


Broiled 


20 


3 00 


Boiled 


1-2 00 


3 00 


Roasted 




3 16 


Stewed 


5 


3 30 


Boiled 


1 00 


3 00 


Soused 




1 00 


Roast 


- 30 


6 16 


Boiled 


- 26 


4 30 


Fried 




4 16 


Broiled 


20 


3 15 


Boiled 


30 


3 30 


Baked 


45 


3 30 


Roasted 


45 


2 30 


Boiled 


20 


1 00 


Boiled 


8 


1 45 


Fried 


25 


4 00 


Broiled 


20 


3 30 


Boiled 


1 00 


4 30 


Boiled 


2 00 


3 00 


Boiled 


t3 30 


3 30 


Boiled 


1-2 00 


2 00 


Boil.'d 


1 30 


2 00 


Fresh 


1 00 


2 30 


Canned 


30 


2 30 


Fried 


30 


1 30 


Roasted 


* 20 


2 30 


Boiled 


45 


3 30 


Broiled 


20 


4 00 


Broiled 


20 


1 35 



* Minutes to the pound. t Mutton soup. 

The time given is the general average; the time will vary slightly with the 
quality of the article. 



ARTICLES REQUIRED IN THE KITCHEN. 



The following list will show what articles are necessary for 
the kitchen, and will be quite an aid to young housekeepers 
when about commencing to furnish the utensils needed in the 
kitchen department, and may prove useful to many : 2 sweep- 
ing brooms and 1 dust-pan, 1 whisk broom, 1 bread box, 2 
cake boxes, 1 large flour box, 1 dredging box, 1 large-sized tin 
pepper box, 1 spice box containing smaller spice boxes, 2 cake 
pans, two sizes, 4 bread pans, 2 square biscuit pans, 1 apple 
corer, 1 lemon squeezer, 1 meat cleaver, 3 kitchen knives and 
forks, 1 large kitchen fork and 4 kitchen spoons, two sizes. 
1 wooden spoon for cake making, 1 large bread knife, 1 
griddle cake turner, also 1 griddle, 1 potato masher, 1 meat 
board, 1 dozen patty-pans, and the same number of tartlet- 
pans, 1 large tin pail and 1 wooden pail, 2 small tin pails, 1 
set of tin basins, 1 set tin measures, 1 wooden butter ladle, 1 
tin skimmer, 1 tin steamer, 2 dippers, two sizes, 2 funnels, 
two sizes, 1 set of jelly cake tins,4 pie pans, 3 pudding moulds, 
one for boiling, two for baking, two sizes; 2 dish pans, two 
sizes, 2 cake or biscuit cutters, two sizes, 2 graters, one 
large and one small, 1 coffee canister 1 tea canister 1 tin 
or granite-ware teapot, 1 tin or granite-ware coffee-pot, 
4 milk pans, 1 milk strainer, 1 dozen iron gem pans 
or muffin rings, 1 coarse gravy strainer, 1 fine strainer, 
1 colander, 1 flour sifter, 2 scoops, one for flour, one 
for sugar, 2 jelly moulds, two sizes, 1 can opener, 
1 effg beater, 1 cork screw, 1 chopping knife, 2 woodep 
chopping bowls, two sizes, 1 meat saw, 2 large earthen 
bowls, 4 stone jars, 1 coffee mill, 1 candlestick, 2 market 
baskets, two sizes, 1 clock, 1 ash bucket, 1 gridiron, 2 frying 
pans or spiders, two sizes, 4 fiat-irons, 2 number 8 and 2 
number 6, 2 dripping pans, two sizes, 3 iron kettles, porcelain 
lined if possible, 1 corn beef or fish kettle, 1 tea kettle, 2 
granite-ware stew pans, two sizes, 1 wire toaster, 1 double 



ARTICLES REQUIRED IN THE KITCHEN. 27 

kettle for cooking custards, grains, etc., 2 sugar boxes, one 
for coarse and one for fine sugar, 1 waffle iron, 1 step ladder, 
1 stove, 1 coal shovel, 1 pair scales, 2 coal hods or buckets, 1 
kitchen table, 2 kitchen chairs, 1 large clothes basket, 1 wash 
boiler, 1 wash board, 8 dozen clotl es pins, 1 large nail ham- 
mer and 1 small tack hammer, 1 bean pot, 1 clothes wringer. 

An ingenious housewife will' manage to do with less con- 
veniences, but these articles, if they can be purchased in the 
commencement of housekeeping, will save time and labor, 
making the preparation of food more easy — and it is al- 
ways economy in the end to get the best material in all wares 
— as, for instance, tlie double plate tin will last for years, 
whereas the poor kind has to be replaced in a short time ; the 
low-priced earthenware is soon broken up, whereas the strong 
stone ware, costing but a trifle more, lasts almost a lifetime. 

In relation to the economy and management of the 
kitchen, I might suggest that the most essential thing is 
cleanliness in cooking, and also cleanliness with your person 
as well as in the keeping of the kitchen. 

The hands of the cook should be always thoroughly 
cleansed before touching or handling anything pertaining to 
the cooking. Next there should never be anything wasted. or 
thrown away that can be turned to account, either foryourown 
family or some family in poor circumstances. Bread that has 
become hard can be used for toasting, or for stuffing and 
pudding. In warm weather any gravies or soups that are 
left from the preceding day should be boiled up and poured 
into clean pans. This is particularly necessary where vege- 
tables have been added to the preparation, as it then so soon 
turns sour. In cooler weather, every other day will be often 
enough to warm up these things. 

In cooking, clear as you go; that is to say, do not allow 
a host of basins, plates, spoons, and other utensils, to accumu- 
late on the dressers and tables whilst you are engaged in 
preparing the dinner. By a little management and fore- 
thought, much confusion may be saved in this way. It is as 
easy to put a thing in its place when done with, as it is to 
keep continually moving it to find room for fresh requisites. 
For instance, after making a pudding, the flour-tub, paste- 
board, and rolling-pin, should be put away, and any basins, 



28 ARTICLES REQUIRED TN THE KITCHEN. 

spoons, etc., should be neatly packed up near the sink, to be 
washed when the proper time arrives. Neatness, order, and 
method should be always observed. 

Never let your stock of spices, salt, seasonings, herbs, etc.. 
dwindle down so low that some day, in the midst of preparing 
a large dinner, you find yourself minus a very important in- 
gredient, thereby causing much confusion and annoyance. 

After you have washed your sauce-pans, fish-kettle, etc., 
stand them before the fire for a few minutes to get thoroughly 
dry inside, before putting them away. They should then 
be kept in a dry place, in order that they may escape the de- 
teriorating influence of rust, and thereby be quickly destroyed. 
Never leave sauce-pans dirty from one day's use to be cleaned 
the next ; it is slovenly and untidy. 

Do not be afraid of hot water in washing up dishes and 
dirty cooking utensils. As these are essentially greasy, luke- 
warm water cannot possibly have the effect of cleansing them 
effectually. Do not be chary also of changing and renewing 
the water occasionally. You will save yourself much time 
and labor by using Pearline in dish water. 

Keep a cake of Sapolio always on hand in the kitchen — 
always convenient for rubbing off stains from earthenware, 
tin, glass, in fact, almost everything but silver; it is a cheap 
and valuable article, and can be purchased at nearly every 
grocery in Canada. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

(In ordinary use among housekeepers.) 



2 Clips lard make 1 pound. 

2 Cups butter make 1 pound. 

4 Cups pastry or bread flour make 1 pound. 

3 7-8 Cups entire wheat flour make 1 pound. 

4 1-2 Cups graham flour make 1 pound. 
4 1-8 Cups rye flour make 1 pound, 

2 2-3 Cups corn meal make 1 pound. 
4 3-4 Cups rolled oats make 1 pound. 
2 2-3 Cups oatmeal make 1 pound. 
4 1-3 Cups coffee make 1 pound. 
2 Cups granulated sugar make 1 pound. 

2 2-3 Cups powdered sugar make 1 pound. 

3 1-2 Cups confectioner's sugar make 1 pound. 
2 2-3 Cups brown sugar make 1 pound. 

2 Cups chopped meat make 1 pound. 

1 7-8 Cups rice make 1 pound. 

2 Cups raisins (packed) make 1 pound. 
2 1-4 Cups currants make 1 pound. 

2 Cups stale bread crumbs make 1 pound. 
9 Large eggs make 1 pound. 

2 Tablespoonfuls butter make 1 ounce. 

4 Tablespoonfuls flour make 1 ounce. 

6 Tablespoonfuls baking powder make 1-2 ounce. 

3 Teaspoonfuls make 1 tablespoonful. 

16 Tablespoonfuls dry ingredient make 1 cup. 

4 Teaspoonfuls equal 1 tablespoonful liquid. 

4 Tablespoonfuls equal 1 wineglass, or half a gill. 

2 Wineglasses equal 1 gill, or half a cup. 

2 Gills equal 1 coffee-cupful, or 16 tablespoonfuls. 



30 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

2 Coffee-cupfuls equal 1 pint. 

2 Pints equal 1 quart. 

4 Quarts equal 1 gallon, 

2 Tablespoonfuls equal 1 ounce, liquid. 

1 Tablespoonf ul of salt equals 1 ounce. 

16 Ounces equal 1 pound, or a pint of liquid. 

4 Coffee-cupfuls of sifted flour equal 1 pound. 

1 Quart of unsifted flour equals 1 pound. 

8 or 10 ordinary sized eggs equal 1 pound. 

1 Pint of sugar equals 1 pound. (White granulated.) 

1 Tablespoonful of soft butter, well rounded, equals 1 
ounce. 

An ordinary tumblerful equals 1 coffee-cupful, or half a 
pint. 

About 25 drops of any thin liquid will fill a common-sized 
teaspoon. 

1 Pint of finely chopped meat, packed solidly, equals one 
pound. 

A set of tin measures (with small spouts or lips), from a 
gallon down to half a gill, will be found very convenient in 
every kitchen ; though common pitchers, bowls, glasses, etc., 
may be substituted. 



SOUPS. 



Consomme, or Stock, forms the basis of all meat soups, 
and also of all principal sauces. It is, therefore, essential to 
the success of these culinary operations to know the most com- 
plete and economical method of extracting from a certain 
quantity of meat the best possible stock or broth. Fresh un- 
cooked beef makes the best stock, with the addition of cracked 
bones, as the glutinous matter contained in them renders it 
important that they should be boiled with the meat, which 
adds to the strength and thickness of the soup. They are 
composed of an earthy substance — to which they owe their 
solidity — of gelatine, and a fatty fluid, something like mar- 
row. Two ounces of them contain as much gelatine as one 
pound of meat; but in them, this is so encased in the earthy 
substance, that boiling water can dissolve only the surface of 
the whole bones, but by breaking them they can be dissolved 
more. When there is an abundance of it, it causes the stock, 
when cold, to become a jelly. The flesh of old animals con- 
tains more flavor than the flesh of young ones. Brown meats 
contain more flavor than white. 

Mutton is too strong in flavor for good stock, while veal, 
although quite glutinous, furnishes very little nutriment. 

Some cooks use meat that has once been cooked; this 
renders little nourishment and destroys the flavor. It might 
answer for ready soup, but for stock to keep it is not as good, 
unless it should be roasted meats. Those contain higher 
fragrant properties ; so by putting the remains of roast meats 
in the stock-pot you obtain a better flavor. 

The shin bone is generally used, but the neck or " sticking 
piece," as the butchers call it, contains more of the siibstai^ 
that you want to extract, makes a stronger and more nutri- 
tious soup than any other part of the animal. Meats for 
soup should always be put on to cook in cold water, in a 
covered pot. and allowed to simmer slowly for several hours, 
in order that the essence of the meat may be drawn out 



32 SOUPS. 

thoroughly, and should be carefully skimmed to prevent it 
from becoming turbid; never allow to boil fast at any time, 
and if more water is needed, use boiling water from the tea- 
kettle ; cold or lukewarm water spoils the flavor. Never salt 
it before the meat is tender (as that hardens and toughens 
the meat), especially if the meat is to be eaten. Take off 
every particle of scum as it rises, and before the vegetables 
are put in. 

Allow a little less than a quart of water to a pound of 
meat and bone, and a teaspoonful of salt. When done, strain 
through a colander. If for clear soups strain again through a 
hair sieve, or fold a clean towel in a colander set over an 
earthen bowl, or any dish large enough to hold the stock. 
As stated before, stock is not as good when made entirely from 
cooked meats, but in a family which requires a large Joint 
roasted every day, the bones and bits and underdone pieces 
of beef, or the bony structure of turkey or chicken that has 
been left from carving, bones of roasted poultry, these all 
assist in imparting a rich dark color to soup, and would be 
sufficient, if stewed as above, to furnish a family, without buy- 
ing fresh meat for the purpose; still, with the addition of a 
little fresh meat it would be more nutritious. In cold weather 
you can gather them up for several days and put them to 
cook in cold water, and when done, strain, and put aside 
until needed. 

Soup will be as good the second day as the first if heated 
to the boiling point. It should never be left in the pot, but 
should be turned into a dish or shallow pan, and set aside to 
get cold. Never cover up, as that will cause it to turn sour 
very quickly. 

Before heating a second time, remove all the fat from the 
top. If this be melted in, the flavor of the soup will certainly 
be spoiled. 

Thickened soups require nearly double the seasoning used 
for thin soups or broth. 

Coloring is used in some brown soups, the chief of which 
is brown burnt sugar, which is known as caramel by French 
cooks. 



SOUPS. 33 

Pounded spinach leaves give a fine green color to soup. 
Parsley, or the green leaves of celery, put in soup will serve 
instead of spinach. 

Pound a large handful of spinach in a mortar, then tie it 
in a cloth, and wring out all the juice; put this in the soup 
you wish to color green, five minutes before taking it up. 

Mock turtle, and sometimes veal and lamb soups, should 
be this color. 

Okra gives a green color to soup. 

To color soup red, skin six red tomatoes, squeeze out the 
seeds and put them into the soup with the other vegetables — 
or take the juice only as directed for spinach. 

For Avhite soups, which are of veal, lamb or chicken, none 
but white vegetables are used; rice, pearl barley, vermicelli, 
or macaroni for thickening. 

Grated carrot gives a fine amber color to soup ; it must be 
put in as soon as the soup is free from scum. 

HERBS AND VEGETABLES USED IN SOUPS. 

Of vegetables the principal ones are carrots, tomatoes, as- 
paragus, green peas, okra, macaroni, green corn, beans, rice, 
vermicelli, Scotch barley, pearl barley, wheat flour, mushroom 
or mushroom catsup, parsnips, beet-root, turnips, leeks, garlic, 
shalots, and onions ; sliced onions fried with butter and flour 
until they are browned, then rubbed through a sieve, are ex- 
cellent to heighten the color and flavor of brown sauces and 
soups. The herbs usually used in soups are parsley, common 
thyme, summer savory, knotted marjoram, and other season- 
ings such as bay-leaves, tarragon, allspice, cinnamon, nut- 
meg, cloves, mace, black and white pepper, red pepper, lemon- 
peel and juice, orange-peel and juice. The latter imparts a 
finer flavor and the acid is much milder. These materials, with 
wine, and the various catsups, combined in various propor- 
tions, are, with other ingredients, made into almost an end- 
less variety of excellent soups and gravies. 

Soups that are intended for the principal part of a meal 
certainly ought not to be flavored like sauces, which are only 
intended to give relish to some particular dish. 
*3 



31 SOUPS. 



STOCK. 



Six pounds of shin' of beef, or six pounds of knuckle of 
veal; any bones, trimmings of poultry, or fresk meat; one- 
quarter pound of lean bacon or ham, two ounces of butter, 
two large onions, each stuck with cloves; one turnip, three 
carrots, one head of celery, two ounces of salt, one-half tea- 
spoonful of whole pepper, one large blade of mace, one 
bunch of savory herbs except sage, four quarts and one-half 
pint of cold water. 

Cut up the meat and bacon, or ham, into pieces of about 
three inches square; break the bones into small pieces, rub 
the butter on the bottom of the stewpan; put in one-half a 
pint of water, the broken bones, then meat and all other in- 
gredients. Cover the stewpan, and place it on a sharp fire, 
occasionally stirring its contents. When the bottom of the pan 
becomes covered with a pale, jelly-like substance, add the 
four quarts of cold water, and simmer very gently for five or 
six hours. As we have said before, do not let it boil quickly. 
When nearly cooked, throw in a tablespoonful of salt to assist 
the scum to rise. Eemove every particle of scum whilst it 
is doing, and strain it through a fine hair sieve; when cool 
remove all grease. This stock will keep for many days in cold 
weather. 

Stock is the basis of many of the soups afterwards men- 
tioned, and this will be found quite strong enough for ordin- 
ary purposes. Keep it in small jars, in a cool place. It 
makes a good gravy for hash-meats; one tablespoonful of it 
is sufiBcient to impart a fine flavor to a dish of macaroni and 
various other dishes. Good soups of various kinds are made 
from it at short notice; slice off a portion of the jelly, add 
water, and whatever vegetables and thickening preferred. It 
is best to partly cook the vegetables before adding to the stock, 
as much boiling injures the flavoring of the soup. Season 
and boil a few moments and serve hot. 

WHITE STOCK. 

White stock is used in the preparation of white soups, 
and is made by boiling six pounds of a knuckle of veal, cut 
up in small pieces, poultry trimmings, and four slices of lean 



SOUPS. 35 

ham. Proceed according to directions given in " Stock," 
above. 

TO CLARIFY STOCK. 

Place the stock in a clean saucepan, set it over a brisk fire. 
When boiling, add the white of one egg to each quart of stock, 
proceeding as follows: beat the whites of the eggs up well 
in a little water ; then add a little hot stock ; beat to a froth, 
and pour gradually into the pot; then beat the whole hard 
and long; allow it to boil up once, and immediately remove 
and strain through a thin flannel cloth. 

BROWN STOCK. 

Four pounds shin of beef or other meat and bones, four 
carrots, four onions, one turnip, one small head of celery, half 
teaspoonful salt, half teaspoonful pepper corns, six cloves, 
five pints cold water. Cut up the meat and bones and place 
in the stock pot, pour over the water and skim when boiling. 
Prepare the vegetables and add. Cover closely and simmer 
four hours. The spices should be added with the vegetables. 

QUENELLES FOR CLEAR OR WHITE SOUP. 

Melt an ounce of butter in a stew-pan over a gentle fire, 
beat it up with a dessertspoonful of flour and a tablespoon 
of cream, so as to make a thick paste; add two ounces of boiled 
macaroni, two ounces of Parmesan cheese grated, a little salt, 
pepper, and a grate of nutmeg. Beat the mixture over the 
fire till smooth and firm and leaves the sides of the sauce-pan 
with the spoon. Mould it into quenelles with a teaspoon 
dipped in hot water, and then poach them in boiling gravy 
till they are done thoroughly ; lift them out with a skimmer, 
and put them into the tureen with the soup, 

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS. 

Clean a bundle of asparagus, cut off tips and boil in 
salted water till soft; boil the stalks twenty minutes in a 
quart of good stock ; put two ounces of butter in a stew-pan 
with two ounces of flour, mix smoothly and pour in the hoi 



36 SOUPS. 

stock, having previously pulped the asparagus through a 
sieve; add one pint of milk; boil up and skim; put the 
tips in a tureen with a gill of cream; pour in the boiling 
soup; season with salt and pepper to taste, and serve. 

WHITE SOUP. 

Take a good-sized knuckle of veal, put it on to boil well 
covered with water, removing the scum as it comes to a boil ; 
boil till the meat comes freely from the bones, which 
remove, returning the bones into the pot and boil for another 
three-quarters of an hour, renewing the water when you see 
fit, so that it may not boil dry ; then strain all through a colan- 
der ; you will then have one and one-half quarts of soup. Set 
it away in a cool place, and the following day put it on to 
boil with a quart of milk and a piece of fresh butter the size 
of an egg. Put one-half teaspoonful of ground mace, ground 
red or white pepper, and salt to taste; when all comes to a 
boil have two and one-half tablespoonfuls of flour well 
blended in cold water, pour this into the boiling soup, then 
let it boil for three or four minutes; remove the pot from 
the stove; take the yolks of six eggs well beaten, put a little 
of the soup with the eggs and mix all together, then pour 
slowly into the soup, stirring it quietly all the while; the 
eggs must not be added to the soup while boiling, as they will 
curdle; this makes a delicious soup when properly made. If 
preferred, one-half pint of cream can be used instead of the 
butter. Half the quantity can be made by using half the 
ingredients. 

KIDNEY SOUP. 

One ounce butter, one ounce flour, one-half ounce ground 
rice, pepper and salt, three quarts cold water, one tablespoon 
Worcester sauce, one tablespoonful mushroom sauce. Cut 
the kidneys in thin slices, sprinkle with the ounce of flour, 
melt the butter, put in the kidney and brown. Then pour in 
the water, stir till it boils, skim carefully and allow to sim- 
mer slowly for three hours. Put the one-half ounce of rice 
in a bowl with the sauces. When mixed pour into the soup ; 
stir well till it boils, then cook slowly for ten minutes and 



SOUPS. 37 

serve without the meat. Two large kidneys are sufficient for 
the above. 

TOMATO BOUILLON. 

One can tomatoes, one and one-half quarts stock, one 
tablespoon chopped onion, two bay leaves, four whole cloves, 
one level teaspoon celery seed, whites three eggs, two table- 
spoons salt. Put tomatoes and stock over fire, add onion, bay 
leaves, cloves, celery and pepper. Cover and cook twenty 
minutes. Strain through a sieve. Beat whites of eggs till 
partly light, add these to tomato, bring to boil and boil 
rapidly five minutes. Strain through two thicknesses of cheese- 
cloth. Ee-heat, season with salt and serve with tiny cubes 
of toasted bread. 

CAEEOT SOUP. 

To each quart of stock allow twelve or thirteen ounces of 
pulped carrot, salt and cayenne to taste. 

Boil as many carrots as required (about four good-sized 
ones to each quart) till quite tender. Then cut up the red 
part and rub it through a sieve. Weigh it and add gravy 
soup or good stock in the above proportions ; mix it gradually 
and season with salt and a little cayenne. Let it boil up, and 
serve very hot, with a dish of fried bread cut into small 
squares. 

GEEEN PEA SOUP. 

Two quarts of stock, one-half peck of old peas, two lettuce, 
one onion, a few sprigs of mint, and a little cucumber, one 
tablespoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of flour. 

Eeserve one quart of stock and a teacupful of peas; put 
the rest of stock and all the vegetables together and simmer 
till quite tender, then press all through a sieve; add the 
remainder of the stock, let it come to the boiling point, and 
just before serving, if the soup is not very thick, add the butter 
and flour well mixed together. Boil the teacup of peas by 
themselves, put them in the tureen and pour the soup over 
them. Serve with a dish of toasted bread. 



38 SOUPS. 

HARICOT BEAN SOUP. 

Two quarts of stock, one pint of haricot beans, pepper 
and salt to taste. 

Soak the beans all night in cold water, drain them and 
boil in cold water, slightly salted, till quite tender, about one 
and a half hours. Press them through a sieve with a spoon, 
and add them (leaving out the husks) to the stock, which 
should be warm; add pepper and salt to taste, boil up once 
more, and serve with a dish of fried bread cut into small 
squares. 

KIDNEY SOUP. 

One ounce kidney, one quart second stock, one tablespoon- 
ful mushroom catsup, one tablespoonful Harvey sauce, one 
ounce butter, one ounce flour of rice, pepper and salt. Wash 
and pepper, and roll kidney into it, then put in pan with 
butter and brown quickly; add part of the stock and let it 
come to the boil and cook a few minutes; put in sauce-pan 
with the rest of the stock, and leave to simmer two hours. 

MOCK CLAM SOUP. 

Cook a pint of marrowfat beans over night in water 
enough to cover them. In the morning drain and put them 
on the fire with a small onion and a gallon of cold water ; boil 
until tender and strain. Add to the s.tock a little summer 
savory, two ounces of butter and a cup of cream or rich milk, 
season with salt and pepper. 

When the soup comes to a boil, cut two slices of toast into 
dice, and four hard-boiled eggs in slices, put these in the 
tureen and pour the soup over and serve. 

POTATO SOUP. 

One carrot, one onion, two large potatoes chopped fine. 
Boil, and put through a colander; then add pepper and salt 
to taste; add a good sized piece of butter, and one quart of 
milk ; let come to a boil and serve. 



SOUPS. 39 

TURKISH SOUP. 

One quart white stock, one gill cream, yolks two eggs, one- 
quarter teaspoonful pepper, two tablcspoonfuls of sago or 
round tapioca. When stock is boiling put in the sago (soaked 
for half an hour) ; beat yolks with cream, and when sago 
boils for ten minutes, add a cup of soup gradually to cream 
and eggs, stirring all the time; put back on the stove and 
cook a few minutes, stirring all the time. 

TEIPE SOUP. 

Cleanse the tripe thoroughly, slice in small pieces and 
plunge in boiling water. Eemove carefully, wash again in 
hot water, and if there are any spots black or red left, scrape 
with a knife. Put in a sauce-pan with plenty of water and 
a little vinegar and boil until tender. 

Break ten eggs in another dish, add salt and lemon- juice, 
beat thoroughly and stir into it a little of the boiling broth 
until danger of curdling is past; then add to the tripe and 
water, cook a moment longer and serve. 

SALMON SOUP. 

One cup cooked salmon, one pint milk, one tablespoonful 
butter, one tablespoonful flour, salt and pepper to taste; one 
bay leaf, one sprig parsley, one slice onion. Put milk in 
double boiler, and bay leaf, onion and parsley ; let it come to 
scalding j)oint, rub butter and flour together, put into milk, 
stir till it thickens; remove flavorings, add salmon, which 
has been rubbed through a colander, stir until it becomes 
smooth, add salt and cayenne. Serve. 

TOMATO SOUP. 

One tin tomatoes, one quart stock, one gill milk or cream, 
one ounce butter, one ounce flour, pepper and salt. Boil to- 
gether the stock and tomatoes for fifteen minutes, then rub 
them through a sieve; melt the butter in a sauce-pan, stir in 
flour and strained stock, boil two minutes; allow the boil to 
go off, then add cream, and do not allow it to boil again or the 
CI earn will curdle. 



40 SOUPS. 

TOMATO SOUP. 

One quart of fresh peeled or canned tomatoes, boil up 
and add half a teaspoon of soda. Strain and return to the 
fire and add one quart of hot boiled milk, thickened with a 
little cornstarch, pouring back and forth several times; sea- 
son with salt, pepper, and a small piece of butter; add three 
tablespoonfuls of rolled crackers and serve hot. 

CLEAR SOUP. 

Heat a heaping tablespoonful of butter in a covered sauce- 
pan; slice into it a medium-sized onion; stir until the onion 
is browned ; add two pounds of finely chopped lean raw beef, 
one quart cold water; cover closely and let it simmer three 
hours. Strain the soup, return to the kettle; add the white 
and shell of an egg, well beaten, with a little cold water ; add 
also four peppercorns, teaspoonful of salt, two cloves and 
a blade of mace. Boil five minutes, then strain and serve 
from a hot tureen. 

omoN SOUP. 

Put one tablespoonful of butter in the frying pan. When 
hot add one finely chopped onion ; fry it until nicely browned, 
being careful not to burn. Put one quart of soup stock 
(made from odds and ends of cold meat) into a stew pan; 
add the fried onion and cook for fifteen minutes. Strain; 
return to the fire, add one tablespoonful of flour wet in a 
little cold water to thicken, and boil for five minutes longer. 
Season with one-half a teaspoonful of salt and one-quarter 
teaspoonful of pepper. Cut two slices of stale bread into 
dice; brown the dice in the oven, put them in the soup 
tureen, pour the soup over them and serve at once before they 
become soft. 

GIBLET SOUP. 

This soup is a great success and is very inexpensive, a 
plate of giblets only costing at market five cents. It is a very 
good imitation of mock turtle soup. The giblets of four 



SOUPS. 41 

chickens or two tiirke3'^s are required, one medium onion, one 
carrot, half a turnip, a few sprigs of parsley, all of which 
come in the ordinary soup bunch. Heat butter size of an egg 
in stewpan, throw in the sliced onion, later the minced car- 
rot and turnip ; when tender and a light brown, add the gib- 
lets, stirring in a tablespoonful of flour. Be careful to stir 
often that they do not burn. Fow cut up giblets and put 
with vegetables into soup kettle with tablespoonful of salt, 
teaspoonful of pepper and three quarts of water, or stock in 
part, if you have it, or any chicken bones. Let this simmer 
slowly for three hours or more; then strain it. Take all the 
livers, mash into them a tablespoonful of melted butter, table- 
spoonful browned flour; squeeze the juice of small lemon 
into this and add to the soup. Place in tureen yolks of three 
bard-boiled eggs cut in half-dozen pieces, pour over the soup ; 
serve. This recipe came from the New York Cooking School. 

SUMMEE SOUP. 

In summer soup should be light and appetizing, as few 
people desire rich food in any form at this season of the year. 
Many very excellent soups are made of vegetables, and the 
housekeeper can have her family partake daily of light, 
healthful soups at a small cost, which will be more acceptable 
than the usual meat and fish soups. Peel and slice two pota- 
toes, parboil them in enough hot water to cover them. While 
they are cooking, chop two tomatoes, slice the com off two 
ears of corn, and add one slice of onion. Drain the pota- 
toes, and put all on to cook in two quarts of cold water. When 
done, rub all through a colander, return the soup to the pot, 
add a level tablespoonful butter, one teaspoon salt, one-half 
teaspoon pepper and one of minced parsley. If not thick 
enough, moisten a teaspoonful of flour with cold water, thin 
with, the soup and stir in; let boil up once, and it is ready 
for the table. 

GUMBO SOUP. 

Try out the fat of a slice of bacon, drain it off, and in it 
fry the slices of a large onion brown. Peel and cut up two 
quarts of fresh tomatoes, and cut tkin one quart of okra. Put 



42 SOUPS. 

all together with a little choi^ped parsley (one teaspoonful) 
in a stew kettle with three quarts of hot broth of any kind. 
Let it cook slowly for three hours. Season with a scant table- 
spoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful of pepper. In the 
winter a large can of tomatoes and a can of okra may be used 
ii stead of the fresh vegetables. 

MARROWBALL SOUP. 

Let piece of marrow, size of egg, melt slowly. When 
slightly cooled add one cup grated bread crumbs, yolk of one 
egg, salt, nutmeg to flavor; mix well with little cold water. 
Take a teaspoonful, drop into boiling stock ; do not cover the 
kettle; should the ball fall apart more bread crumbs should 
be added. Put the mixture in by the spoonful, and let boil 
slowly three minutes. 

SQUASH AND GOOSE BONE SOUP. 

Cut squash into pieces two or three inches square, put into 
saucepan, cook slowly until tender. Press through a colander 
and return to kettle ; add one pint milk. Rub together three 
tablespoons flour and three of butter; add stock made of 
bones left over from goose; stir until creamy; add pepper 
and salt and tablespoofl onion Juice. 

CREAM OF BARLEY SOUP. 

Boil one knuckle of veal or chicken or turkey bones in two 
quarts of cold water very gently for three hours; skim and 
strain. "Wash a half cup of pearl barley in cold water; cover 
it with the white broth you have just made. Cover the sauce- 
pan and cook very gently until the barley is tender. Then 
remove one-third of the barley, set aside, and rub the remain- 
ing portion through a sieve. Now place in the saucepan the 
whole barley grains, also the barley and stock you have passed 
through the sieve, add half a pint of boiling cream, season 
to taste with salt and pepper. Throw into the soup fifteen 
beef balls, boil up once and serve three balls to each person. 



SOUPS. 43 

CHICKEN BROTH. 

Cut up the fowl and put it into the pot with four quarts 
of water (cold); stew until there are but three quarts left. 
Take out the chicken ; season the liquor and add a small cup- 
ful of rice. Cook rice tender. If you like you may add a 
cup of milk, and one or two beaten eggs just before serving. 
Stew, not boil, the chicken. 

HIGHLANDER'S DELIGHT. 

Two pounds of veal and three pounds of bones (weU- 
cracked) from neck or knuckle of the calf; one onion, minced 
fine; one turnip, one carrot, grated. Bunch of sweet herbs, 
chopped ; half cup of barley, salt and pepper, one tablespoon- 
ful of oatmeal, four quarts of cold water. Put meat, cut into 
dice, bones, chopped vegetables, and herbs on in the water 
and boil very slowly six hours. Season and set away in a cold 
place until next day. Take off the fat two hours before din- 
ner, strain out the soup into a kettle and add the barley, 
which has been already soaked in warm water two hours, and 
cooked fifteen minutes in enough boiling water to cover it 
well. Put in with it the water in which it has been cooked, 
and simmer all together for half an hour. The oatmeal should 
have been soaked several hours in a little warm water. Stir 
it into the soup, and let all boil gently together for one hour 
before pouring out. This broth should be judiciously sea- 
soned. 

CHICKEN AND CORN BROTH. 

Even in the country, where old fowls must be disposed of 
in some way, it is seldom economical to boil them to pieces 
just to make soup. But if you will save the liquor in which 
these have been boiled the day before for the table, a delight- 
ful broth may be made. One quart of the liquor cleared of 
fat after it is cold ; one can of com, chopped ; or eight ears of 
green corn grated from the cob; one tablespoonful of butter 
cut up in one of flour; one tablespoonful of minced parsley 
and same of green onion-tops; pepper and salt; one cup of 
boiling milk. Boil corn and liquor slowly together one hour 



44 SOUPS. 

after they begin to bubble. Eub thoroughly through a colan- 
der, season, and add herbs. Heat to boiling, stir in the floured 
butter, simmer five minutes, pour into the tureen, and add 
the boiling milk. 

VERMICELLI OR SPAaHETTI SOUP. 

Break the vermicelli or spaghetti into inch lengths, and 
cook tender and clear in boiling salted water. Drain this off ; 
spread the vermicelli upon a dish and allow it to get almost 
cold, when drop into a quart of (cleared) boiling stock; let 
it just boil again, and serve. The pipe macaroni may be used 
in like manner, cut into quarter-inch lengths after it is 
cooked. 



CLEAR TAPIOCA SOUP. 

Soak two tablespoonfuls of pearl tapioca in a large cup' of 
cold water four hours, then stir into a quart of well-seasoned 
boiling clear stock, and simmer ten minutes. Pearl sago may 
be substituted for tapioca if desired, but should be soaked four 
hours in cold water, and one hour in hot, before it goes into 
the soup. 



CLEAR BROWN SOUP. 

Clear the stock as directed, and stir in enough caramel 
to colour it to your liking, bearing in mind that too much 
will give a sweetish taste to the liquid. The caramel is made 
by heating granulated sugar in a tin cup or agate iron sauce- 
pan until it bubbles brownly all over. Add, at once, boiling 
water, a tablespoonful for each spoonful of the sugar — and 
stir until the sugar is dissolved. It will keep well in the 
refrigerator for a Aveck or more. Some palates enjoy the 
flavor of cloves and allspice in browned soup. The whole 
spices are used and strained out before the caramel goes in. 
Allow six cloves and four allspice to a quart of stock. Onion 
flavor should be imparted by grating a raw onion and squeez- 
ing the juice through a cloth into the heating stock. 



SOUPS. 45 

CEEAM OF TUENIP SOUP. 

One quart of lamb or mutton broth. Two cups of turnip 
dice. Use white, young turnips. Cook in the liquor half an 
hour after the boil begins, and when very tender, rub through 
a colander. Eeturn to the fire and proceed as with cream of 
celery soup, only putting in both white and yolk of the egg. 

CEEAM OF LETTUCE SOUP. 

Shred^finely two heads of lettuce — the greener the better. 
Cook for half an hour in a quart of good stock, rub through 
a colander ; return to the fire ; stir into a cup of this two table- 
spoonfuls of white roux and a tablespoonful of cold boiled 
onion, minced fine, and one 9f minced parsley. Heat a cup 
of milk in another vessel, season with pepper and salt, stir in 
a well-whipped egg, and pour this mixture into the tureen, 
adding finally the lettuce soup. Send around Huntley and 
Palmer's crisp "dinner biscuits," which the eaters can, if 
they like, drop into each portion of soup. 

SCOTCH BEOTH. 

One generous quart of stock made by boiling down the 
water in which a leg of mutton was cooked until you have half 
the original quantity. Or by boiling for eight hours the bones 
left from roast mutton, or the " trimmings " sent home by 
the butcher who prepared the roast and chops for the table. 
If raw meat and bones are used, allow one quart of water to 
each pound. Be careful to skim all the fat from the stock. 
Mutton-fat is tallow, unpalatable and indigestible. Half a 
cup of pearl barley, or rice. One medium-sized onion, minced. 
One tablespoonful of minced parsley. Two tablespoonfuls of 
white roux. Wash the barley or rice and soak in cold water 
one hour. Put the stock over the fire with the onion and bring 
to a rapid boil. Add the barley (or rice) and simmer for 
three-quarters of an hour; put in the parsley and cook five 
minutes more before stirring in. 

CAULIFLOWEE BEOTH. (WITHOUT MEAT.) 

One fine cauliflower ; two tablespoonfuls of butter rolled in 
one of cornstarch ; one onion ; bunch of parsley ; two blades of 



46 SOUPS. 

mace; two quarts of water; two cups of milk; pepper and 
salt; a pinch of soda in the milk. Cut the cauliflower into 
bunches, reserving about a cupful of small clusters to put 
whole into the soup. Chop the rest, also the onion and herbs, 
and r>^it on in the water, with the mace. Cook an hour, and 
rub ti rordi a colander. Return the puree thus obtained to 
the pot, and season with pepper and salt. As it boils, stir in 
the whole clusters, previously boiled tender in hot, salted 
water, and left to cool. When the soup is again hot, put in 
the butter and cornstarch ; stir until this has thickened ; pour 
into tlie tureen, and add the boiling milk. Pass sliced lemon 
and cream-crackers with it. 

CORN CHOWDER. 

Twelve ears of green corn, and two onions sliced; three 
large potatoes, or six small, parboiled. Six Boston crackers, 
well buttered and soaked five minutes in boiling water. Three 
tablespoonfuls of butter and one cup of milk. Parsley, pep- 
per, and salt. A pinch of soda in the milk. One beaten egg. 
One quart of boiling water. Fry the onions in two table- 
spoonfuls of butter in the soup-kettle. Remove this to the 
table and take out the onions with a skimmer, leaving the 
browned butter in the bottom. Put into this a layer of corn 
cut from the cob, then of crackers, next of sliced parboiled 
potatoes, seasoning as you go, until all the ingredients are in. 
Cover with the hot water, and cook gently for about forty 
minutes after it begins to boil. Heat the milk in a separate 
vessel, stir into it a tablespoonful of butter rolled in flour, 
and at last a beaten egg. Pour the milk into the tureen, then 
the chowder, stirring all the while. This broth or chowder 
may be made in winter with canned corn, but is not nearly so 
good as when fresh is used. 

GIBLET SOUP. 

Heat one quart of chicken stock. You can utilize for this 
the liquor in which a fowl has been boiled, or that in which 
the carcasses of cooked fowls have been boiled for hours. 
When it boils, stir in the finely minced giblets of two fowls 
with a little chopped parsley, cook half an hour and thicken 



SOUPS. 47 

with two tablespoonfuls of brown roux. Season judiciously. 
This popular soup is made still better if force-meat balls of 
hard-boiled yolks^ rubbed to a paste with a little butter, bound 
with a raw egg and rolled in browned flour, be dropped in 
one minute before the soup leaves the fire. 

LIVER SOUP. 

A palatable and inexpensive soup is made of one quart of 
stock, obtained by boiling four slices of corned lean ham, or a 
corned ham-bone, with a sliced onion, in two quarts of water 
until it is reduced one-half. Chop the " left-overs " of fried 
or stewed liver fine with a little ham, and add to the stock. 
Season to taste; thicken with a brown roux, and pour upon a 
handful of croutons in the bottom of the tureen. The heart, 
that usually comes with the liver, if boiled tender in the ham- 
stock, may be minced and added. Any slices of fried break- 
fast bacon left in the pantry, if chopped fine, will improve thf 
flavor. If while on the look-out for " left-overs," you espy a 
cold boiled, fried, or poached egg on the shelf, mince it, and 
let it also go into the soup. Season with pepper and minced 
parsley. You will be surprised to find how good the pro- 
duct of the hunt proves to be. 

RABBIT OR " OLD HARE " SOUP. 

One rabbit, jointed as for fricassee. One-half pound of 
salt pork, minced finely. One large onion, also chopped. One 
stalk of celery, and chopped parsley. A teaspoonful of Wor- 
cestershire sauce ; a tablespoonful of tomato-catsup ; a glassful 
of brown sherry; the juice of half a lemon; two tablespoon- 
fuls of good dripping, and a heaping tablespoonful of brown 
roux. Salt and pepper to taste. One gallon of water. Fry 
the onion in the dripping, and when lightly browned, add the 
pieces of rabbit, cover with cold water and cook very slowly 
for four hours, or until the meat is in rags. Season with salt 
and pepper. Let all get cold together. Skim off the fat; 
strain through a coarse cloth, return to the fire and when it 
boils thicken with the roux; put in the catsup, wine, lemon- 
juice, and, if you fancy, a pinch of ground allspice. If not 
brown enough, color with a little caramel. 



•18 SOUPS. 

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP. 

One quart of chicken, veal, or calf s-head broth. One 
small onion, minced. A pinch of mace. Half a cupful of 
soaked rice. Juice of a lemon. One generous tablespoonful 
of brown roux. One teaspoonful of curry powder. Salt to 
taste. One teacupful of strained tomato- juice. 

PLAIN CHICKEN SOUP. 

One fowl, four quarts of water, one cupful of rice, one 
slice of onion, two sticks of celery, one sprig of parsley. Place 
the fowl, cut into pieces, in a saucepan with four quarts of 
cold water ; when it comes to the boiling-point, draw it aside 
and let it simmer for three hours ; then add one thick slice of 
onion, tw^o sticks of celery, one sprig of parsley, and one cup- 
ful of rice, and simmer for another hour; strain and let the 
soup stand until the grease can be taken off the top. Eemove 
the meat, bones, and vegetables from the strainer, and press 
the rice through the sieve ; stir this into the soup ; season with 
salt and pepper, and heat again before serving ; a little cream 
may also be added. This soup is also good thickened with a 
little roux or with cornstarch. For the latter, take two table- 
spoonfuls of the cold stock; stir into it one tablespoonful of 
cornstarch; then stir it into the soup, and let cook for ten 
minutes to take away the raw taste of the starch, and to make 
it clear. Pieces of the breast cut into dice may also be added. 

VEGETABLE SOUP. 

To one quart of common stock add one pint of parboiled 
mixed vegetables cut into small dice. Simmer until the 
vegetables are tender but not pasty. Season with salt, pepper, 
and one teaspoonful of sugar. Serve without straining. 

TOMATO PUEEE. 

Put into a granite- ware saucepan a quart of canned or of 
fresh tomatoes ; add a pint of water or of stock ; — the soup will 
be better if stock is used; — add also one bay-leaf, a sprig of 
parsley, a stick of celery, six peppercorns, and a teaspoonful 



SOUPS. 49 

of sugar; simmer until the tomato is thoroughly soft. In 
another saucepan put a tablespoonful of butter; when it is 
hot add a sliced onion, and fry, but not brown it; then add a 
tablespoonful of flour, and cook, but not brown the flour. To 
this roux add enough of the tomato to dilute it, and then mix 
it well with the rest of the tomato, and season with salt. 
Pass the whole through a fine sieve or strainer. Heat it again 
before serving, and sprinkle over the top small croutons. 

SPLIT-PEA OE BEAN SOUP. 

One cupful of split peas, or one cupful of dried beans, one 
tablespoonful of butter, two quarts of water, one-half tea- 
spoonful of sugar, one tablespoonful of flour. Salt and pep- 
per to taste. Let the peas or beans soak over night in three 
quarts of cold water. Put the soaked peas or beans into a 
saucepan witli two quarts of water and a ham-bone, if you 
have it, otherwise it may be omitted. Let simmer for four 
or five hours, or until the peas or beans are perfectly soft. 
(Add more water from time to time, if necessary.) Then 
pass them through a sieve; add to the pulp enough stock, or 
milk, or water to make a soup of the consistency of cream. 
Put it again into a saucepan on the fire; season, and add a 
roux made of one tablespoonful of butter and one tablespoon- 
ful of flour cooked together; dilute the roux to smoothness 
with a little of the soup before adding it to the pot. The 
roux will hold the particles of peas or beans in suspension. 
Without it they are liable to precipitate. An onion may be 
boiled with the peas or beans if desired. Serve croutons on 
the soup, or pass them. 

VEGETABLE PUEEE. 

Ingredients. — Onions, carrots, potatoes (boiled first), beans 
of any kind, parsnips, celery, peas, lcK)k, turnips, cauliflowers, 
etc. Directions. — Cut up a large plateful of any and all kinds 
of vegetables you happen to have — always having potatoes or 
beans for thickening. First, put into a saucepan a teacup 
of dripping or stock-fat, and when very hot add the sliced 
onions ; stir well to prevent them burning, and when they are 
*4 



50 SOUPS. 

red stir in a large spoonful of flour till it is of the same color. 
Now stir in a pint of hot water and some pepper and salt — 
mind not to add the pepper and salt at first, as the onions and 
flour would then more readily burn. Now add the rest of the 
vegetables, and let them simmer, adding more hot water as 
necessary, for two hours ; then press them through a colander, 
return them to the range and let them simmer till the mo- 
ment of serving. 

CREAM OF OYSTERS. 

Scald a quart of oysters in their own liquor. Remove the 
oysters; chop and pound them in a mortar, then press as 
much of them as possible through a puree sieve. Make a roux 
of one tablespoonful of butter and a heaping tablespoonful of 
flour. Dilute it with the oyster juice. Add the oyster pulp ; 
season it with pepper, salt and paprica, and keep it hot until 
ready to serve. Just before serving add a half pint of 
whipped cream, and beat it well into the soup. 

CHICKEN BROTH. 

One fowl, four quarts of cold water, one-half cupful of 
rice, salt and pepper. Clean the fowl carefully; wash it with 
a wet cloth; cut it into pieces and remove the fat. Place the 
joints in a saucepan with a quart of water to each pound of 
fowl. Let it simmer until the meat is tender; then remove 
the breast ; after four hours take it off and strain it through 
a sieve. Let the soup stand until the grease rises ; then care- 
fully remove it, and put the soup again in the saucepan ; add 
the breast of the chicken, cut into dice, and the half cupful 
of rice; salt and pepper to taste, and cook until the rice is 
tender. 

MUTTON BROTH. 

The neck or shoulder-pieces may be used for broth. The 
meat should be cut into pieces and the fat removed. To each 
pound of meat add one quart of cold water; simmer for four 
or five hours ; strain it into an earthen bowl ; when ready to 
serve, remove the grease, and add to each quart of stock one 



SOUPS. 51 

stick of celery, two tablespoonfuls of rice, salt and pepper to 
taste, and boil until the rice is soft. The water in which a 
leg of mutton has been boiled will make a good mutton soup, 
but is not rich enough for a broth to be served to an invalid. 

BKOTH MADE QUICKLY FOE INVALIDS. 

Broth may be made quickly by chopping lean meat to a 
iine mince. To a pound of meat add one pint of cold water ; 
let soak for fifteen minutes; then let slowly boil for half an 
hour; season and strain, 

CALFS-HBAD OR MOCK-TUETLE SOUP. 

Make a brown roux by putting in a saucepan one table- 
spoonful of butter, let it brown, add two tablespoonfuls of 
flour, and let that brown ; then add, slowly at first, one and a 
half or tAvo quarts of water in which a calf's head has been 
boiled, Avhite wine instead of vinegar being used in the boil- 
ing. Add three or four strained tomatoes and simmer for 
one-half hour. Skim off any fat and season with salt and 
pepper. Add some pieces of boiled calf's head cut in pieces 
one-half inch square, a few egg balls, two or three table- 
spoonfuls of sherry, and a few very thin slices of lemon. 

OYSTEE SOUP. 

Scald a quart, or twenty-five, oysters in their own liquor. 
As soon as they are plump, or the gills curl, remove them 
(oysters harden if boiled). Add to the liquor a cupful of 
water. Make a roux of one tablespoonful each of butter 
and flour, dilute it with the liquor, and when it is smooth add 
a cupful of scalded milk or cream. Season with pepper, salt, 
if necessar}', and a dash of cayenne or paprica; then add the 
oysters, and as soon as they are heated serve at once. In 
oyster houses finely shredded cabbage with a French dressing 
is served with oyster soup, and is a good accompaniment when 
served for luncheon. Oysters should be carefully examined, 
and the liquor passed through a fine sieve before being cooked, 
in order to remove any pieces of shell there may be in them. 



52 SOUPS. 

CLAM SOUP. 

Remove the clams from the shells as soon as they have 
opened. Put them in a warm place, until the juice is pre- 
pared. Add a cupful of hot milk to a quart of juice, and 
thicken it with a roux made of one tablespoonful of butter 
and one tablespoonful of flour; then add the clams, chopped 
fine, season, and bring the soup again to the boiling-point 
and serve. Two spoonfuls of whipped cream served on each 
plateful of soup is an improvement to the dish. 

CONSOMME. 

Four pounds shin of beef, four pounds knuckle of veal, 
four quarts cold water, two ounces lean ham or bacon, six 
cloves, six peppercorns, bouquet of herbs, one tablespoonful of 
salt, three onions, one carrot, one turnip, two stalks of celery, 
two sprigs of parsley, three eggs, whites and shells; rind and 
juice of one lemon. Wipe and cut the meat and bones into 
small pieces. Put the marrow, bones, and part of the meat in 
the kettle, with four quarts of cold water. Heat slowly; cut 
the onions and vegetables fine, and fry them in the ham fat or 
in drippings, then brown the remainder of the meat. Add 
onions, meat, herbs, spices and vegetables. Simmer until the 
meat is in rags; it will take about seven hours. Strain, and 
when cold remove the fat and add the whites and shells of the 
eggs, lemon and salt and pepper, if needed. When well mixed 
heat it, and boil ten minutes. Strain through fine strainer, 
and heat again to the boiling point before serving. Serve 
clear, or with wine or lemon. It should be of a light brown or 
straw color. 

OX-TAIL SOUP. 

One ox-tail, two pounds lean beef, four carrots, three 
onions, thyme. Cut the tail into several pieces and fry brown 
in butter. Slice the onions and carrots, and when you re- 
move the ox-tail from the frying-pan, put in these and brown 
also. When done tie them in a bag with a bunch of thynie 
and drop into a soup pot. Lay the pieces of ox-tail in the 
same, then the meat cut into small slices. Grate over them 



SOUPS. 63 

the two whole carrots, and add four quarts of cold water with 
pepper and salt. Boil four to six hours, in proportion to the 
size of the tail. Strain fifteen minutes before serving, and 
thicken with two tablespoonfuls of browned flour. Boil ten 
minutes longer. 

DUCHESS SOUP. 

One pint white stock, one pint brown stock, salt and cay- 
enne, four teaspoonfuls rice-flour. Strain and pour over well 
beaten yolks of two eggs. Soup must not be allowed to boil 
after this. Before serving add half a cup of whipped creanL 

POTATO SOUP. 

To one quart of milk add two stalks of celery, one small 
onion and one bay leaf; put in a double sauce-pan and let 
come to the boil; strain, add a cup of mashed potatoes and 
a piece of butter the size of an egg; season with salt and 
pepper to taste; thicken with a little corn-starch and serve 
very hot. 

TOMATO BISQUE SOUP. 

One quart of tomatoes, three pints of milk, one large table- 
spoonful of flour, butter the size of an egg, pepper and salt 
to taste; one scant teaspoonful of soda. Put tomatoes on 
to stew and the milk in a double boiler, reserving half a cup 
to mix the flour. Mix flour smoothly and stir in boiling milk 
and cook ten minutes. Add soda to tomato, stir well and 
strain, add butter, salt and pepper to milk and then the to- 
mato. Serve immediately. 

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP. 

One pint of milk, one tablespoonful of flour, one table- 
spoonful of butter. The long stalks of three heads of celery, 
one small onion, a small piece of mace and one cup of whip- 
ped cream. Boil onion, celery and mace from thirty to forty 
minutes. Mix flour with two tablespoonfuls of cold milk and 
add to boiling milk; cook ten minutes; mash the celery in 



54 SOUPS. 

the water it was boiled in and stir in boiling milk ; add butter 
and season with salt and pepper to taste; strain, and serve 
immediately. Whip a cup of cream and add to soup after it 
is in the tureen. 

PEANUT SOUP. 

One quart of rich milk, one large cupful of peanuts, 
measured after they have been shelled and skinned. Put 
milk on to cook in a double boiler; add salt to taste, and 
season highly with black and red pepper. Add the peanuts, 
which have been put through a meat chopper two or three 
times until they are ground fine. Cook twenty or thirty 
minutes. Just before taking from the fire add a cupful of 
cream. Strain and serve immediately. 

MILK POTATO SOUP. 

Heat one pint of milk, thicken it with one tablespoonful 
of flour and one tablespoonful of butter ; add half a teaspoon- 
tful of salt, a little pepper, quarter of a teaspoonful of onion 
juice, two large potatoes; mash and strain. 

VEAL SOUP. 

Put a knuckle of veal into three quarts of water, a little 
salt and one tablespoonful of rice, boil slowly, hardly above 
simmering, until liquor is reduced one-half; remove from the 
fire. Into a dish put the yolk of one egg; stir well into it 
a cup of cream; add a piece of butter the size of a hickory 
nut. Into this strain the soup boiling hot, stirring all the 
time; just at last beat well for one minute. Serve. 

ONION SOUP. 

One quart of milk, six large onions, yolks of four eggs, 
three tablespoonfuls of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, one 
cup of cream, salt and pepper to taste. Put butter in frying- 
pan, cut onion in thin slices and drop in butter; stir until 
they begin to cook, then cover tight and set back where they 
will simmer and not bum for one-half hour, then put milk on 
to boil; add the dry flour to onions, stir constantly over fire 



SOUPS. 55 

for three minutes; pour mixture into milk and cook for fif- 
teen minutes; strain; season with salt and pepper and re- 
turn soup to fire; beat yolks thoroughly, add them to the 
cream and stir into soup. Cook three minutes, stirring con- 
stantly. Pour over fried croutons in tureen and serve. 

SCOTCH BROTH. 

Two pounds of the scraggy part of a neck of mutton. Cut 
the meat from the bones, and cut oil all the fat. Then cut 
meat into small pieces and put into soup pot with one large 
slice of turnip, two of carrot, one onion and a stalk of celery, 
all cut fine ; half a cup of barley and three pints of cold water. 
Simmer gently two hours. On to the bones put one pint of 
water; simmer two hours and strain on the soup. Cook a 
tablespoonful of flour and one of butter together until per- 
fectly smooth, stir into the soup, and add a teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley. Season with salt and pepper. 

MUSHROOM SOUP. 

One-half pound fresh mushrooms; remove the stock and 
mash mushrooms, chop them fine with a silver knife. Put 
on fire, melt one quart good chicken stock, cover and simmer 
gently for thirty minutes, add one teaspoon salt and simmer 
ten minutes longer; put two tablespoons butter in a sauce- 
pan, add (dry) three tablespoons flour; cook one minute; add 
one-half pint cream to your mushrooms, and add by degrees 
to your Ijutter and flour, with care to keep good thickness, 
smooth; stir till it comes to a boiling point; add a dash of 
white pepper. For luncheon serve in cups. 

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP. 

Pint of milk, thickened with flour and cornstarch, a dash 
of red pepper, a slice of onion, a blade of mace ; boil together ; 
add a head of celery previously cut in pieces, boiled and 
mashed, in salted water in which boiled. When well blended 
strain ; add lump of butter ; stir over fire till blended. If very 
special add a cupful of whipped cream after soup is dished 
in very hot tureen. [This soup should be made, as all other 
milk soups, in double boiler. — Ed.] 



56 SOUPS. 

MOCK TURTLE SOUP. 

One calf's head and two feet ; boil in plenty of water until 
the bones will draw out. Boil two veal cutlets in the same 
water until tender for forcemeat balls. To the liquor then 
put a large pint bowl of brown flour, five onions cut in thin 
slices and fried in butter with salt, pepper, and spices. Be- 
fore skimming the soup put in savory, marjoram and thyme. 
Chop with the veal for balls a very little spice. Take the pieces 
of cheek which boil off the head and cut in little squares and 
add to soup. Boil four or five eggs hard. Chop the whites 
and put yolks whole in the soup. When you serve the soup 
put in wine to taste, port or sherry, say two wineglasses, and 
slices of lemon, or squeeze and stir the juice in. 

OYSTER SOUP. 

Boil a knuckle of veal with one small onion, two blades of 
mace, two small red peppers, two or three celery leaves and 
salt to taste, in four quarts of water, adding more water till 
the meat is boiled to shreds. Strain and set the liquor to 
cool. When cold skim off every particle of fat, and leave 
behind any grounds that may be at the bottom of the jelly, 
which should be firm. Put the jelly over the fire; when boil- 
ing add half a pint of cream and a pint of milk ; thicken with 
flour previously blended to the consistency of cream, or oyster 
crackers powdered. Stir till the soup is thickened, then add 
the oysters, stirring constantly for three or four minutes. A 
small knuckle of veal should make about three quarts of 
strong jelly. 

CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP. 

Stew until soft one quart of peeled tomatoes with a pinch 
of soda; strain and put on the fire again with one quart of 
hot boiled milk. Season with salt and pepper, a piece of 
butter size of an egg ; add three tablespoonf uls rolled cracker, 
and serve hot. Canned tomatoes may be used in place of 
fresh ones. 



FISH. 



Dress fish as quickly as possible after they are taken from 
the water. Wash and rub the inside with salt. Do not soak 
in water long, as the flesh is apt to become flabby. Lard and 
butter in equal quantities is better for frying fish than butter 
alone. Frozen fish should be put in cold water to draw out 
the frost. Add a little vinegar to the water in which salt 
fish is soaked. Soak salt fish in sour milk to freshen them. 
Pour vinegar over fresh fish to make the scales come off easily. 

Fish can be improved in flavor by rubbing with vinegar or 
adding one-half cup of vinegar to the water in which it is 
boiled. Fish, when prepared for the table, should never be laid 
double, if it can be avoided, as the steam from the under layer 
makes the upper layer so soft as to break easily. They must be 
cooked until the flesh separates easily from the bones. By 
running a knife in a little way, say under the fins, so as not 
to spoil the appearance of the fish, this can be Judged of. 

All kinds of cooked fish can be served with salads. Lettuce 
is the best green salad to serve, but all cooked and cold vege- 
tables go well with fish. Whatever the method of cooking, 
apply great heat at first to sear the outside and prevent the 
escape of the juices, except for a soup or chowder. 

To scale a fish hold it by the tail under water (which is 
salted) in a deep pan, and with a small, sharp knife held slant- 
ing, scrape the scales from the tail toward the head. The 
scales will come off easier under water and will fall to the 
bottom of the pan instead of flying about. Wipe the fish on 
an old soft towel and lay it on a board or a large platter. Cut 
off the head and tail, and if it is to be broiled split it down 
the back. This is done by passing the knife one side of and 
close to the backbone, from the head to the tail, cutting care- 
fully until the entrails are reached. Remove them carefully 
and scrape the inside of the fish and all the blood from the 
backbone. If preferred, the backbone can be removed en- 
tirely. Wipe the fish inside and out with a cloth wrung out 



68 FISH. 

of salted water, lay it on a dish and keep it in a cool place 
until wanted. For baking or frying, the fish may be opened 
down the body. 

The only secret in boning is to hold the knife close to the 
bone, scraping away every particle of flesh. To remove the 
skin, loosen it with a knife around the head and pull quickly 
toward the tail. If the fingers are dipped in salt occasion- 
ally it will give them a firmer grip on the slipping fish. This 
will be done in the market if the purchaser so directs. In 
freshening salt fish lay it in "the water skin-side up. Baking, 
boiliug, frying, broiling and steaming are the standard 
methods of cooking fish. 

BEOILED FISH. 

Broiling ia assuredly the oldest method of cooking, and no 
new one surpasses it. The skin of small or thin fish serves 
to keep them in shape. Slices of halibut or salmon may be 
broiled whole, or the skin and bone removed and cut in fillets. 
Clean and split the fish. Eub a double broiler with suet, lay 
the fish, flesh side down, on and set over the fire; turn until 
both sides are brown. When done take up carefully on a 
heated dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, spread with butter 
and serve. 

BOILED FISH. 

This is thought to be the most delicate of all, but on ac- 
count of its slippery skin and gelatinous consistency, it is 
hard to boil it so that its appearance will gratify the eye. To 
attain the best results, several rules are to be remembered and 
observed. First, the fish must be weighed. Second, it must 
be carefully bound up in thin muslin; coarse cheese-cloth is 
excellent for the purpose. Third, the kettle mus^ be large, 
enough to accommodate the fish easily, and the water must 
be well salted first, or the flakes will have a tendency to sepa- 
rate. Fourth, the water must be at boiling point, but not 
boiling when the fish is put in, and should be in sufiicient 
quantity to fully cover it, but not in excess, or the flavor will 
be washed away. For a large fish, add three tablespoonfuls 
of vinegar to the water. Fifth, keep the water boiling, and 



FISH. 59 

allow six minutes to each pound, and if the fish is large, add 
six minutes to the computation ; for instance, make the thirty- 
six minutes due a six-pounder, forty-two minutes. Never 
stab a fish with a fork or skewer to find if it is done, but see 
that the water boils steadily and does not stop for an instant. 
If the water boils turbulently, the kettle must be moved to 
a part of the stove where it can have a less fierce heat, as too 
much agitation of the water will cause the fish to crumble. 
A fish boiler is best to use. Serve with drawn butter and hard- 
boiled eggs sliced. Garnish also with parsley and sliced 
lemons. Some like tomato catsup poured over the fish, with- 
out the eggs and lemons. 

BAKED FISH. 

Procure a fish of three or four pounds, season with one 
heaping tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper. 
Eub the seasoning well in and outside the fish ; place the fish 
with two sliced onions on a large dish; sprinkle over the 
juice of one large lemon; cover and set aside for one hour, 
then lay the fish in a baking-pan with four thin slices of pork 
under it, and three slices of pork on top. Pour one table- 
spoonful of melted butter over and bake forty-five minutes. 
Serve in a hot dish garnished with lemon cut into quarters, 
and parsley. It can be baked without the onion or lemon, 
but these improve its flavor. If salt pork is not at hand, 
grease the pan thoroughly with lard and lay a sheet of nice 
brown paper, cut to the size of the pan, in the bottom. Grease 
the paper thoroughly and lay the fish upon it. Baked in this 
way, it can easily be taken from the pan without breaking it 
at all, and the trouble of cleaning the pan afterwards, which 
is not a little when the baking is done in the usual manner, 
is entirely avoided. 

MODES OF FRYING. 

The usual custom among professional cooks is to entirely 
immerse the article to be cooked in boiling fat, but 
most households use the half -frying method of frying 
in a small amount of fat in a frying-pan. For the first 
method a shallow iron frying-kettle, large at the top and 



60 FISH. 

small at the bottom, is best to use. The fat should half fill 
the kettle, or an amount sufficient to float whatever is to be 
fried; the heat of the fat should get to such a degree that, 
when a piece of bread or a teaspoonful of the batter is dropped 
in it, it will become brown almost instantly, but should not 
be so hot as to bum the fat. Some cooks say that the fat 
should be smoking, but my experience is, that is a mistake, as 
that soon ruins the fat. As soon as it begins to smoke it 
should be removed a little to one side, and still be kept at the 
boiling point. If fritters, crullers, croquettes, etc., are drop- 
ped into fat that is too hot, it crusts over the outside before 
the inside has fully risen, making a heavy hard article, and 
also ruining the fat, giving it a burnt flavor. 

Many French cooks prefer beef fat or suet to lard for 
frying purposes, considering it more wholesome and digestible, 
does not impart as much flavor, or adhere or soak into the 
article cooked as pork fat. 

In families of any size, where there is much cooking re- 
quired, there are enough drippings and fat remnants from 
roasts of beef, skimming from the soup-kettle, with the addi- 
tion of occasionally a pound of suet from the market, to amply 
supply the need. All such remnants and skimmings should 
be clarified about twice a week, by boiling them all together 
in water. When the fat is all melted, it should be strained 
with the water and set aside to cool. After the fat on the 
top has hardened, lift the cake from the water on which it lies, 
scrape off all the dark particles from the bottom, then melt 
over again the fat; while hot strain into a small clean stone 
jar or bright tin pail, and then it is ready for use. Always 
after frying anything, the fat should stand until it settles 
and has cooled somewhat; then turn off carefully so as to 
leave it clear from the sediment that settles at the bottom. 

The second mode of frying, using a frying-pan with a 
small quantity of fat or grease, to be done properly, should 
in the first place have the frying-pan hot over the fire, and the 
fat in it actually boiling before the article to be cooked is 
placed in it, the intense heat quickly searing up the pores of 
the article and forming a brown crust on the lower side, then 
turning over and browning the other the same way. 



FISH. 61 

Still, there is another mode of frying ; the process is some- 
what similar to broiling, the liot frying-pan or spider replac- 
ing the hot fire. To do this correctly, a thick bottom frying- 
pan should be used. Place it over the fire, and when it is so 
hot that it will siss, oil over the bottom of the pan with a piece 
of suet, that is, if the meat is all lean ; if not, it is not neces- 
sary to grease tlie bottom of the pan. Lay in the meat quite 
flat, and brown it quickly, first on one side, then on the other; 
when sufficiently cooked, dish on a hot platter and season the 
same as broiled meats. 

DEESSING FOR FRIED FISH, OYSTERS OR 
CUTLETS. 

Soda biscuits, seasoning, eggs. Roll biscuits (if a bottle 
if, used for this it will be found to roll the biscuits as fine as 
flour), add seasoning, pepper and salt for fish and oysters; 
for cutlets, thyme, sweet marjoram and summer savory. Beat 
eggs, dip oysters or any fry in them, roll in seasoned cracker 
crumbs, and fry in butter or lard. 

SARDINE SAVOY. 

Cut three slices of bread a little larger than the size of a 
sardine, fry a delicate brown on both sides, place a sardine 
on each and make them hot in the oven. Pour over them the 
following sauce : Beat up two eggs and mix with a quarter 
ounce of butter, one teaspoon tarragon vinegar, quarter tea- 
spoon made mustard, salt to taste, and a little Worcester 
sauce. Put these in a small saucepan and stir over the fire 
until it thickens (not boils), 

ANGELS ON HORSEBACK. 

Twelve oysters, twelve round croutons; twelve pieces of 
bacon two inches long and one-half inch wide. Beard and 
trim each oyster and put one on each piece of bacon, squeeze 
on each a drop of lemon juice and a very little cayenne, and 
roll it up in the bacon. Cook it in a brisk oven (long enough 
to cook the bacon) and serve very hot, dished on watercress. 



62 FISH. 

OYSTER STEW 

Scald a quart of oysters in their own liquor till plump; 
drain and place to keep warm ; sauce of one tablespoon each 
of butter and flour; one cup of hot milk and oyster liquor 
each; beat in a pan two teaspoons of butter, and brown six 
tablespoons of bread crumbs, put three tablespoons of chopped 
celery in the bottom of a bake dish, then the white sauce 
flavored with salt and pepper to taste, lastly the crumbs 
on top. Place in oven and heat thoroughly; serve very hot. 

FISH LEFT OVER. 

Make one cup tomato sauce by cooking one teaspoonful 
of minced onion in one teaspoonful of butter until it is yel- 
low; add a level tablespoonful of flour and when well mixed 
and bubbling, stir it into a cup of hot stewed tomatoes. When 
it has cooked a little and is thick, season to taste. Take one 
part each of cold boiled fish and macaroni with one-quarter 
cup of cheese; cut into small bits one cold egg. Strain the 
tomato sauce over them and one-quarter cup of fine cracker 
crumbs, moistened in one-third cup of melted butter on the 
top. Bake till brown. 

BAKED FISH. 

Take any cold boiled fish, free from bones (canned 
salmon will do), pour over it a cup or more of cream or 
milk mixed with a little flour, butter, pepper, and salt. Put 
small bits of butter on top, and bake one-half hour. Cracker 
crumbs are an improvement. 

CANAPES OF SARDINES. 

Sar lines, the yolks of three or four hard-boiled eggs, a 
little butter, mustard, pepper, and vinegar, slices of toast. 

Take some slices of roll and cut them neatly into oval or 
octagon shapes. Toast them slightly, or fry them in oil or 
butter till they are of a nice yellow color. Take some sar- 
dines and strip them from the bones; lay one-half of them 
apide, and pound the other to a smooth paste with the eggs 
and butter. Add the mustard, pepper, and vinegar. When 



FISH. 63 

tlicse ingredients are well mixed, spread the paste over the 
prepared slices of toast. On the top lay the other half of the 
sardines, cut into small strips, stand them in a Dutch oven 
before the fire and serve very hot. 

SARDINES ON TOAST. 

Sardines, cayenne, and lemon- juice. 

Scrape and bone the sardines, lay them on a plate; sprinkle 
them with lemon- juice and a little cayenne pepper. Stand 
them in the oven until thoroughly hot ; have ready some neat 
slices of hot-buttered toast; lay the sardines on these and 
serve at once. 

This dish may be varied by spreading the toast with an- 
chovy paste before laying on the sardines. 

SOLES IN BATTER. 

One pair of soles, not very thick, pepper and salt; for the 
batter, one-half pound flour, two ounces butter, one-half tea- 
spoonful of salt, two eggs, enough milk to mix it; lard or 
dripping for frying. 

Fillet the soles, and cut each fillet in two pieces, that they 
may not be too large, and sprinkle them with pepper and salt. 
Make a light batter with the above ingredients, taking care 
that it is not very thin; dip each piece of fish into this, and 
fry quickly in boiling fat to a golden brown. Arrange them 
in a circle, one overlapping the other, on a hot dish, and 
garnish with fresh or fried parsley. They are best served as 
soon as cooked. Melted butter may be sent to table with them 
in a tureen, if liked. 

CURRIED OYSTERS. 

Two dozen oysters, one onion, one tablcspoonf ul of curry- 
powder, one dessertspoonful of flour, two ounces of butter, 
juice of a lemon. 

Chop the onion up quite fine, mix the curry-powder, flour 
and butter together, and put all these ingredients into a 
stewpan, and simmer till of a nice brown, stirring all the 
time; add the liquor of the oysters and the lemon-juice, and 



64 FISH. 

boil together for five minutes. Put in the oysters, boil up 
once, and serve with a dish of rice. 

BAKED COD. 

The middle part of a large cod fish or a whole small one, 
a teacup of bread-crumbs, peppered and salted, two table- 
spoonfuls boiled salt pork, finely chopped, one tablespoon- 
fiil of herbs — parsley, sweet marjoram, thyme, and a 
mere suspicion of minced onion — one teaspoonful of anchovy 
or Harvey's sauce, half a teacupful of melted butter, juice 
of half a lemon, one beaten egg. 

Lay the fish in cold, salted water for half an hour, then 
wipe it dry, and stuff it with a forcemeat, made of crumbs, 
jiork, herbs, onions and seasoning, bound with the beaten 
egg. Lay it in the baking-dish, and pour over it the melted 
butter, Avhich should be quite thin, seasoned with the sauce, 
lemon-juice, pepper, and a pinch of parsley. Bake in a 
moderate oven for an hour, or longer, if the piece is large, 
hasting frequently, lest it should brown too fast. Add a 
little butter and water if the sauce thickens too much. When 
the fish is done, remove it to a hot dish, strain the gravy over 
it, and serve. A few capers or chopped green pickles are con- 
sidered a pleasant addition to the sauce. 

CUTLETS OF COD OE SALMON. 

Three pounds of fish cut in slices three-quarters of an 
inch thick from the body of the fish, a handful of fine bread- 
crumbs, with which should be mixed pepper and salt, and a 
little mixed parsley and one egg, beaten light. Enough 
butter, lard, or dripping to fry the cutlets. 

Cut each slice of fish into strips, as wide as your two 
fingers, then dry them with a clean cloth, rub lightly with 
salt and pepper, dip in the egg, then the breadcrumbs, and 
fry in enough fat to cover them well. Drain away every drop 
01 fat, and lay upon hot white paper in a heated dish. 

POACHED EGG WITH SALMON. 

Stamp out the required number of rounds of bread an 
inch thick, cut the centres out of these, leaving a case with a 



FISH. 65 

narrow rim. Brush over the outsides of cases with melted 
butter and brown in oven; fill the space in the centre with 
canned salmon flaked and heated in a cup of cream sauce; lay 
a poached egg above the salmon ; serve garnished with parsley 
and sliced lemon. (These are good even without the eggs.) 

SALT COD WITH EGG SAUCE. 

One pound salt cod, previously soaked, then boiled and 
allowed to cool, picked or chopped fine; one small cup milk 
cr cream, one teaspoonful cornflour or flour, two eggs beaten 
light, two tablespoonfuls of butter, a little chopped parsley, 
half as much maslied potato as fish. Pepper to taste. 

Heat the milk, thicken with the cornflour, then the po- 
tato rubbed very fine ; next, the butter, the eggs, and parsley ; 
lastly the fish. Stir and toss until smoking hot all through, 
when pour into a deep dish. 

Or, make a sauce of all the ingredients except the fish and 
potato. Mix these well together with a little melted butter, 
heat in a saucepan, stirring all the while; heap in the centre 
of a dish and pour the sauce over all. 

EELS STEWED A L'AMERICAIN. 

Three pounds of eels, skinned and cleaned, and all the 
fat removed from the inside; one young onion, chopped fine, 
four tablespoonfuls of butter. Pepper and salt to taste, with 
chopped parsley. 

Cut the eels in pieces, about two inches in length; season 
and lay in a saucepan containing the melted butter. Strew 
the onion and parsley over all, cover the saucepan closely, and 
set in a pot of cold water. Bring this gradually to a boil, 
then cook very gently for an hour and a half, or until the eels 
are tender. Turn out into a deep dish. 

MAYONNAISE OF FISH. 

One pound or rather more of cold boiled fish, three hard- 
boiled eggs, two tablespoonfuls of best oil, two teaspoonfuls 
of sugar, six tablesnoonfuls of vinegar, one teaspoonful of 
*5 



66 FISH. 

salt, one-half teaspooiif ul each of pepper and made mustard, 
tv/o heads of blanched lettuce. 

Eub the yolks of the eggs smooth with the oil, add the 
sugar, salt, mustard and pepper, and when these are well 
mixed, the vinegar, a few drops at a time. Set it by, covered, 
while you cut — not chop — the fish into strips about an inch 
long, and shred the lettuce. Mix these in a salad bowl, pour 
over the dressing and garnish with rings of the whites of the 
eggs. Serve as soon as it is ready or the lettuce will become 
limp. 

If preferred, the lettuce may be laid around the fish after 
the dressing is poured on, instead of being mixed with it. 

MOULDED SALMON. 

One-half pound of cold boiled salmon, two eggs beaten 
light, two tablespoonfuls of butter (melted, but not hot), one 
tablespoonful of fine breadcrumbs, seasoning of pepper, salt, 
and minced parsley. 

Chop the fish fine, then rub it in a mortar or bowl with 
the back of a silver spoon, adding the butter until it is a 
smooth paste; beat the breadcrumbs into the eggs, and season 
before working all together. Put it into a buttered pudding- 
mould, and steam or boil for half an hour. 

Sauce for the Above. — One cup of milk, heated to a boil 
and thickened with a tablespoonful of cornflour, one large 
spoonful of butter, one raw egg, one teaspoonful of anchovy, 
mushroom or tomato catsup, a small pinch of mace, and 
one of cayenne. Put the egg in last, and very carefully boil 
one minute to cook it, and when the pudding is turned from 
the mould, pour over it and serve. This is a nice supper 
dish, and canned salmon may be used for it if liked, and the 
liquor added to the sauce. 

BAKED SALMON" V/ITH CREAM SAUCE. 

A middle cut of salmon, four tablespoonfuls of butter, 
melted in hot water. For the Sauce — A cup of cream, one 
teaspoonful of cornflour, one tablespoonful of butter, pepper, 
salt, and parsley. 



FISH. 67 

Butter a slieet of foolscap paper on both sides, and wrap 
the fish up in it, pinning the ends securely together. Lay it 
ii: the baking pan and pour six or seven spoonfuls of butter- 
and-water over it. Turn another pan over all, and steam in 
a moderate oven from three-quarters of an hour to an hour, 
lifting the cover from time to time to baste, and assure your- 
self that the paper is not burning. Meanwhile have ready in a 
saucepan a cup of cream, in which you would do well to dis- 
solve a bit of soda a little larger than a pea. This is a wise pre- 
caution whenever cream is to be boiled. Heat this in a 
double boiler, thicken with a heaping teaspoonful of corn- 
flour, add a tablespoonf ul of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 
a liberal pinch of minced parsley; and when the fish is un- 
wrapped and dished pour half slowly over it, sending the 
rest to table in a boat. 

If you have no cream use milk, and add a beaten egg to 
the thickening. 

FISH CUTLET. 

Fresh halibut or cod. Put on to boil In salted boiliug 
water, and let it boil ten minutes to the pound. Take it out 
and pick up fine. Two cups of boiled fish, one cup of milk 
or cream, one large tablespoonful butter, three of flour, yolks 
of two eggs, tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper 
to taste (little onion juice and nutmeg, if you wish). Put 
milk on to boil, rub butter and flour together well and add 
to milk, then parsley. Add yolks of eggs, then the fish and 
stir until well mixed, then season. When cold form into cut- 
lets; roll with a little flour, dip in egg and then in bread- 
crumbs. Fry in dripping. 

Sauce. — Tablespoonful of melted butter, one of flour, stir 
smoothly, add one cup of milk; salt and pepper. 

FISH BALLS A LA NOEEIS. 

One and a half cups of fish picked in small pieces, threo- 
quarters of a cup of milk, three-quarters of a tablespoonf^; 
cf butter, one and a half tablespoonful of flour, one table- 
spoonful finely chopped parsley, quarter teaspoonful of celery 
salt, slight grating of nutmeg; salt and pepper to taete. 



68 FISH. 

Butter and flour put in saucepan stirred until well blended; 
add milk, cook, stirring constantly till it leaves bottom and 
sides of pan; add flavorings, seasoning and fish; mix well 
together; form into balls without using flour; arrange down 
the centre of a dish which has been garnished with a puree of 
peas and potatoes (using pastry bag). Garnish with parsley. 

STEAMED SALMON. 

One can salmon, one cup line breadcrumbs, one table- 
spoonful melted butter, one teaspoonful chopped parsley, two 
eggs. A little milk improves it. Steam in a mould one 
hour. Make a white sauce; season with teaspoonful anchovy 
sauce and pour over the salmon when served. This is a 
luncheon dish. 

SALMON CREAM. 

Half can salmon well blended, add yolks of two eggs, two 
pinches salt, quarter teaspoonful cayenne, half teaspoonfiil 
mace, small piece of onion, eight tablespoonfuls of cream or 
milk, a small piece of butter, two tablespoonfuls breadcrumbs; 
mix well, put in mould and steam; serve with butter sauce. 

Butter Sauce. — Butter size of an egg, two tablespoonfuls 
flour, pinch of salt; mix well on stove, add boiling water, 
stirring all the time. 

DRESSING FOR OYSTER COCKTAIL. 

Juice of four lemons, two tablespooi^^dls onion juice, six 
tablespoonfuls tomato catsup, four tablespoonfuls grated 
b.orseradish, ten drops of tobasco, one small teaspoonful salt; 
tidd sufficient vinegar to make a thin sauce. 

FISH ENTREE. 

One can salmon, two or three eggs, well beaten; one cup 
breadcrumbs, a little pepper and salt, a small piece of butter. 
Put in a bowl and steam two hours. Serve with a drawn- 
butter sauce, in which can be added two hard boiled eggs, 
chopped fine. 



FISH. 69 

LOBSTEB CUTLET. 

A dainty little dish is made from half a tin of lobster 
drained, the juice saved for panada of one ounce of butter, 
one ounce of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, 
preferably cayenne; one gill of lobster Juice; if not enough 
juice add milk. Boil well,*add two tablespoonfuls cream and 
one of lemon-juice; stir in lobster, chopped fine; beat all well 
together and cool. When set divide in small portions, form 
cutlets; for bone stick in a small bit of macaroni; egg and 
biscuit-crumb the cutlets and fry in butter. To be served 
in a circle round a centre of fried parsley. 

SALT CODFISH BALLS. 

Cover six pared and quartered potatoes with boiling water. 
I*ut a cupful of picked codfish above the potatoes and cook 
until tender, drain, mash and season to taste. Add a beaten 
i'gg and beat the mixture until light ; shape into smooth, light 
balls, fry in beef fat, smoking hot ; drain caretully and serve 
at once. 

ESCALLOPED LOBSTEE. 

Butter the dish, chop the lobster quite fine; layer of lob- 
ster and cracker crumbs alternately; salt, pepper, and butter; 
moisten with milk. Bake for twenty minutes. 

CEEAMED CODFISH (SALT). 

Soak all night, changing the water several times and 
having the last bath quite hot. Boil tender in hot water with 
a tablespoonful of vinegar. Take out the bones while hot, 
and let it cool before picking or shredding it into fine flakes. 
Heat a cupful of milk, stir into it a tablespoonful of butter 
rolled in one of flour, cook until it thickens well, take from 
the fire and add two beaten eggs. When these are well mixed, 
add the shredded fish, and cook two minutes, stirring steadily. 
A tablespoonful of minced parsley is an improvement, also 
a little lemon-juice. Season with cayenne or paprica. Serve 
hot. 



70 FISH. 

SMOKED SALMON. 

Soak over niglit, changing the water three times for 
warmer. In the morning rub hard to get rid of the smoke 
and rust, leave in ice-water half an hour, wipe dry, rub with 
olive oil and vinegar and broil over a clean fire. Pass sliced 
lemon with it. 

A QUICK RELISH OF SMOKED SALMON. ■ 

Half a pound of smoked salmon cut into narrow strips; 
two tablespoonfuls of butter; juice of half a lemon; cayenne 
pepper. Parboil the salmon ten minutes; lay in cold water 
for the same length of time; wipe dry, and broil over a clear 
fire. Butter while hot, season with cayenne and lemon-juice, 
pile in a " log-cabin " square upon a hot plate, and send up 
with dry toast. 

SARDINES AU GRATIN. 

Lift each fish carefully from the oil in which it was put 
up, hold suspended for a moment to let most of the oil drip 
from it, squeeze a few drops of lemon-juice upon it and roll 
in very fine, peppered cracker dust. Lay upon a buttered 
tin, or stoneware plate, and brown lightly upon the upper 
grating of a quick oven. Pass crackers, heated and buttered, 
and sliced lemon with them. They are a good luncheon or 
supper dish. 

SMOKED HERRING, ALEWIVES, BLOATERS, ETC. 

Wash tlioroughly, wipe dry, wrap them in clean, wet man- 
ilia paper, and leave in a quick oven for fifteen minutes. 
Serve with sliced lemon, 

"FINNAN HADDIE." 

A Scotch delicacy that is becoming popular with us. Wash 
thoroughly, leave in cold water half an hour, then for five 
minutes in very hot. Wipe, rub over with butter and lemon- 
juice and broil fifteen minutes. 



FISH. 71 

CODFISH BALLS. 

The purified, shredded codfish, to be bought by the box 
from any grocer, is best for these. Soak it for tvro or three 
hours, then boil for fifteen minutes in water that has had a 
tablespoon ful of vinegar stirred into it, and spread upon a 
sieve to get cold. Allow to each cupful of fish half as much 
mashed potato whipped to a soft cream. Mix them together 
well, make very bot over the fire and beat in a frothed egg for 
every cupful of fish. Season with pepper. Let the mixture 
get quite cold, make into balls, roll in flour, and set in a cold 
place to stiffen. If you wish them for breakfast you will do 
well to make them the night before. Roll again in flour and 
fry in deep fat to a yellow-brown. 

STEWED FROGS' LEGS. 

Skin, lay in milk for fifteen minutes; roll in peppered 
and salted flour, and saute in hot butter for three minutes. 
Cover (barely) with hot water, and stew tender. Twenty 
minutes should suffice. Heat half a cupful of cream to boil- 
ing, stir in a tablespoonful of butter rolled in flour, boil up, 
and turn into the saucepan where the frogs' legs are simmer- 
ing. Season with pepper, salt, and a little chopped parsley. 
Cook gently for three minutes and serve. 

FRIED FROGS' LEGS. 

Only the hind legs are eatable. They are very good, 
having a curious resemblance to the most delicate spring 
chicken. Skin, wash, and lay in milk for fifteen minutes. 
Without wiping them, pepper and salt, and co<it with flour. 
Fry in deep boiling fat to a light brown. Or — Wipe off the 
milk, dip in egg and pounded cracker, and fry. 

CROQUETTES OF LOBSTER. 

Meat of one fine lobster, well boiled ; two eggs ; two table- 
spoonfuls of butter ; half a cupful of fine bread-crumbs ; one 
teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, yolks of two eggs, boiled hard 
and rubbed to a powder, then beaten into the butter; one 
good teaspoonful of lemon-juice; season well with salt and 
cayenne pepper ; also, a pinch of mace and lemon-peel ; yolks 



72 FISH. 

of two raw eggs, beaten very light. Mince the meat, work 
in tlie butter, melted, but not hot; then the seasoning, the 
raw eggs, and lastly the bread-crumbs. Make into oblong 
balls, set on the ice for tAvo hours and fry quickly in deep 
cottolene or lard. Drain them of every drop of fat by rolling 
each_, for an instant, very lightly upon a hot, clean cloth. Be 
sure your dish is well heated. Crab croquettes arc made in 
the same way. 

CUERIED LOBSTER. 

Two cups of lobster-dice, two cups of weak soup stock, 
one teaspoonful of minced onion, and two of curry powder, 
saltspoonful of salt. Fry the onion in the butter, add the 
salt, the stock, the curry, and cook gently for five minutes, 
before putting in the lobster. Serve as soon as this is 
thoroughly heated. Serve plain boiled rice with this dish. 

SCALLOPED OYSTERS. 

Cover the bottom of a greased bake-dish with oysters, and 
the oysters with fine cracker-crumbs. Sprinkle these with 
pepper, salt, and bits of butter ; then lay in more oysters and 
go on in this order until all are in. The top layer should be 
of crumbs and well buttered. Pour over each layer of oysters 
as it goes in, a few spoonfuls of oyster liquor, and upon the 
crumbs the same quantity of cream. Bake, covered, in a 
quick oven until hot all through, uncover and brown lightly. 
Serve with sliced lemon. You may fill clam-shells, or silver 
or china scallop shells in like manner. 

BOILED SALMON". 

Sew up the fish in a piece of thin muslin, or mosquito- 
netting, fitted well to it, and boil in salted boiling water to 
which two tablespoonfuls of vinegar have been added. Take 
off the cloth carefully when the fish has boiled twelve minutes 
to the pound, and lay upon a hot platter. Pour over it a few 
spoonfuls of egg sauce into which has been stirred a table- 
spoonful of capers, and serve the rest in a gravy-boat. Garnish 
with nasturtiums, or parsley, or cresses. 




FISH. 73 

BOILED BASS. 

Put enough water in the pot for the fish to swim in easily. 
Add half a cupful of vinegar, a teaspoonful of salt, an onion, 
a dozen black peppers, and a blade of mace. Sew up the fish 
in a piece of clean mosquito-netting, fitted to its shape. Heat 
slowly lor the first half hour, then boil twelve minutes to the 
pound, quite fast. Unwrap, and pour over it a cup of drawn- 
butter, based upon the liquor in which the fish was boiled, 
with the juice of half a lemon stirred into it. Garnish with 
t^liced lemon. 

BROILED SALT MACKEEEL. 

Wash and scrape the fish. Soak all night, changing the 
water at bed-time for tepid, and again early in the morning 
for almost scalding. Keep this hot for an hour by setting 
the vessel containing the soaking fish on the side of the range. 
Wash, now, in cold water with a stiff brush or rough cloth, 
wipe perfectly dry, rub all over with salad oil and vinegar, 
or lemon-juice, and let it lie in this marinade for a quarter 
of an hour before broiling it over clear coals. Lay on a hot 
dish and spread with a mixture of butter, lemon-juice, and 
minced parsley. The mackerel will be so far superior to that 
cooked in the old-fashioned way that it will amply repay you 
for the trifling additional work. 

FRIED PICKEREL. 

Clean, wipe dry, roll in salted and peppered flour, or dip 
in egg and roll in seasoned cracker-dust, and fry quickly in 
deep cottolene or oil brought slowly to the boil. 

BROOK TROUT. 

Clean, wash, and dry the fish, handling tenderly, not to 
mar its beauty or flavor, roll in salted and peppered flour, and 
fry in deep fat to a delicate brown. Serve up on folded tissue- 
paper in a hot-water dish, if you have one. The i^impler the 
seasoning the better. 



74 FISH. 

FEIED OYSTERS. 

Drain and wipe fine large oysters, dip each first in cracker- 
dust (peppered and salted), then in beaten egg, and again in 
the cracker, and arrange npon a large cold platter. Set upon 
ice for half an hour and fry in butter that has been gradually 
brought to a boil. Cook a few at a time, and if the crumbb 
come off in the fat, strain them out before the next instal- 
ment goes in. 

FILLETS OF HALIBUT, BLACK-FISH, BASS, ETC. 

The word fillet, whether applied to fish, poultry, game, or 
butcher's meat, means simply the flesh of either (or of cer- 
tain portions of it), raised clear from the bones in a hand- 
some form, and divided or not, as the manner in which it is 
to be served may require. It is an elegant mode of dressing 
various kinds of fish, and even those which are not the most 
highly esteemed, afford an excellent dish when thus prepared. 
The fish to be filleted with advantage, should be large; the 
flesh may then be divided down the middle of the back, next 
separated from the fins, and with a very sharp knife raised 
clean from the bones. When thus prepared, the fillets may 
be divided, trimmed into a good form, egged, covered with 
fine crumbs, fried in the usual way, and served with the same 
sauces as the whole fish; or each fillet may be rolled up, in 
its entire length, if very small, or after being once divided, 
if large, and fastened with a slight twine, or a short thin 
skewer; then egged, crumbed, and fried in plenty of boiling 
lard; or merely well floured, and fried from eight to ten 
minutes. When the fish are not very large, they are some- 
times boned without being parted in the middle, and each 
side is rolled from the tail to the head, after being first spread 
with butter, a few bread-crumbs, and a high seasoning of 
mace and cayenne; or with pounded lobster mixed with a 
large portion of the coral, and the same seasoning, and pro- 
portion of butter; then laid into a dish, well covered with 
crumbs of bread and clarified butter, and baked from twelve 
to sixteen minutes, or imtil the crumbs are colored to a fine 
brown in a moderate oven. 



FISH. 75 

The fillets may likewise be cut into small strips or squares 
of uniform size, lightly dredged with pepper or cayenne, salt, 
and flour, and fried in butter over a brisk fire; then well 
drained, and sauced with a good bechamel, flavored with a 
teaspoonful of minced parsley. 

TO COLLOP HALIBUT. 

Cut the fish into nice cutlets, of about an inch thick, and 
fry them; then put them into a broth made of the bones, 
four onions, a stick of celery, and a bundle of sweet herbs, 
boiled together for half an hour. Strain this broth, thicken, 
then flour and lay them in a stew-pan with some good broth, 
and let them stew gently until perfectly tender; thicken the 
gravy with butter or cream, add a spoonful of Harvey's sauce, 
half a glass of wine, and serve it up with capers strewed over 
the top, and garnished with slices of lemon. 

TO EOAST STUEGEON. 

Put a good-sized piece in a large cradle-spit (five or six 
pounds will make a handsome dish for the head of the table) ; 
stuff it with forcemeat; keep it at the fire for two or three 
hours, but remove the skin; cover it with crumbs of bread, 
and brown it with the salamander; baste it constantly with 
butter, and serve with a good brown gravy, an anchovy, a 
squeeze of Seville orange or lemon, and a glass of sherry 
boiled up, and poured into the dish. 

STUEGEON CUTLETS. 

Cut in slices quarter of an inch thick ; dry, flour, and egg 
them ; dip in crumbs, seasoned with pepper, salt, parsley, and 
thyme; fry them, and serve with Indian pickle, tomato, or 
piquant sauce. 

HALIBUT, OE, HOLIBUT. 

Partakes somewhat of the flavor of the turbot, and grows 
to an enormous size, being sometimes caught weighing more 
than one hundred weight; the best size is, however, from 
twenty to forty pounds, as, if much larger, it is coarse. The 
most esteemed parts are the flakes over the fins, and the pick- 
ings about the head; but on account of its great bulk, it is 



76 FISH. 

commonly cut up and sold in collops, or in pieces of a few 
pounds weight, at a very reasonable rate. A small one cut 
in thin slices and crimped, is very good eating. 

TO BOIL HALIBUT. 

Take a small halibut, or what you require from a 
large fish. Put it into the fish-kettle, with the back of the 
fish undermost, cover it with cold water, in which a handful 
of salt, and a bit of saltpetre the size of a hazel nut, have 
been dissolved. When it begins to boil, skim it carefully, 
and then let it just simmer till it is done. Four pounds of 
fish will require nearly thirty minutes to boil it. Drain it, 
garnish with horseradish or parsley — egg sauce or plain 
melted butter are served with it. 

SALMON IN A MOULD. 

Drain the liquor from one can of salmon, and remove the 
bones and skin. Chop fine and rub into it until smooth, four 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter, season with salt, pepper and 
minced parsley, also a little celery, if liked. Beat four eggs 
well, add half a cupful of cracker-crumbs, mix all well and 
thoroughly. Put into a buttered mould and steam one hour. 
Sauce. — Boil one cupful of milk and thicken with one table- 
spoonful of corn-starch; add to the liquor from the salmon, 
one tablespoonful of butter, one egg, and one teaspoonful of 
catsup. Put the egg in last and very carefully. Boil one 
minute. Turn the salmon out of the mould and pour the 
sauce around. 

FISH OMELET. 

Cook together one level tablespoonful of flour and one of 
butter; add gradually half a cup of hot milk and a little 
pepper. Pour boiling water on a half -cupful of shredded 
codfish, drain and mix with the thickened milk, then add two 
eupfuls of cold boiled potatoes chopped fine. Melt a table- 
spoonful of butter in a spider; when hot turn in fish and 
cook slowly until a thick crust has formed; then fold over 
and serve on hot platter. 



FISH. 77 

CREAMED SALMON. 

Delightful supper dish easily prepared. 

Take a tin of salmon, empty on a dish and flake with a 
fork. Have ready a sauce made in double boiler from one 
pint of milk, butter size of an egg, one tea spoonful of flour, 
with salt and cayenne pepper to taste. Melt butter and flour 
until smooth and add milk slowly. When it boils remove 
from fire and add two well-beaten eggs. Put alternate layers 
of salmon and sauce in baking dish until all is used; cover 
with layer of cracker or bread-crumbs; bake fifteen minutes 
and serve hot. 

CODFISH IN CREAM. 

Shred and soak half a cup of salted codfish over night. 
In the morning drain, place in a stew-pan, cover with cold 
water; when it boils, drain; cover again with water and 
simmer gently for fifteen minutes ; add one cup of ric}\ milk. 
Rub one spoonful of flour smooth in one spoonful of butter; 
add to the codfish; mince one hard-boiled egg, stir into the 
mixture; add a pinch of pepper and a teaspoonful of minced 
parsley. Boil up once. Serve. 

OYSTER COCKTAIL. 

Put three or four oysters in a small lemonade glass, 
mix cayenne, lemon-juice and tomato sauce, also put a few 
drops of tobasco sauce (very little). Let all stand in glasses, 
on ice, for about three hours. Set glasses on small plates; 
serve with water-cress around them. 

BOILED WHITEFISH. 

Lay the fish open; put it in a dripping pan, with the 
back down ; nearly cover with water ; to one fish put two table- 
spoonfuls of salt; cover tightly and simmer (not boil) one- 
half hour ; dress with gravy, butter and pepper ; garnish with 
sliced eggs. For sauce use a piece of butter the size of an 
egg, one tablespoonful of flour, one-half pint boiling water; 
boil a few minutes, and add three hard-boiled eggs, shred. 



78 FISH. 

BEOILED WHITEFISH— FEESH. 

Wash and drain the fish; sprinkle with pepper and lay 
with the inside down upon the gridiron, and broil over fresh 
bri;-' i coals. When a nice brown, turn for a moment on the 
othoj -\-1c, then take up and spread with butter. This is a 
very nice way of broiling all kinds of fish, fresh or salted. 
A little smoke under the fish adds to its flavor. This may be 
made by putting two or three cobs under the gridiron. 

BAKED BLACK BASS. 

Eight good sized onions chopped fine ,*• half that quantity 
of bread-crumbs; butter ihe size of hen's egg; plenty of 
pepper and salt; mix thoroughly with anchovy sauce until 
quite red. Stuff your fish with this compound and pour the 
rest over it, previously sprinkling it with a little red pepper. 
Shad, pickerel and trout are good the same way. Tomatoes 
can be used instead of anchovies, and are more economical. 
If using them take pork in place of butter and chop fine. 

SCALLOPED WHITEFISH. 

Steam till tender one large whitcfish; remove bones and 
sprinkle with salt and. pepper. Dressing — Heat one pint of 
milk thickened with two tablespoonfuls of flour; when cold 
add two eggs and one-fourth of a pound of butter. Put into 
a baking-dish a layer of the fish and a layer of dressing; 
season with one-half teaspoonful of onion juice; cover top 
with bread-crumbs, and bake one-half hour. 

SALMON LOAF. 

Mince one can of salmon fine; four eggs, four tablespoon- 
fuls of melted butter, one-half cup of bread-crumbs; season 
with salt and pepper. Pick fish fine ; rub butter smooth ; beat 
the crumbs into the eggs, and season before mixing; steam 
one hour in a buttered mold. Sauce — One cup of milk thick- 
ened with one tablespoonful of corn-starch, one tablespoonful 
butter; add the liquor olf the fish and one raw egg, then 
pour over the loaf. 



FISH. 79 

CKEAMED CODFISH. 

Pick one cup of fish fine, then freshen in cold water; 
bring just to a boil, then drain ; then take one cupful of good 
cream and one cupful of milk, two tablespoonfuls of flour; 
make smooth with some of the milk; add one tablespoonful 
of butter and more salt if necessary. Put in fish after bring- 
ing sauce to a boil. 

FEICASSEE OF SHRIMP. 

One quart of tomatoes, one quart of water, and onion to 
suit the taste, stewed together until the tomatoes can be 
passed through a sieve. After straining stew with season- 
ing (season highly), and a tablespoonful of butter creamed 
with a little flour, for fifteen minutes; add two cans of 
shrimps, carefully washed. Heat thoroughly and serve with 
rice. 

SCALLOPED OYSTERS (NEW). 

Pick over, rinse, drain, and dry the oysters, which should 
be of fair size. Break an egg into a saucer ; add a tablespoon- 
ful of warm water and beat just enough to mix. Have ready 
in a bowl a quantity of fine bread-crumbs. Drop each oyster 
in the beaten egg, then into the crumbs, and lay in a buttered 
dish. When the bottom of the dish is covered with the oysters 
sprinkle over them a little salt and pe])per, a few drops of 
onion juice and a tablespoonful of chopped celery. Fill the 
dish in the same order; put over the top one tablespoonful 
of butter; cut into pieces; pour over one-half of a cupful of 
thin cream and bake about twenty-five minutes in a hot oven. 
This amount will be sufficient for thirty oysters. 

SMELTS. 

Clean the smelts by drawing them between the finger and 
thumb, beginning at the tail. This will press out the insides 
at the opening at the gills. Wash them and drain in a co- 
lander ; salt well and dip in beaten egg and bread or cracker- 
crumbs. Dip first in the egg and then roll in the crumbs. 
Fry in boiling fat deep enough to float them. They should 
be a handsome brown in two minutes and a half. Take 
them up and place them on a sheet of brown paper for a few 



80 FISH. 

minutes to drain, then serve on a hot dish. Garnish with 
parsley and a few slices of lemon. 

OYSTER COCKTAIL. 

(For Twelve Persons.) 

Clean and chill sixty small oysters; mix with three tea- 
spoonfuls of fine grated horseradish; one teaspoonful of to- 
basco sauce, two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, five tablespoonfuls 
of Worcestershire sauce, three tablespoonfuls of tomato 
catsup, and one and a quarter teaspoonfuls of salt; serve in 
sherry glasses, in grape-fruit or lemon shells, or in tomato 
cups. If fresh tomatoes are not at hand cups may be shaped 
from tomato jelly. 

SAVORY CREAM (COLD ENTREE). 

A small lobster or one can of lobster passed through 
sieve, one-half pint of cream, one gill aspic jelly, one table- 
spoon mayonnaise sauce, one-quarter of an ounce or a little 
more of melted gelatine, one gill tomato sauce. Put a little 
aspic jelly in the bottom of a border mould,decorate with small 
pieces of lobster and small leaves of parsley. Beat gelatine 
in tomato Juice, whip the cream ; also whip the aspic. Mix 
these together. Stir in the mayonnaise and the melted gela- 
tine and tomato, also your lobster. Fill the mould carefully 
and set. When cold turn out and fill the centre with small 
salad.. 

TURBOT (BOILED.) 

Ingredients. — ^6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water. 

Mode. — Choose a middling-sized turbot; if very large, 
the meat will be tough and thready. Three or four hours 
before dressing, soak the fish in salt and water to take off 
the slime; then thoroughly cleanse it, and with a knife make 
an incision down the middle of the hack, to prevent the skin 
of the belly from cracking. Rub it over with lemon, and be 
particular not to cut off the fins. Lay the fish in a very 
clean turbot-kettle, with cold water to cover it, and salt in the 
above proportion. Let it gradually come to a boil, and skim 
carefully; keep it gently simmering, and on no account let 



FISH. 81 

it boil fast. When the meat separates easily from the bone, 
it is clone ; then take it out, let it drain well, and dish it on a 
hot napkin. Rub a little lobster spawn through a sieve, 
sprinkle it over the lish, and garnish with tufts of parsley 
and cut lemon. Lobster, oyster, or shrimp sauce should be 
sent to table with it. 

Time, after the water boils, about one-half hour for a 
large turbot; middling size, about twenty minutes. Season- 
able at any time. Sufficient, 1 middling-sized turbot for 
eight persons. 

TUEBOT (ITALIAN FASHION). 
(Italian Eecipe.) 

Ingredients. — ^'A turbot of medium size, one trout, two 
carp's roes, button mushrooms, a few truffles and prawns, 
two ounces of butter, wine sauce. 

Mode. — Cleanse and prepare the fish as usual and simmer 
it in white wine for two hoars. Drain and put on a dish^ 
with a garnish of the trout and carp's roes, fried in small 
pieces, and the mushrooms glazed. Stick in some orna- 
mental skewers, decorated with truffles and prawns, and 
serve with a good sauce. 

Time, tAvo hours. Sufficient for eight persons. 

KEBOBBED OYSTERS. 

First drain fifty oysters; chop sufficient parsley to make 
two tablespoonfuls, of celery the same. Beat two eggs and 
add to them a tablcspoonful of oyster liquid. Put on a board 
a pint of bread-crumbs. Have at your left side an ordinary 
baking-dish. Lift the oysters by the muscular part, dip them 
in egg, then in bread-crumbs, and put them at once in the 
bottom of the baking-dish. Sprinkle over half a teaspoonful 
of salt, a dash of pepper, a sprinkling of parsley and celery; 
then dip and put in another layer of oysters, etc., until all 
are used. Cut small pieces of butter over the top and bake 
in a quick oven for fifteen or twenty minutes. Serve in the 
dish in which they were baked. These are much better than 
scalloped oysters, and make a very acceptable luncheon dish. 
*6 



82 FISH. 

CREAMED LOBSTER 

Take the moat of a middle sized lobster, chop it fine, add 
half a pint of Avhipped cream, one-quarter of an ounce of gela- 
tine which has been soaked in water, a little anchovy sauce, 
salt and cayenne. Stir it gently till nearly set, and pour into 
a slightly oiled border mould. When turned out, fill the 
centre with mayonnaise, garnish with mashed green peas put 
through a forcepipe, and the claws round the outside. 

CLAMS A LA FIKANCIEEE (WEBB'S). 

Open two dozen fresh clams, taking care to retain all the 
liquor found in shell, also shells to serve up in. Stew in their 
cwTi liquor for five miinutes, cut into pieces the size of peas. 
Take a slice of mild cured liam, cut into small dice; place 
in a small saucepan on fire with sufficient butter to prevent 
burning; fry to a light brown color, then add half a teaspoon- 
ful of finely chopped onions, tablespoonful fine chopped cel- 
ery; half a tin French mushrooms, half a tin French peas; 
teaspoonful fine chopped parsley. Mix in the clams and 
their liquor. Season to taste with rod pepper and salt; stew 
for fifteen minutes. Serve in their own shell made hot, with 
borders of mashed potatoes and garnished with parsley and 
lemon. 

SALMON SHAPE. 

One can salmon, three eggs, four tablespoonfuls melted 
butter, one-half cup broad crumbs (or biscuit). Mince the 
fish, draining off the liquor for sauce. Rub in the butter 
until thoroughly incorporated; work in the crumbs, the sea- 
soning, and last the beaten eggs. Put in a well buttered 
pudding dish. 

Sauce. — One cup milk, heated to a boil and thickened with 
a tablespoon of cornstarch, the liquor from the salmon, one 
large teaspoon of butter, one raw egg beaten light, juice of 
one lemon, mace and cayenne pepper to taste. Put the eggs 
into the thickened milk when you have stirred in the butter 
and liquor. Take from the fire, season and let it stand for 
five minutes. Last, put in the lemon and pour over the fish. 



MEATS. 



In the selection of meat it is most essential that we under- 
stand how to choose it; in beef it should be a smooth, fine 
gi'ain, of a clear bright red color, the fat white, and will feel 
tender when pinched with the fingers. Will also have abun- 
dant kidney fat or suet. The most choice piece? for roast are 
the sirloin, fore and middle ribs. 

Veal, to be good, should have the flesh firm and dry, fine 
grained and of a delicate pinkish color, and plenty of kidney 
fat; the joints stiff. 

Mutton is good when the flesh is a bright red, firm and 
Juicy and a close grain, the fat firm and white. 

Pork, if young, the lean will break on being pinched 
smooth when nipped with the fingers, also the skin will break 
and dent ; if the rind is rough and hard it is old. 

In roasting meat, allow from fifteen to twenty minutes to 
the pound, which will vary according to the thickness of the 
roast. A great deal of the success in roasting depends on the 
heat and goodness of the fire ; if put into a cool oven it loses 
its juices, and the result is a tough, tasteless roast; whereas, 
if the oven is of the proper heat, it immediately sears up the 
pores of the meat and the juices are retained. 

The oven should be the hottest when the meat is put into 
it, in order to quickly crisp the surface and close the pores 
of the meat, thereby confining its natural juices. If the 
oven is too hot to hold the hand in for only a moment, then 
the oven is right to receive the meat. The roast should first 
be washed in pure water, then wiped dry with a clean dry 
cloth, placed in a baking-pan, Avithout any seasoning; some 
pieces of suet or cold drippings laid under it, but no water 
should be put into the pan, for this would have a tendency to 
soften the outside of the meat. The water can never get so 



84 MEATS. 

hot as the hot fat upon the surface of the meat, and the gen- 
erating of the steam prevents its crispness, so desirable in a 
roast. 

It sliould be frequently basted with its own drippings 
which flow from the meat when partly cooked, and well sea- 
soned. Lamb, veal and pork should be cooked rather slower 
than beef, with a more moderate lire, covering the fat with a 
piece of paper, and thoroughly cooked till the ilesh parts from 
the bone; and nicely browned, without being burned. An 
onion sliced and put on top of a roast while cooking, especi- 
ally roast of pork, gives a nice flavor. Remove tlie onion be- 
fore serving. 

Larding meats is drawing ribbons of fat pork through the 
upper surface of the meat, leaving both ends protruding. 
This is accomplished by the use of a larding-needle, which 
may be procured at house-furnishing stores. 

Boiling or stewing meat, if fresh, should be put into boil- 
ing water, closely covered, and boiled slowly, allowing twenty 
minutes to each pound, and when partly cooked, or when it 
begins to get tender, salted, adding spices and vegetables. 

Salt meats should be covered with cold v/ater, and require 
thirty minutes very slow boiling, from the time the water 
boils, for each pound ; if it is very salt, pour off the first water, 
and put it in another of boiling water, or it may be soaked 
one night in cold water. After meat commences to boil, the 
pot should never stop simmering and always be replenished 
from the boiling tea-kettle. 

Frying may be done in two ways: one method, which is 
most generally used, is by putting one ounce or more (as the 
case requires) of beef drippings, lard or butter, into a frying- 
pan, and when at the boiling point, laying in the meat, cook- 
ing both sides a nice brown. The other method is to com- 
pletely immerse the article to be cooked in sufficient hot lard 
to cover it, similar to frying doughnuts. 

Broiled meats should be placed over clear, red coals, free 
from smoke, giving out a good heat, but not too brisk, or the 
meat will be hardened and scorched; but if the fire is dead, 
the gravy will escape, and drop upon the coals, creating a 
blaze, which will blacken and smoke the meat. Steaks and 
chops should be turned often, in order that every part should 



MEATS. 85 

be evenly done — ^never sticking a fork into the lean part, as 
that lets the juices escape; it should be put into the outer 
skin or fat. When the meat is sufficiently broiled, it should 
be laid on a hot dish and seasoned. The best pieces for steak 
are the porter-house, sirloin, and rump. 

THAWING FEOZEN MEAT, Etc. 

If meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, or any other article of 
food, when found frozen, is thawed by putting it into warm 
water or placing it before the fire, it will most certainly spoil 
by that process, and be rendered unfit to eat. The only way 
to thaw these things is by immersing them in cold water. 
This should be done as soon as they are brought in from 
market, that they may have time to be well thawed before they 
are cooked. If meat that has been frozen is to be boiled, put 
it on in cold water. If to be roasted, begin by setting it at 
a distance from the fire; for if it should not chance to be 
thoroughly thawed all through to the centre, placing it at first 
too near the fire will cause it to spoil. If it is expedient to 
thaw the meat or poultry the night before cooking, lay it in 
cold water early in the evening, and change the water at bed- 
time. If found crusted with ice in the morning, remove the 
ice, and put the meat in fresh cold water, letting it lie in it 
till wanted for cooking. 

Potatoes are injured by being frozen. Other vegetables 
are not the worse for it, provided they are always thawed in 
cold water. 

TO KEEP MEAT FEOM FLIES. 

Put in sacks, with enough straw around it so the flies can- 
not reach through. Three-fourths of a yard of yard- wide 
muslin is the right size for the sack. Put a little straw in 
the bottom, then put in the ham, and lay straw in all around 
it; tie it tightly, and hang it in a cool, dry place. Be sure the 
straw is all around the meat, so the flies cannot reach through 
to deposit the eggs. (The sacking must be done early in the 
season before the fly appears.) Muslin lets the air in and 
is much better than paper. Thin muslin is as good as thick, 
and will last for years if washed when laid away when 
emptied. 



86 MEATS. 

EOAST BEEF. 

One very essential point in roasting beef is to have the 
oven well heated when the beef is first put in; this causes 
the pores to close up quickly, and prevents the escape of the 
juices. 

Take a rib piece or loin roast of sevei 5? eight pounds. 
Wipe it thoroughly all over with a clean wet towel. Lay it in a 
dripping-pan, and baste it well with butter or suet fat. Set 
it in the oven. Baste it frequently with its own drippings, 
which will make it brown and tender. When partly done sea- 
son with salt and pepper, as it hardens any meat to salt it 
when raw, and draws out its juices; then dredge with sifted 
flour to give it a frothy appearance. It will take a roast of 
this size about two hours' time to be properly done, leaving 
the inside a little rare or red — ^half an hour less would make 
the inside quite rare. Eemove the beef to a heated dish, set 
where it will keep hot; then skim the drippings from all fat, 
add a tablespoonful of sifted flour, a little pepper and a tea- 
cupful of boiling water. Boil up once and serve hot in a 
gravy boat. 

Some prefer the clear gravy without the thickening. 
Serve with mustard or grated horse-radish and vinegar. 

YOEKSHIRE PUDDING. 

This is a very nice accompaniment to a roast of beef ; the 
ingredients are, one pint of milk, four eggs, white and yolks 
beaten separately, one teaspoonful of salt, and two teaspoon- 
fuls of baking powder sifted through two cups of flour. It 
should be mixed very smooth, about the consistency of cream. 
Eegulate your time when you put in your roast, so that it 
"srill be done half an hour or forty minutes before dishing up. 
Take it from the oven, set it where it will keep hot. In the 
meantime have this pudding prepared. Take two common 
biscuit tins, dip some of the drippings from the dripping- 
pan into these tins, pour half of the pudding into each, set 
them into the hot oven, and keep them in until the dinner 
is dished up; take these puddings out at the last moment 
and send to the table hot. This I consider much better 
tban the old way of baking the pudding under the meat. 



MEATS. 87 

BEOILED STEAK. 

Kmnp steak, about an inch thick, butter, pepper, and salt. 

Butter a sheet of white paper and twist the four corners 
so as to form a little tray, lay the steak in this and broil 
quickly from five to ten minutes, turning it once in the paper 
while cooking. When done lay it on a hot dish, season with 
pepper and salt, add a little bit of butter, and serve at once. 

Steak coolccd in this 'way is much nicer than if broiled 
without the paper. 

BEEF CAKES. 

One pound of under-cooked roast beef, one quarter pound 
of ham or bacon, a teaspoonful of sweet herbs, seasoning of 
pepper and salt, one large egg. 

Mince the beef and ham, add herbs, etc., and mix with the 
egg, which must be previously well beaten; brush each cake 
over with a little white of egg; cover with bread crumbs, and 
fry quickly for five minutes. 

BEOWNED MINCE OF BEEF. 

Eemains of cold roast beef, one quarter as much mashed 
potato, one cup of gravy, breadcrumbs, seasoning of pepper, 
salt, mustard, and catsup. 

Mince the meat very fine, mix with it the potato, and sea- 
son well; add the cup of gravy, work all together and make 
very hot in a saucepan. Pile upon a dish, cover with fine 
breadcrumbs, and brown quickly in the oven. It is much 
improved by putting bits of butter over the top as it begins 
to brown. Serve in the dish it is baked in. 

BEEAKFAST DISH OF BEEF. 

Cold roast beef, three tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one 
tablespoonful of walnut catsup, one teaspoonful of vinegar, 
a little salt and pepper, a dessertspoonful of currant jelly, and 
a little warm water. 

Cut thin slices of cold roast beef, and lay them in a tin 
saucepan set in a pot of boiling water, and cover them with 
gravy made oC the above ingredients. Cover tightly, and 



88 MEATS. 

steam for half an hour, keeping the water in the outer vessel 
on a hard boil. If the meat is underdone, this is particularly 
nice. 

BEEF CROQUETTES. 

Minced cold beef, boiled or roast, a quarter as much 
mashed potato, gravy enough to moisten them, in which an 
onion has been boiled and strained out, season with catsup, 
pepper, salt, and a pinch of marjoram, fine breadcrumbs and 
one egg. 

Mash the potatoes, while hot, very smooth, or if cold po- 
tatoes be used, see they are free from lumps; mix in the 
meat, gravy, and seasoning, bind all together with the beaten 
egg and form into the desired shapes ; roll them in fine bread- 
crumbs, and fry quickly to a light brown. Drain on soft 
paper before the fire till free from fat, and serve hot. 

STEWED BEEAST OF LAMB. 

One breast of lamb, pepper and salt to taste, sufficient 
stock to cover it, thickening of butter and flour. 

Skin the lamb and cut into pieces, and season them with 
pepper and salt; lay these in a stew-pan with sufficient stock 
of gravy to cover them, and stew gently for an hour and a 
half. Just before serving, thicken the gravy with a little 
butter and flour, give one boil, and pour it over the meat. 
Have ready a pint and a half of green peas and lay them 
over and around the meat. A few stewed mushrooms will be 
found an improvement if they can be obtained, but they are 
not necessary for this dish. 

MIKCED LAMB, WITH POACHED EGGS. 

Eemains of cold roast lamb, one good cup of gravy, pepper, 
salt, seasoning of mint, poached eggs, Im.ttered toast. 

Trim the meat and mince it finely, well seasoned with 
pepper, salt, and a little mint. Put the gravy into a sauce- 
pan (make it from the bones if you have no other), and let 
it get hot; then stir in the mince and lot all become very hot, 
but do not let it boil, thicken with a little brown flour, and 
pile on a flat dish. Have ready a few slices of buttered toast, 



MEATS. 89 

cut into neat squares, lay a poached egg on each, place these 
around or upon the mince, and serve. 

AMERICAN FEITTERS. 

Slices of undercooked roast beef or mutton; for the bat- 
ter, one half pound flour, one large or two small eggs, salt, 
milk; lard or dripping for frying. 

Cut the meat into moderately thick slices, and as neat a 
shape as possible, pepper and salt each piece, then make a 
batter in the above proportions, taking care that it is not very 
thin. Have ready a pan of boiling lard or dripping, dip 
each piece of meat into the batter, and fry quickly to a light 
brown. Serve on a hot dish, and garnish with a thick border 
of fried apples. 

BOILED BEAINS. 

Calf's or bullock's brains, pepper and salt, marjoram or 
sage, sippets of toasted bread. 

Steep the brains in lukewarm water for two hours to draw 
the blood, then tie in muslin, put into boiling water and boil 
for twenty minutes; take them up, drain in a colander, then 
turn into a basin and beat thoroughly with a fork, season 
with plenty of pepper and salt and a little marjoram or sage 
— sage is best. Put on a hot dish, pour over a good melted 
butter sauce, and garnish with sippets of toast. This makes 
a good breakfast or supper dish. Care must be taken in pre- 
paring it to have all the basins and dishes very hot. 

ROULADES OF BEEF. 

Slices of undercooked roast beef, slices of boiled ham, one 
egg, pepper and mustard, a little thick gravy, fine crumbs; 
butter or dripping for frying. 

Cut the beef into thin, even, oblong slices, the ham rather 
thinner and smaller ; spread one side of the beef with mustard, 
and pepper the ham. Lay the ham upon the beef and roll 
up together as tightly as possible; brush over with the egg, 
roll each in the crumbs, and pierce through with a slender 
skewer, in such a manner as to keep the roll pinned together. 
Put several on each skewer, but do not let them touch one 



90 MEATS. 

another; fry brown, lay on a hot dish, and gently withdraw 
the skewers, .then pour the gravy boiling hot over them, and 
serva Small roulades are a nice garnish for game and roast 
poultry. 

BEEF OLIVES. 

Slices of undercooked roast beef, breadcrumbs, sweet 
herbs, pepper and salt, and gravy. 

Cut the slices of meat very thin, spread upon each slice 
a stuffing made from the above ingredients, roll up tightly, 
and tie with string. Have ready in a saucepan some good 
brown gravy, lay in the olives, and let them simmer for about 
half an hour. Take up, remove the string carefully that the 
shape may not be spoiled, pour the gravy over, and serve hot. 

VEAL SHAPE. 

One pound and a half of veal, one lemon, one slice of 
ham, pepper and salt, three hard-boiled eggs. 

Stew the meat, with the thin rind of the lemon, in a very 
little water till quite tender. When done, cut up both veal 
and ham into small pieces, mince the lemon rind finely, and 
set these aside to cool. Strain the stock, add the lemon- juice 
and seasonings, and let this also cool. Cut the eggs into 
slices, and arrange them in a plain mould or dish, pour in 
the cool stock and meat, and set aside till quite cold, when it 
should turn out whole. This makes an excellent breakfast 
dish. 

STEWED STEAK AND MACARONI. 

One pound and a half of steak, or other lean beef, a little 
flour, butter for frying, one tablespoonful of catsup, one 
quarter pound macaroni. 

Cut the beef in small pieces, roll it in flour, and fry slight- 
ly in a little butter; put it into a stewpan, cover with hot 
water, and allow it to simmer slowly for an hour and a half; 
then add the macaroni, and simmer again for three quarters 
of an hour; season with pepper, salt, and catsup, and stew 
for ten minutes after the seasoning is added. Serve on a hot 
dish, the beef in the centre, and the macaroni round. 



MEATS. 91 

SWISS PATES. 

Eemains of cold roast veal or fowl, a little white sauce, 
rounds of stale bread, one egg (well beaten), very fine bread- 
ciumbs, good dripping or lard for frying. 

Mince the meat finely, well season it with some of the 
forcemeat or a little lemon peel, mix with thin white sauce, 
and set it near the fire to heat, stirring that it may not burn. 
Cut rather thick slices of baker's bread into rounds with a 
cake cutter; with a smaller cutter extract a piece from the 
middle of each round, taking care not to let the sharp edge 
go quite through, but leaving enough in the cavity to serve 
as a bottom to the pate. Dip the hollowed pieces of bread 
in the egg, strew them with fine crumbs, and fry in boiling 
fat to a delicate brown. Drain every drop of the fat from 
them by laying them on soft paper before the fire, then fill 
each with the hot mince, pile on a dish, garnish with parsley, 
and serve. 

BEOILED LAMB OR MUTTON. 

Cut slices from the hind-quarter, about " four fingers '' in 
size and an inch and a half thick. Cut slits in it, pound and 
season with a little salt, pepper and onion juice. Sprinkle 
a little powdered mint in the slits, place on a buttered grid- 
iron and broil over a clear fire, turning often until done. 
Serve very hot. 

SMYRNA STEAK. 

Chop beef or mutton very fine, and season with juice of 
onion, salt and pepper, add fine bread crumbs and several 
beaten eggs. Mix well, make into rolls and brown in hot but- 
ter in a frying pan. Then put in a kettle, cover with melted 
butter and a little tomato juice, and simmer gently until 
tender. 

BAKED COLD ROAST BEEF. 

Place a layer of the slices in the bottoBi of a shallow pud- 
ding dish, put pepper and salt, and a small slice of onion, on 
each, and cold gravy or little pieces of butter, then put in 



92 MEATS. » 

another layer of meat until all is used ; cover the top with a 
layer of mashed potatoes. Bake for half an hour, or until 
the top is nicely browned. 

SAVOEY GRILL. 

One tablespoonful of Worcester sauce, one dessertspoon- 
ful of chutney sauce, one dessertspoonful of Yorkshire relish, 
half teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. Butter the size of a wal- 
nut. Cut up any cold meat or fowl, and sprinkle with flour 
on both sides; place the mixture above in any dish that will 
stand the heat of the top of the stove; mix well; allow it to 
heat slowly and thoroughly. 

CUERIED MUTTON. 

Pint of stock, juice of half a lemon, two ounces butter, 
teaspoonful sugar; boil slowly. Two pounds raw mutton, 
or underdone, cut in inches square; boil one sour apple with 
meat in sufBcient water to stew, add curry and pepper and 
salt to taste; when serving add a gill of cream. Boil a cup- 
ful of Patna rice in two quarts of boiling water twenty 
minutes, strain through colander and shake well. Make a 
wall of the rice around the serving dish, pour in the mixture 
and garnish with parsley; serve very hot. 

VEAL OR CHICKEN CHEVREUX. 

Garnish small moulds with carrot, peas and beet, cooked 
and chopped with fancy cutter; cut meat in small squares; 
pack in moulds and fill with warm aspic jelly. 

VEAL LOAF. 

One and one-half pounds raw veal, one-quarter pound raw 
or cooked bacon, or ham. Mince thoroughly. Season with pep- 
per and very little salt, as the bacon or ham salts it. A little 
nutmeg, savory or other herbs; one-half cup of bread 
crumbs. Add two eggs well beaten, keeping out enough to 
brush over the top (the outside) at the last; two tablespoons 
good stock; mix thoroughly and press into a square pan to 
shape it. Turn out and brush over with the beaten egg. 



MEATS. 93 

Bake one and one-half liours in a slow oven, basting occa- 
sionally with a teaspoonful of butter melted in one-half cup 
of water; serve with broAvn gravy thickened slightly. 

VEAL PATTY (OE BEEF). 

Three pounds rav,^ leg of veal chopped very fine; rub 
through the fingers till quite free from gristle. One table- 
t^poonful of salt and black pepper, eight tablospoonfuls of 
rolled crackers, three tablcspoonfuls cream. Butter the size 
of an egg. Mould into a loaf; put into pan with a little 
water; sprinkle with cracker crumbs and small bits of butter 
on the top. An egg may be added. Bake two hours and eat 
cold. 

STEWED OX-TAILS. 

Ingredients: Two ox -tails, one onion, three cloves, one 
blade mace, one-quarter teaspoonful whole block pepper, ono- 
quarter teaspoonful allspice, one-half teaspoonful salt, a small 
bunch savory herbs, thickening of butter and flour, one table- 
spoonfid lemon juice, one teaspoonful mushroom catsup. 
Mode: Divide the tails at the joints, wash, and put them into 
a stewpan with sufficient water to cover, and set them on the 
fire; when the water boils remove the scum, and add the 
onions cut into rings, the spice, seasoning and herbs. Co\-er 
the stewpan closely, and simmer gently until tender, which 
will be in about two and one-half hours. Take the tails out, 
make a thickening of butter and flour; add it to the gravy, 
and let it boil for one-quarter of an hour. Strain it through 
a sieve into a saucepan ; put back the tails, add the lemon 
juice and catsup; let the whole just boil up, and serve. Serve 
with croutons or sippets of toasted bread. 

BLAIs^QUETTE OF VEAL. 

Two cupfuls of chopped cooked veal, one tablespoon of 
butter, one cupful of stock, yolks of two eggs, 1 tablespoonful 
of minced parsley, one tablespoonful of flour, one cupful of 
cream, twelve button mushrooms (chopped), salt and pepper 
to taste. 



94 MEATS, 

Melt the butter, add flour, stir until smooth, add the 
liquid, and when the sauce thickens add meat and mushrooms. 
Cook all together for a few minutes. When ready to serve 
add yolks of eggs and parsley, cooking for a minute ; garnish 
with whole mushrooms. 

DUTCH STEW. 

Fry together half tablespoonful butter, two tablespoonfuls 
vinegar, one teaspoonful sugar, half teaspoonf ul salt, a little 
onion, one and a lialf laurel leaf, four or five cloves, then 
add a cupful of gravy or bouillon and a beaten egg. When 
hot add squares of cooked meat. A great improvement is a 
little red wine, about two tablespoons, in which case a little 
more sugar is needed. This is a recipe brought over from 
Holland. 

PATE DE VEAU. 

Three and one-half pounds beef, or veal, chopped fine, 
three slices salt pork, chopped fine, three raw eggs, one tea- 
spoonful salt and pepper, one nutmeg, piece of butter size of 
butternut, six crackers, rolled fine. Mix all with flour into a 
deep loaf, sprinkle with bread crumbs and small pieces of 
butter ; bake two hours in meat-pan with a little water. Baste 
while baking. 

TIMBAL BATTER. 

One cup flour, measured after sifting, three-quarters of 
a cup of milk, one egg, half teaspoon salt, add salt to flour, 
stir in milk by degrees, and egg beaten light, yolk and white 
together; strain and fry on timbal iron. Fill with creamed 
lobstcrr^, sweet breads, chicken, salmon, or other mixture. 

SWEET-BREADS FOR TIMBALS. 

Two pair sweet-breads, one can mushrooms, one cup 
milk, one and one-half tablespoons butter, one and one-half 
tablespoons flour, one small onion, one blade mace, salt, 
cayenne. Boil sweet-breads twenty minutes in salted water, 
throw in cold water to harden, free from skin and cut in 



MEATS. 96 

dice, cut mushrooms in dice, put onion and mace in milk 
till flavored, then take out, melt butter, add flour, then the 
milk, let boil a minute, then add sweet breads and mush- 
rooms. 

VEAL AND HAM PIE. 

One and a half to two pounds of veal from leg, three or 
four slices lean cooked ham. Season with pepper and salt, 
a blade of pounded mace, a little nutmeg, a strip of lemon- 
peel finely minced; the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs cut in 
slices; half a pint or more of made gravy with an additional 
half pint to be poured in at the top when pie is baked ; a layer 
of good forcemeat. Method — Stew the veal very slowly for 
about half an hour, cut into small square pieces a])out two 
inches long; place at the bottom of the dish; season; a layer 
of ham, a layer of forcemeat ; put the slices of egg on the top 
of the veal ; fill the dish thus, the top layer being ham. Put 
in the gravy and cover with puff paste with good centre orna- 
ment of leaves. Bake from one and a half to two hours. 
Pour in the remainder of the gravy through a funnel. Before 
baking the crust should be brushed over with yolk of egg. 
Forcemeat — Two ounces of lean ham or bacon, six ouncei- 
bread-crumbs, four ounces of beef suet, two eggs, a strip of 
lemon rind, minced; half teaspoonful of minced parsley, 
quarter teaepoonfiil mixed herbs, pepper, salt and mace. 
Chop well and mix before adding eggs. — Dish for a king. — 
(Ed.). 

HOAST SHOULDER OF LAMB. 

Cook as you would the leg, but with more water in the 
pan and more slowly. When nearly done, baste plentifully 
with the gravy, and, five minutes later, with butter into which 
a little lemon-juice has been beaten. Brown lightly, after 
dredging with salt, pepper, and flour. Your object should be 
to make every part of the shoulder eatable, the muscles soft, 
and the skin gelatinous. As usually served, the thin part of 
the roast is often hard and distasteful, more like burnt leather 
than meat. You can vary the dish by having the bone of the 
shoulder taken out, filling the cavity with a dressing of bread- 
crumbs and butter, seasoned with pepper and salt. 



96 MEATS. 

BRAISED BREAST OF LAMB. 

Lay a breast of lamb, or two scrags, in a broad pot, meai 
downward. Scatter over this a sliced turnip, a sliced onion, 
and two sliced tomatoes, with a little pepper and salt. Add 
less than a cupful of stock, and cook slowly one hour. Turn 
the meat then and cook one hour longer, very slowly. When 
tender, but not ragged, brown, rub with butter and keep hot. 
Strain the gravy; thicken with browned flour; season, boil 
up, and pour over the meat. 

STUFFED LEG OF MUTTON. 

Have the bone removed, tearing as little as possible. Fill 
the cavity with a dressing of a cupful of bread-crumbs worked 
up Avith butter, two tablcspoonfuls of finely minced almonds, 
pepper, salt, parsley, and a little onion-juice. Sew or tie up 
the gash, that the stuffing may not escape. Have ready in 
your roaster a carrot cut into dice, a sliced tomato, a small 
onion, minced, a stalk of celery, and a little parsley. Lay 
the mutton upon them, pour over it two cupfuls of boiling 
water, cover closely and cook two hours, basting four times. 
Remove the cover, brow^n, after basting once with butter and 
sprinkling with pepper, salt, and flour. Rub the gravy through 
the colander, tliicken with browned flour and send to table in 
a boat. Mashed or stewed young turnips are a good accom- 
panying vegetable. 

LAMB OR MUTTON CHOPS. 

Trim off the skin and fat and scrape the bone bare for an 
inch and a half or two inches from the end, making as it 
were a handle for the edible part of the chop. Flatten with 
the potato-beetle or the broad side of a hatchet, and broil 
quickly upon a greased gridiron, turning several times. Pep- 
per and salt and send in upon a hot dish, the chops over- 
lapping one another neatly. Or, you may ring the chops 
about a mound of green peas or mashed potatoes, circling all 
with parsley or nasturtiums. A showy dish of chops is made 
by twisting frills of fringed white paper about the bare bone 
left at the end of each. 



MEATS. 97 

BEEADED CHOPS. 

Trim and flatten, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in 
egg and then in cracker-dust, and fry to a fine brown in deep 
boiling fat. Drain and serve dry and hot. 

STUFFED MUTTON CHOPS. 

Make a white roux of a tablespoonful of butter and the 
same of flour. When it has thickened well, stir in a scant 
half-cupful of stock; mix thoroughly until it bubbles; add 
half a cupful of chopped almonds, or, if you prefer, mush- 
rooms, and season to taste. Boil up once and let it get cold 
and stiff. The chops should be tender, Juicy, and cut twice 
as thick as for ordinary uses. Split each horizontally clear 
to the bone, leaving that to hold it together, and fill the slit 
with the cold paste. Close the sides upon it and quilt a 
wooden toothpick through the edges to hold them together, 
and broil slowly over clear coals, turning often for ten min- 
utes. Withdraw the skewers, and dish upon a bed of green 
peas. 

EOAST LEG OF LAMB. 

Put into the covered roaster, dash a cupful of boiling 
water over it, cover and cook about fifteen minutes to the 
pound. Twenty minutes before taking it up, take off the 
cover, rub all over with butter, dredge with pepper, salt, and 
flour, and brown. Serve with mint sauce. Green peas are 
always the nicest accompanying vegetable with mutton and 
lamb. Asparagus is the next choice. 

BOILED MUTTON. 

Plunge the meat into a kettle of salted water that is 
boiling hard; lift it for fifteen minutes to the side of the 
range. After this cook slowly fifteen minutes to the pound. 
Half an hour before you are ready to serve it, drop in a 
minced carrot, a turnip, a small onion — both sliced — a stick 
of celery and a little parsley, also a sprig of mint, and let all 
cook together. Take up the meat, wash over with butter 
and keep covered m^ tpt. Strain out enough of the liquor to 



98 MEATS. 

serre as a foundation for a white sauce, and set away the 
rest for soup stock. Set the reserved liquor in cold water 
to throw up the fat, skim, and thicken with a white roux; 
stir in a great spoonful of capers and serve in a boat. Lamb 
should never be boiled. 

STEWED LAMB AND GREEN PEAS. 

Buy three pounds of the coarser parts of the lamb; cut 
into inch lengths and dredge with flour. Have ready in a 
sauce-pan two tablespoonfuls of good dripping, and when it 
hisses put in half a sliced onion, and fry to a light brown. 
Skim out the onion . and put in the meat, cooking for five 
minutes and turning often to keep it from sticking to the 
bottom of the pan. Then add a cupful of boiling water, or 
weak stock, cover closely and cook gently for one hour. Add 
then a generous cupful of green peas. Canned will do, but 
the fresh are better. Stew for twenty minutes longer, or 
until the peas are tender, add a tablcspoonful of brown roux, 
boil up once, and pour upon slices of toast that have been 
soaked in hot tomato sauce. A cheap and a savory dish. 

IRISH STEW. 

The coarser pieces of mutton or lamb may be advantage- 
ously utilized in the manufacture of what is an excellent and 
popular dish when rightly compounded, and a disgrace to 
civilized kitchens as usually put together. Cut three pounds 
of mutton, which must be lean, into pieces of uniform size, 
and not more than an inch square. Heat two tablespoonfuls 
of butter or beef dripping in a saucepan, brown a large sliced 
onion in it and put in the meat. Turn it over and over until 
coated with the fat, and slightly browned, add enough cold 
water to cover the meat an inch deep, put on a tightly fitting 
top, and stew two hours, or until the meat is very tender. 
Have ready in another vessel four potatoes, sliced thin, a car- 
rot cut into dice, a tom.ato cut into bits, a stalk of celery 
minced, and a tablcspoonful of chopped parsley. Cook fifteen 
minutes, drain off and throw away the water, put the par- 
boiled vegetables into the stew and season to taste. Cook 
very gently half an hour longer, take up meat and vegetables 
with a perforated spoon and arrange upon a flat dish, the 



MEATS. 99 

meat in the centre, the vegetables on the outside. Cover, and 
keep hot. Add to the gravy in the saucepan a cupful of 
canned or fresh peas boiled tender ("left-overs" will do), 
with half a cupful of hot milk in which has been stirred a 
teaspoonful of cornstarch, cook five minutes and pour over 
the meat and vegetables. 

" A DAINTY DISH." 

One dozen tender French chops (lamb or mutton). Three 
cepes (large mushrooms). Salt, pepper, one beaten egg. 
Cracker-dust. Fat for frying. Flatten and trim the chops, 
divide each cepe into four strips, make a hole with the point 
of a knife in the thickest part of each chop and thrust through 
it a slice of the mushroom. Pepper and salt, dip in raw 
beaten egg, coat with cracker-crumbs and set in a cold place 
for one hour. Fry them in deep fat to a fine brown. 

HUNTEES' BEEF. 

Take a round of beef, bone and bind tight; if large rub 
into it a quarter of a pound of saltpetre, powdered; let it 
stand a day; then season it with half a pound of common 
salt, one ounce of black pepper, half a pound of brown sugar 
and an ounce of allspice ; a little cayenne is an improvement , 
let it remain in the pickle a fortnight, turning it every day, 
(and about three times a week add a small quantity of common 
salt) then wash off the salt and spice and put in a granite 
or tin dishpan deep enough to cover the beef entirely; lay 
some beef suet at the bottom and a great deal at the top: 
put in a pint of water and cover it with a thick crust, seven 
or eight hours will bake it; when it comes out of the oven 
pour off the gravy; do not cut it till cold; it will keep good 
three months. 

BOILED HAM. (VIRGINIA STYLE.) 

For a twelve-pound ham, take a cup of molasses, one cup 
of vinegar and a few pieces of stick cinnamon, and stir these 
insredients into the water in which the ham is to be boiled. 
Then put in the ham and boil slowly three hours. Leave the 
liam in the water until it is lukewarm. Then take it out and 
skin. Cover with bread crumbs and put in a pan in the oven, 
with one cup of vinegar, and bake one hour. 



100 MEATS. 

JELLIED VEAL. 

Cover with water and cook a shank of veal slowly until 
the meat comes easily from the bones. Season with salt and 
pepper. Meanwhile hard-boil two eggs; chill in cold water. 
Moisten a mould, cut the eggs in slices and lay in the bot- 
tom. Take out the bones and gristle and pour the remainder 
on the eggs. Put in a cool place, or on ice, and it will jelly 
quickly. Cost, not twenty-five cents. 

LIVEK AND MUSHROOMS. 

To make stewed liver and mushrooms, take half a pound 
of calves' liver, one pound of mushrooms, three ounces of 
bacon, one ounce of flour. Fry the liver and bacon and the 
mushrooms separately. Put all into a stewpan with half a 
pint of stock and simmer for one hour and serve with fried 
bread. 

STEWED KIDNEYS, WITH WINE. 

Slice the kidneys, after they have been soaked in cold 
water ; wipe dry and roll in flour. Have ready in a saucepan 
a little butter in which has been fried a slice of onion. Lay 
i.- the kidneys; roll them over and over, coating them with 
the butter, for two minutes — no more — and pour in a cupful 
of boiling water or heated stock. Simmer not longer than 
ten or twelve minutes. Take them up and lay upon a hot 
dish; add to the gravy a tablespoonful of catsup, a dash of 
paprica or cayenne, and salt, a small tablespoonful of butter 
that has been rolled in browned flour, and when it has boiled 
up, a generous glass of sherry or claret. Pour over the kid- 
neys and serve. 

DEVILED KIDNEYS. 

Slice and take out hard centres and fat. Have ready, 
beaten to a cream, a tablespoonful of butter, an even tea- 
spoonful of mustard, a pinch of paprica or cayenne, a little 
salt, and a teaspoonful of lemon juice. Melt, without really 
heating the mixture; coat each slice with it, roll in cracker- 
dust, and broil, turning often. They should be done in eight 
minutes. Put a few drops of the deviled sauce upon each, 
and send to table. 



MEATS. 101 

KIDNEYS WITH BACON. 

Split lamb kidneys in half and fasten open with toothpicks. 
Cook in a frying-pan thin slices of fat breakfast bacon until 
clear, but not crisped. Take up and keep hot while you cook 
the kidneys in the bacon-fat, turning them frequently. Six 
minutes should make them tender. Long cooking toughens 
them. Arrange upon thin slices of toast in a dish, garnish 
with the bacon, add a teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce to 
the gravy and pour over the kidneys. 

TOASTED KIDNEYS. 

Cut each one of three kidneys into three pieces, and lay 
upon a very hot tin plate in front of a hot fire, where a clear 
glow will fall upon them. Have ready thin slices of fat bacon, 
hold each slice upon a fork close to the red grate so that the 
gravy will drip upon a slice of kidney below. Having toasted 
all the bacon, lay it upon a second hot plate, taking up the 
first and draining off every drop of gravy over the bacon. 
Now toast the kidneys over the bacon. When no more juice 
drips from each kidney it is done. Lay each in turn upon a 
slice of toast, in a hot dish, garnish with the bacon, sprinkle 
with pepper and pour the gravy over the kidneys. Serve hot. 

STUFFED KIDNEYS. 

Split the kidneys lengthwise, leaving enough meat and 
skin on one side to serve as a hinge. Hub well inside with 
melted butter, and broil them, back downward, over a bright 
fire for eight minutes. Have ready a stuffing of bread crumbs, 
cooked salt pork, parsley and butter, seasoned with pepper, 
salt, and onion-juice. Heat in a double boiler, stir in the 
juice of a half a lemon, fill the kidneys with the mixture, run 
a toothpick through the outer edges or lips to keep in the 
stuffing, pepper them and serve with sauce piquante. 

BOSTON POEK AND BEANS. 

Soak the beans over night in cold water, changing this in 
the morning for warm, an hour later for hot. Put over the 
fire half an hour afterwards, in boiling salted water, and cook 
until tender, but not broken. Drain them then, and put 
into a deep dish or bean-pot, bury a piece of pork (parboiled) 



102 MEATS. 

in the centre. Stir into a large cupful of boiling water half a 
teaspoonful of dry mustard, half as much extract of celery 
or celery salt, . and a tablcspoonf ul of molasses, and pour this 
over the pork and beans. Cover closely, set in the oven and 
bake slowly from four to six hours according to size of the pot. 
This is the best recipe for the preparation of an ancient and 
honorable dish. In olden times the bean-pot stood all of Sat- 
urday night in the brick oven, and was in mellow prime at 
breakfast time on the Sabbath day. Serve Boston brown 
bread with it always. The two are indissolubly wedded. 

EOAST POEK. 

The leg, the loin, the shoulder, and the chine are usually 
roasted, and the method is the same with each. The skin is 
scored in squares, or in parallel lines, the knife just cutting 
tlirough to the flesh. Put into the roaster, dash a cup of 
boiling water over it; heat gradually until the fat begins to 
run, when quicken the fire. Baste often and abundantly, that 
the skin m.ay be tender, even when crisp. Allow at least 
twenty minutes to the pound. The old-fashioned Virginia 
cook — and there were none better in her day — ^rubbed well into 
the deep lines made by the knife in the rind a force-meat of 
crumbs, sage and onions, seasoned with pepper, salt, a little 
grated lemon-peel, and the Juice of a lemon. This was done 
before the meat went into the oven and the cracks were well 
filled. Serve apple sauce with roast pork, or Chili sauce, or 
catsup, or a good bread sauce. Sharp condiments go well 
with it and arouse the digestive organs to their work. 

POEK CHOPS. 

Cut off the skin, trim neatly and dip in beaten egg, then 
in cracker-crumbs seasoned with salt, pepper, powdered sage, 
and finely minced onion. Set in a cold place for an hour or 
more and fry in hot fat, turning often, for at least twenty 
minutes. Send in dry and hot, and serve with apple sauce. 

POEK STEAKS, TENDEELOINS AND SPAEE EIBS. 

Broil over a clear fire, turning every two minutes for 
twenty or twenty-five minutes. Lay upon a hot dish and dust 
with pepper and salt and powdered sage. Sprinkle with 



MEATS. 103 

onion-juice and with lemon-juice, and drop bits of butter 
here and there. Cover closely over hot water for ten minutes 
before sending to table. 

POEK POT-PIE. 

Cut two pounds of lean pork into pieces an inch long and 
half an inch wide; cover with cold water, put in some thin 
slices of peeled lemon, a little chopped parsley and minced 
celery, and stew slowly half an hour. Add, then, four pota- 
toes, sliced very thin and parboiled for ten minutes in an- 
other vessel. Season with pepper and salt and dredge in a 
tablespoonful of flour. A tablespoonful of catsup is an im- 
provement. Cover closely and cook until the meat is ready 
to drop to pieces. Stir in a tablespoonful of butter, rolled in 
flour, boil up and put the pork into a covered deep dish, leav- 
ing the gravy in the saucepan. Have ready some strips of 
biscuit-dough, two inches long and half an inch wide, drop 
them into the boiling gravy and cook ten minutes. Lay half 
of them across the meat in one direction, the rest in another, 
making squares all over it ; pour in the gravy gently and send 
to table; or you can cut the biscuit-dough round with a cake- 
cutter and bake these rounds in the oven by the time the pork- 
stew is done. Put meat and gravy upon a deep platter and 
cover with the hot biscuits laid closely together. They are 
more wholesome than boiled dough. 

YORKSHIRE PORK-PIE. 

Chop lean pork somewhat coarsely ; butter a pudding-dish 
and line with a good paste ; put in the pork interspersed with 
minced onion and hard-boiled eggs, cut into bits and sprinkle 
with pepper, salt, and powdered sago. Now and then dust 
with flour and drop in a bit of butter. When all the meat 
is in, dredge with flour and stick small pieces of butter quite 
thickly all over it. Cover with puff-paste, cut a slit in the 
middle of the crust and bake half an hour for each pound of 
meat. When it begins to brown, wash the crust with the 
white of an egg. It will give a fine gloss to it. 



104 MEATS. 

BOILED HAM. 

The best ham to select is one weighing from eight to ten 
pounds. Take one that is not too fat, to save waste. Soak 
all night; wash it carefully before you put it on to boil, re- 
moving rust or mould with a small, stiff scrubbing-brush. 
Lay it in a large boiler and pour over it enough cold water 
to cover it. To this add a bay-leaf, half a dozen cloves, a 
couple of blades of mace, a teaspoonful of sugar, and, if you 
can get it, a good handful of fresh, sweet hay. Let the water 
heat very gradually, not reaching the boil under two hours. 
It should never boil hard, but simmer gently until the ham 
has cooked fifteen minutes to every pound. It must cool in 
the liquor, and the skin should not be removed until the meat 
is entirely cold, taking care not to break or tear the fat. 
Brush over the ham with beaten egg, strew it thickly with 
very fine bread-crumbs, or fine cracker-dust, and brown in a 
quick oven. Arrange a frill of paper around the bone of the 
&hank, and surround the meat with water-cress, or garnish 
the dish with parsley. 

STUFFED HAM. 

Soak the ham over night and scrub well in the morning. 
Eun a narrow sharp knife along the bone, loosening the meat 
for the whole length; shake and pull the bone while doing 
this until you can withdraw it. Then dig out the flat bone 
from the butt-end of the ham. With a fair degree of patience 
the process is not difiicult. Fill the cavity left by the bones 
with a stuflfing of bread-crumbs, seasoned with pepper, butter, 
onion, and Worcestershire sauce. Pack it in well and sew 
the ham tightly into shape in mosquito-netting. Cover with 
cold water in which have been stirred two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar, and cook twenty minutes to the pound after the 
boil begins. Leave the ham in the water until it is lukewarm, 
take it out and put to press under an inverted dish with a 
heavy weight on top. Leave it thus for eight or ten hours; 
take off the cloth, and then the skin. Dot the top with black 
pepper, or Hungarian sweet red pepper (paprica) using the 
tip of the middle finger to make the impressions. If you can 
arrange the dots in a pattern the effect will be pleasing. 
Send to table surrounded by a garland of asparagus tops and 



MEATS. 105 

nasturtium flowers, or parsley and marigolds. This is a 
delightful preparation of ham, suitable for luncheon or Sun- 
day evening suppers. 

BAKED HAM. 

Soak, wash, and parboil the ham, twelve minutes to the 
pound. Skin as soon as you can handle it, and staunch the 
flow of juices by rubbing flour into it. Put into a good 
oven; slice an onion, mince a carrot and a fresh tomato, and 
lay about the meat, pour in half a cupful of hot water to pre- 
vent burning, cover closely, and bake twelve minutes to the 
pound. During this time baste the ham four times with 
Madeira or sherry or other pale wine, using two glasses in all, 
and four times with the pan-gravy. Have ready some brown- 
ed cracker-crumbs and sift them thickly over the ham when 
done. Leave it in the oven until firm and evenly colored. 

If the ham is eaten hot, make a sauce by rubbing the 
gravy through a colander and thickening it with browned 
flour. If cold, put aside the pan-liquor for sauce for some 
other dish. It is too good to be wasted. Champagne sauce 
is an excellent accompaniment to baked ham. 

COENED BEEF HASH. 

Chop fine cold boiled corned beef; to one pint meat add 
one pint and a little more of cold boiled potatoes, chopped, 
though not too fine; a little onion can be used if liked; have 
ready a pan with a good piece of butter in it, put in hash, 
season with pepper and salt, then add rich milk or cream, 
enough to moisten. Cover and make hot. 

BEEF LOAF. 

Three pounds of beefsteak, chopped fine; fifteen soda 
biscuits (well rolled), half a cupful of sweet milk, half a 
cupful of butter, one teaspoonful of salt and pepper, two 
eggs. Mix well in a loaf and bake two hours. 

RIS DE VEAIJ A CAS SUPREME 

Steep the sweetbreads in water for an hour; then blanch 
them, and press between two dishes. When cold, cut away 
any sinews or fat, and place them in a stewpan with a little 



106 MEATS. 

onion, celery, and stock of white sauce. Braise for twenty or 
thirty minutes, then take out of saucepan and put into the 
oven to brown, and baste with its own liquor. Serve on fried 
bread, sauce around with truflies and mushrooms or peas. 

TO GLAZE A HAM OE TONGUE. 

Put one ounce of glaze and one tablespoonful of boiling 
water into saucepan over fire till melted, and brush it over 
ham or tongue; two coats if not dark enough. Beat one 
quarter of a pound of butter to a cream. Put into icing 
tubes and ornament with it. 

DEVILED KIDNEYS. 
(Breakfast Dish.) 

Cut the kidneys in thin round slices, cover them with 
cold water; let stand half an hour, then wash them clean and 
put in stew-pan with one quart of water or stock, a clove, 
four teaspoonfuls of onion-juice, salt and pepper. Simmer 
two hours or longer if not tender. Set away, and for break- 
fast put one tablespoonful of butter in frying-pan ; when hot 
add one tablespoonful of flour. Stir till brown and smooth. 

VEAL PATTL 

Three pounds of veal (or beef), no gristle or fat, chop- 
ped very fine or minced. Mix with it five tablespoonfuls of 
cracker-crumbs, one tablespoonful of melted butter, one tea- 
spoonful of pepper, one tablespoonful of salt, half a cup of 
milk or cream, two eggs, beaten. Form into a loaf and cover 
with cracker-crumbs; put in the oven, with a little water in 
the pan for two hours. Baste occasionally. 

FOECEMEAT FOE VEAL, TUEKEYS, FOWLS, HAEB. 

The liver, two ounces ham or lean bacon, one-quarter 
pound suet, rind of half a lemon, teaspoonful minced parsley, 
teaspoonful minced sweet herbs, salt, cayenne, pounded 
mace, to taste, six ounces bread-crumbs, two eggs. Shred 
the ham or bacon and liver, chop the suet, lemon peel and 
herbs very fine. Add the seasoning to taste, salt, cayenne and 
mace, and blend all thoroughly together w^ith the bread-crumbs 



MEATS. 107 

before wetting. Then beat and strain the eggs, work them 
up with the other ingredients and the foremeat will be ready 
for use. 

LAMB HARICOT. 

Brown two pounds of nicely trimmed chops; brown care- 
fully a sliced onion; add a couple of carrots cut in pieces, 
pepper, salt, and a cup of hot water; cook slowly two hours. 
Add more water if necessary; thicken slightly with browned 
flour when cooked. A little minced parsley improves the 
haricot. 

GOOD BEEF STEW. 

Take a good round steak, two or three pounds ; brown well 
on both sides in butter. Then add a pint of water ; cook very 
slowly well covered two hours, then add pepper, salt and 
minced onion if liked, and cook half an hour longer. The 
addition of stoned olives and mushrooms improve this very 
much. 

BERLIN KIDNEY. 

Cut six lamb kidneys, skin and fry in butter for a few 
minutes; one cup green peas, one-half onion chopped fine, 
rich gravy with stock, one tablespoon flour, two tablespoons 
Worcester sauce. Mix all together until thoroughly heated. 

STEWED RABBIT. 

One rabbit, two large onions, six cloves, one small tea- 
spoon chopped lemon peel, a few forcemeat balls, thickening 
of butter and flour, and large tablespoonful mushroom 
catsup. Cut the rabbit into small joints, put them into a 
stewpan, add the onions sliced, and the cloves and minced 
lemon peel. Pour in sufficient water to cover the meat and 
when the rabbit is nearly done drop in a few forcemeat balls, 
to which has been added the liver finely chopped. Thicken 
the gravy with flour and butter, put in the catsup, give one 
boil and serve. Time, rather more than one-half hour. 

MOUSSE. 

One pound cooked lean ham, one pint of cream, one- 
quarter pint aspic jelly (liquid); a very little glaze, one 
liqueur of brandy ; seasoning of pepper to taste. Mode.-^Have 
ready a saucepan with the aspic just warm, mince the ham 



108 MEATS. 

and pass through a wire sieve, add it to the aspic with the 
glaze brandy and pepper, whip the cream a little thick and 
add half a pint; then whisk over a slow fire until the in- 
gredients are well mixed (do not allow it to get too hot), 
take it off the fire and slowly stir in the remaining half pint 
of cream; put a little cochineal to make the mousse a nice 
pink (the color of ham) ; pour the whole into a souffle dish 
end let it stand to get quite cold. When it is quite set, pour 
over the top a little aspic; let this also set, then ornament 
with truffles or white of egg. Sufficient for eight persons. 
Seasonable at any time. 

HUN'(^EY BOY'S LUNCH. 

Cut thick slices of bread, set in oven to get warm. Fry 
sausages in a little dripping until well browned, dredge flour 
over and when well browned pour in boiling water. Gravy 
should be thick, rich and plenty of it. Arrange three sau- 
sages on each slice and pour gravy over after putting slices 
on hot plates. A winter dish. 

SCOTCH HAGGIS. 

Procure the bag and pluck of a sheep, clean the bag very 
carefully, parboil the heart, lights and liver for an hour and 
a half. Let them cool, and then mince very fine; mince also 
a pound of fresh suet and grate the parboiled liver. Mix this 
along with two handfuls of oatmeal (previously browned in 
the oven), a few onions, black pepper, allspice and salt to 
taste. Take the bag and wash it first with cold water, then 
with boiling water. When quite clean fill in the mince, but 
do not let it be more than half full, else the bag will burst. 
Add a little of the liquid in which the meat was parboiled, 
and sew up the bag. Put it in boiling water and prick it 
frequently with a large needle to let the air escape. Boil it 
for three hours with a plate in the bottom of the pot. 

SWEETBEEADS BREADED WITH TOMATO SAUCE. 
(McConkey's). 

Prepare a batter of four eggs, one tablespoonful of flour, 
and a little pepper and salt, beat well together, turn the sweet- 
breads in this batter until they are all covered with it, turn- 
ing them afterwards in cracker dust or dry bread crumbs; 



MEATS. 109 

fry in hot boiling lard to a fine light brown color. Serve with 
tomato sauce. 

ISWEETBEEADS (McConke/s). 
To prepare sweetbreads always parboil them first. Lay 
them in cold water for about one-half hour, then skin them 
and cut them into pieces as desired. 

GALANTINE OF VEAL. 

Five pounds of breast of veal, one pound of sausage meat, 
a few walnuts, bit of cooked ham or tongue, quarter of a 
pound of grated bread-crumbs, salt, pepper, and nutmeg. 
Bones taken from the veal and veal from the bones. Mix 
with the sausage meat the bread-crumbs, nutmeg, salt, and 
pepper. Put half in the veal, then some ham cut in long 
strips, then walnuts, then more sausage meat, then ham and 
walnuts. Tuck the veal over it and sew up. Tie up in a 
cloth very firmly at ends and stitch cloth at top. Put into 
boiling water and boil for two and a half hours. After it is 
boiled put betAveen two boards to press. 

Glaze for Galantine. — Half ounce gelatine, one cup of 
cstock, a drop of carmine. Brush the veal over with this 
glaze two or three times. 

HEAD CHEESE. 
Take a half dozen pigs' feet and two hocks, clean thor- 
oughly and cut in pieces, and put them in a large pot, and 
cover them with cold water. WHien the hocks are very tender 
remove them and cut up the meat in small pieces, but do 
not use the fat. Let the pigs' feet cook on, adding a good 
large onion, and let them reduce. Strain the juice and add 
it to the meat of the hocks. Put in pepper and salt to taste, 
and cinnamon and cloves to taste. Put all back in the pot 
to simmer a few minutes. Add two tablespoonfuls of sherry 
or more according to taste, and put into moulds. 

BACON. 

Select in buying rather thick bacon, with small streaks of 
lean — not too dry and brown in the rind, and pleasantly 
scented with smoke. To get the sort of bacon which will 
tempt the appetite when served one must buy Avith great 
care. Keep cool and dry, and, to broil, slice thin, as directed 



110 MEATS. 

above, and lie on broiler until it begins to curl. To fry, dust 
with flour and fr}' quickly in greased pan. To cook in very 
wholesome manner, put slices in meat pan in the ^ven until 
clarified, then dish on hot platter. . To boil with cabbage or 
greens, cook for half an liour, then put in greens, and boil 
another half hour. Take out and remove rind at once, 
sprinkle a little flour and put under the gas broiler or in a 
hot oven to form light crust over fat. Dish with greens ar- 
ranged about it, or place greens in vegetable dish with dash 
of vinegar and poached eggs, or hard boiled eggs in slices, on 
them. 

VEAL AND HAM PIE. 
Two pounds veal cutlets, half a pound boiled ham. one 
sweetbread, one tablespoonful of mixed savory herbs, a little 
grated nutmeg, a little mace, pepper and salt, a strip of 
lemon peel, finely minced, the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs, 
a few mushrooms, half a pint of water, nearly half a pint oC 
good strong gravy; pufE crust. Cut the veal into square 
pieces and put a layer on the bottom of the dish. Add some 
of tbe sweetbread (which has been parboiled), some of the 
mushrooms cut up and a portion of the herbs, etc., and a 
layer of the ham cut very thin ; proceed in this manner until 
the dish is full, having the ham on top. Lay the puff paste 
on the edge of the dish and pour in the half pint of water; 
cover with the crust and ornament it with leaves, brush over 
with the yolk of an "egg, and bake from an hour to one and 
a half hours. When it is taken out of the oven pour in at 
the top through a funnel nearly half a pint of strong gravy; 
this should be strong enough to be a firm jelly when cold. 

CASSEEOLE OF EOAST MUTTON. 

From a cold leg of mutton cut slices not too thick and 
free from fat, sprinkle these very sparingly with 
flour, cayenne and salt. Pour a teacupful of melted 
butter into a pudding mould, shake it well until the sides 
are completely covered. Have ready a dish of mashed pota- 
toes prepared with cream, mace, etc. ; line the mould half an 
inch thick with potatoes, fill up with the slices of mutton and 
a good layer of potatoes for the bottom, tie writing paper over 
it, and bake for an hour; turn out the contents; a gravy 
poured round it is an improvement. 



POULTRY AND GAME. 



In choosing poultry, select those that are fresh and fat, 
and the surest way to determine whether they are young, is 
to try the skin under the leg or wing. If it is easily broken, 
it is young; or, turn the wing backwards; if the joint yields 
readily it is tender. When poultry is young the skin is thin 
and tender, the legs smooth, the feet moist and limber, and the 
eyes full and bright. The body should be thick and the breast 
fat. Old turkeys have long hairs, and the flesh is purplish 
where it shows under the skin on the legs and back. About 
March they deteriorate in quality. 

Young ducks and geese are plump, with light, semi-trans- 
parent fat, soft breast bone, tender flesh, leg-joints which will 
break by the weight of the bird, fresh-colored and brittle 
beaks, and wind-pipes that break when pressed between the 
thumb and forefinger. They are best in fall and winter. 

Young pigeons have light red flesh upon the breast, and 
full, fresh-colored legs ; when the legs are thin and the breast 
very dark the birds are old. 

Fine game birds arc always heavy for their size; the flesh 
of the breast is firm and plump, and the skin clear; and if 
a few feathers be plucked from the inside of the leg and 
around the vent, the flesh of freshly-killed birds will be fat 
and fresh-colored; if it is dark and discolored, the game 
has been hung a long time. The wings of good ducks, geese, 
pheasants, and woodcock are tender to the touch; the tips 
of the long wing feathers of partridges are pointed in young 
birds and round in old ones. Quail, snipe and small birds 
sliould have full, tender breasts. Poultry should never be 
cooked until six or eight hours after it has been killed, but 
it should bo picked and drawn as soon as possible. Plunge 
it in a pot of scalding hot water ; then pluck off the feathers, 
taking care not to tear the skin ; when it is picked clean, roll 
up a piece of white paper, set fire to it, and singe off all the 
hairs. 



112 POULTRY AND GAME. 

Fowls, and also various kinds of game, when bought at 
our city markets, require a more thorough cleansing than those 
sold in country places, where as a general thing the meat is 
wholly dressed. In large cities they lay for some length of 
time with the intestines undrawn, until the flavor of them 
diffuses itself all through the meat, rendering it distasteful. 
In this case, it is safe after taking out the intestines, to rinse 
out in several waters, and in next to the last water, add a 
teaspoonful of baking soda; say to a quart of water. This 
process neutralizes all sourness, and helps to destroy all un- 
pleasant taste in the meat. 

Poultry may be baked so that its wings and legs are soft 
and tender, by being placed in a deep roasting pan with close 
cover, thereby retaining the aroma and essences by absorption 
while confined. These pans are a recent innovation, and are 
made double with a small opening in the top for giving vent 
to the accumulation of steam and gases when required. Koast 
meats of any kind can also be cooked in the same manner, and 
it is a great improvement on the old plan. 

EOAST TURKEY. 

Select a young turkey, remove all the feathers carefully, 
singe it over a burning newspaper on the top of the stove; 
then " draw " it nicely, being very careful not to break any 
of the internal organs; remove the crop carefully; cut off 
the neck close to the body. Now rinse the inside of the 
turkey out with several waters, and in the next to the last, 
mix a teaspoonful of baking soda ; oftentimes the inside of a 
fowl is very sour, especially if it is not freshly killed. Now, 
after washing, wipe the turkey dry, inside and out, with a 
clean cloth, rub the inside with some salt, then stuff the breast 
and body with " Dressing for Fowls." Then sew up the 
turkey with a strong thread, tie the legs and wings to the 
body, rub it over with a little soft butter, sprinkle over some 
salt and pepper, dredge with a little flour ; place it in a drip- 
ping pan, pour in a cup of boiling water, and set it in the 
oven. Baste the turkey often, turning it round occasionally 
so that every part will be uniformly baked. Wlien pierced 
with a fork and the liquid runs out perfectly clear, the bird 
ie done. If any part is likely to scorch, pin over it a piece of 



POULTRY AND GAME. 113 

buttered white paper. A fifteen-pound turkey requires be- 
tween three and four hours to bake. Serve with cranberry 
sauce. 

Qravy for Turlcetj. — When you put the turkey in to roast 
put the neekj heart, liver and gizzard into a stew-pan with 
a pint of water; boil until they become quite tender; take 
them out of the water, chop the heart and gizzard, mash the 
liver and throw away the neck; return the chopped heart, 
gizzard and liver to the liquor in which they were stewed: 
set to one side, and when the turkey is done it should be added 
to the gravy that dripped from the turkey, having first poured 
off the fat from the surface of the dripping-pan; set it all 
over the fire, boil three minutes and thicken with flour. It 
will not need brown flour to color the gravy. The garnishes 
for turkey or chicken are fried oysters, rashers of bacon, slices 
of lemon, fried sausages, force-meat balls, also parsley. 

DRESSING OR STUFFING FOR FOWLS. 

For an eight or ten-pound turkey, cut the brown crust 
from slices or pieces of stale bread until you have as much as 
the inside of a pound loaf; put it into a suitable dish, and 
pour tepid water (not warm, for that makes it heavy) over 
it; let it stand one minute, as it soaks very quickly. Now 
take up a handful at a time and squeeze it hard and dry with 
both hands, placing it as you go along, in another dish; this 
process makes it very light. When all is pressed dry, toss it 
all up lightly through your fingers; now add pepper, salt,— 
about a teaspoonful — also a teaspoonful of powdered sum- 
mer savory, the same amount of sage, or the green herb minced 
fine; add a little melted butter, and a beaten egg. Work 
thoroughly all together, and it is ready for dressing either 
fowls, fish or meats. A little chopped sausage and the finest 
possible paring of lemon-peel in turkey dressing is an im- 
provement, when well incorporated with the other ingre- 
dients. 

OYSTER DRESSING OR STUFFING. 

This is made with the same ingredients as the above, with 
the exception of half a can of oysters drained, and slightly 
*8 



114 POULTRY AND GAME. 

chopped and added to the rest. This is used mostly with 
boiled turkey and chicken, and the remainder of the can of 
oysters used to make an oyster sauce to be poured over the 
turkey when served, and also served in a separate dish. 

These recipes were obtained from an old colored cook, who 
was famous for his line dressings for fowls, fish and meats, 
and his advice was, always soak stale bread in cold liquid, 
either milk or water, when used for stuffing or puddings, as 
they were much lighter. Hot liquid makes them heavy, 

EOASTED BONED CHICKEN. 

Spread the boned chicken on a board, the skin side down ; 
turn the flesh of the legs and wings right side out, and stuff 
tbem with forcemeat into shape. Equalize the meat as well 
as possible, placing the mignon fillets, or little strips of white 
meat, next the bone, over the dark meat, etc. ; dredge with salt 
and pepper. Make a roll of the stuffing or forcemeat and lay 
it in the chicken. Draw the skin up, and sew it together 
securely. Turn it over, place the legs and wings into the 
position of a trussed fowl, press the body into natural shape, 
and tie it securely; or it may be pressed into the form of a 
duck or rabbit. Cover with slices of salt pork, and roast in 
oven, allowing twenty minutes to the pound ; baste frequently. 
Eemove the pork the last fifteen minutes, dredge with flour, 
and let it brown. Serve with giblet or tomato sauce. 

BRAISED BONED CHICKEN. 

To braise the chicken prepared as above, roll it lightly in 
a piece of cheese cloth, tying the ends well. Put in a sauce- 
pan the bones of the chicken, a slice of carrot and onion, a 
bouquet containing parsley, one bay leaf, three cloves, twelve 
pepper-corns, celery if convenient, and a knuckle of veal. 
Add enough water to cover the bed of vegetables and bones; 
lay in the chicken; cover the pot, and let it simmer for four 
hours. 

JELLIED BONED CHICKEN. 

A braised boned chicken may be served hot, or it may be 
set aside to cool, then jellied as follows : Strain the water in 



POULTRY AND GAME. 115 

which the chicken was braised, and let it cool ; then remove 
the grease and clarify the liquor; season it highly. If veal 
has been used, and the liquor jellies, it may be used as it is. 
ir veal has not been used, add gelatine soaked in cold water, 
observing the proportion of one bo^t of gelatine to one and a 
half quarts of liquor. Mask a mould with jelly; when the 
jelly is set, put in the chicken, and add enough liquid jelly to 
entirely cover it. Or, on the bottom of the mould, made a de- 
coration of either truffles, ham, capers, gherkins, or any com- 
bination suitable; fix it with a thin layer of jelly; when hard- 
ened, add enough more to make a layer of jelly one-quarter 
01 an inch thick, and when that is hardened lay in the chicken, 
and surround it with the liquid jelly. Garnish the dish on 
which the jellied chicken is served with lettuce, and serve 
with it a Mayonnaise, Bearnaise, or Tartare sauce. 

When the chicken is to be jellied, use enough water in the 
braising pot to give three pints of liquor after the cooking is 
done. 

FOKCEMEAT POE STUFFING BONED FOWLS. 

Use the meat of another fowl, or veal, or pork, or a mix- 
ture. Chop them fine, and add to the minced meat one cup- 
ful of bread or cracker crumbs, and, if convenient, a little 
chopped boiled ham or tongue, and a few lardoons of pork. 
Season with the following articles, and moisten the whole 
with stock: One tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one tea- 
spoonful of onion juice, one-quarter teaspoonful of pepper, 
one teaspoonful thyme, one teaspoonful of salt. If veal is 
u5-ed, take it from the knuckle, and use the bone in the brais- 
ing pot, as it will give a good jelly. 

TO TEUSS A FOWL. 

When the fowl is wiped, singed, and drawn, put in the 
stuffing ; place a little in the opening at the neck, the rest in 
the body, and sew up the opening. Draw the skin of the neck 
smoothly down and under the back, press the wings close 
against the body, and fold the pinions under, crossing the 
back and holding down the skin of the neck. Press the legs 
close to the body, and slip them under the skin as much as 



116 POULTRY AND GAME. 

possible. Thread the trussing needle with white twine, using 
it double. Press the needle through the wing by the middle 
joint, pass it through the skin of the neck and back, and out 
again at the middle joint of the other wing. Eeturn the 
needle through the bend of the leg at the second joint, through 
the body and out at the same point on the other side ; draw the 
cord tight, and tie it with the end at the wing joint. Thread 
the needle again, and run it through the legs and body at the 
thigh bone, and back at the ends of the drumsticks. Draw the 
drumsHck bones close together, covering the opening made for 
drawing the fowl, and tie the ends. Have both knots on the 
same side of the fowl. When cooked, cut the cord on the 
opposite side, and by the knots it can easily be drawn out. 

EOASTED CHICKEN. 

A roasted chicken may be stuffed or not. If stuffing is 
used it should only half fill the chicken. Truss it as directed 
above, or use skewers, doubling a cord across the back and 
around the ends of the skewers to hold them in place. A 
roasted or boiled chicken is not presentable, which has not 
been securely fastened into good shape before being cooked. 
Dredge the chicken with salt and pepper, and place it on 
slices of salt pork in a baking pan; add a very little water, 
and bake in hot oven, allowing fifteen minutes to the pound ; 
baste frequently. White meat must be well cooked, but not 
dried. Fifteen minutes before it is done, rub it over the top 
and sides with butter, dredge it with flour, and replace it in 
the oven until it becomes a golden brown and looks crisp. 
Draw out the trussing cords, and garnish with parsley. Serve 
with it a giblet sauce. Do not use a tough chicken for roast- 
ing; one a year old is about right. A roasting chicken may 
be larded if desired. 

STUFFING FOR FOWLS. 

Moisten a cupful of bread crumbs with a tablespoonful of 
melted butter; season highly with salt, pepper, thyme, 
chopped parsley, and onion juice; or put in a saucepan a 
tablespoonful of butter and fry in it one minced onion; then 
add one cupful of soaked bread, the water being pressed out, 



POULTRY AND GAME. 117 

one-half cupful of stock, one teaspoonful of salt, one-half 
teaspoonful each of pepper and thyme, and one-half cupful 
ox celery cut into small pieces. Stir it until it leaves th« sides 
of the pan. 

CHESTNUT STUFFING. 

Shell a quart of large French chestnuts. Put them in hot 
water and hoil until the skins are softened ; then drain off the 
water and remove the skins. Eeplace the blanched chestnuts 
in water, and boil until soft. Take out a few at a time, and 
press them through a colander or a potato press. They mash 
more easily when hot. Season the mashed chestnuts with a 
tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter 
of a teaspoonful of pepper. Some cooks add a tablespoonful 
of chopped parsley, and moisten it with a little stock. Some 
add, also, a few bread crumbs. The dressing is best seasoned 
only with butter, salt, and pepper. 

GIBLET SAUCE. 

Boil the giblets until tender ; chop them, but not very fine ; 
add a tablespoonful of flour to the pan in which the chicken 
was roasted; let it brown, stirring constantly; add slowly a 
cupful of water in which the giblets were boiled ; season with 
salt and pepper ; strain and add the chopped giblets ; serve in 
a sauceboat. The liver is a tidbit, and should be roasted and 
served with the chicken, instead of being used in the sauce. 

BOILED CHICKEN. 

A chicken too old to roast is very good when boiled. Truss 
the chicken firmly. It is well also to tie it in a piece of cheese- 
cloth, to keep it in good shape. It may be stuffed or not. 
Boiled rice seasoned with butter, pepper, and salt, or celery 
cut in small pieces, is better to use for boiled chicken than 
bread stuffing. Put the chicken into boiling salted water and 
simmer, allowing twenty minutes to the pound; when done, 
remove the cloth and cords carefully, spread a little white 
sauce over the breast, and sprinkle it with chopped parsley. 
Garnish with parsley, and serve with it egg, oyster, or Bear- 
naise sauce. 



118 POULTRY AND GAME. 

BEAISED CHICKEN. 

A fowl too old to roast may be made tender and good by 
braising, and present the same appearance as a roasted 
chicken. Prepare it as for roasting, trussing it into good 
shape. Cut into dice a carrot, turnip, onion, and stalk of 
celery; put them in a pot with a few slices of salt pork, and 
on them place the fowl, with a few pieces of salt pork laid 
over the breast ; add a bouquet of parsley, one bay-leaf, three 
cloves, six peppercorns, also a teaspoonful of salt, and a pint 
of hot water. Cover the pot closely and let simmer for three 
hours. If any steam escapes, a little more water may have 
to be added. When done, rub a little butter over the breast, 
dredge with flour, and place in the oven a few minutes to 
brown. Strain the liquor from the braising pot, season to 
taste, and if necessary thicken with a little butter and flour 
browned ; serve it with the chicken as sauce. 

BEOILED CHICKEN. 

Young spring chickens only are used for broiling. Split 
them down the back, remove the entrails and the breast bone, 
wipe them clean, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and rub them 
with soft butter. Place them on a broiler over a slow fire, the 
inside down; cover with a pan, and let cook for twenty min- 
utes to twenty-five minutes. Turn, to let the skin side brown 
when nearly done. Place them on a hot dish, and spread 
them with maitre d'hotel butter; garnish with parsley or 
Avatercress and thin slices of lemon. 

FRICASSEE. 

Cut a chicken into eleven pieces: two drumsticks, two 
second joints, two wings, two breasts, three back pieces. Put 
the pieces in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of butter 
01- drippings; let them brown slightly on both sides, but use 
care that they do not burn; when a little colored, add enough 
boiling water to cover them ; add a bouquet of herbs, salt and 
pepper, and a few slices of salt pork. Simmer until tender. 
Arrange the pieces neatly on a dish, using the best ones out- 
side, and pour over them a gravy made as follows: Strain 
tfee liquor from the pot and take off the fat. Make a white 



POULTRY AND GAME. 119 

sauce of one tablcspoonfiil of butter and two of flour and 
a cupful of the liquor from the pot; season to taste; re- 
move from the fire, and when a little cool add a cupful of 
cream or milk beaten up with two or three yolks of eggs. 
Place again on the fire until the eggs are a little thickened, 
but do not let it boil, or they will curdle. A tablespoonful of 
sherry may be added, if liked, or a half can of mushrooms. 
A border of rice may be placed around the chicken, or sippets 
of toast used. 

To make a brown fricassee, sprinkle the pieces of chicken, 
after they are simmered until tender, with salt, pepper, and 
flour, and place them in the oven to brown. Make a brown 
instead of a white sauce, and omit the cream or milk. 

FRIED CHICKEN". 

Cut a tender chicken in pieces; dip the pieces in water; 
sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour; 
saute them in a tablespoonful of lard or butter, browning 
both sides; then remove and add to the pan a tablespoonful 
of flour; cook it for a minute without browning, stirring all 
the time, and add a cupful of milk or cream; stir until it is 
a little thickened; strain; mix into it a tablespoonful of 
chopped parsley. Place the sauce on the serving-dish and 
arrange the pieces of chicken on it. 

STUFFED CHICKEN OR TURKEY LEGS. 

Carefully remove the tendons and bone from the urum- 
sticks, all but about an inch and a half at the small end. 
Stuff the leg with a forcemeat made of chicken or veal 
chopped very fine, and use with it the liver and a little 
strip of larding pork ; season it with salt, pepper, and chopped 
parsley, and moisten it with one egg. Draw the skin over 
the end and sew it closely together, keeping the shape as nat- 
ural as possible. Lay the stuffed legs in a baking-pan ; cover 
with boiling water, and simmer an hour, or until tender ; re- 
move them from the water, press them into shape, and let 
cool. When cold, take out the stitches, dredge with salt and 
pepper, roll in beaten egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot 



130 POULTRY AND GAME. 

fat until browned; or broil them on both sides four minuteB, 
if chicken ; six minutes, if turkey legs ; or they may be sauted 
in butter. They may be deviled by rubbing them with mus- 
tard and a little red pepper before coating with the eggs and 
crumbs. Serve them arranged like chops, the bones masked 
with paper frills. If preferred, the bones may be entirely 
removed, and the leg flattened to look like a cutlet. This can 
be done by placing them under a weight to cool after being 
boiled. Serve with an olive, Bearnaise, Tartare, or any sauce 
preferred. 

GEILLED BONES. 

Take the wings, second joints, and drumsticks of cold 
cooked chicken; dip them in melted butter, sprinkle them 
with salt and pepper, and broil them until they are very hot 
and well browned. 

SAVOKY DUCK. 

(To be served cold. A luncheon or supper dish.) 

Bone the duck by cutting it open down the back, take out 
the back bone, the breast and then the leg bones. Put the 
bones, one pound of shin of beef, one onion, two cloves, one 
bay-leaf, some thyme and parsley, one carrot, a small piece of 
turnip, pepper and salt into a saucepan with three pints of 
stock or water. Chop one-half pound of veal with an onion, a 
little grated nutmeg, pepper, salt and one-half pound of green 
peas. Fill the duck with this and sew it up. Stew it with the 
bones for two hours. Take out the duck and strain the gravy. 
Put it in another pan and mix in one ounce of gelatine and 
the whites of two eggs. Beat it over the fire until it boils, then 
let it boil for ten minutes, without stirring, with the lid on; 
it will then be clear when again skimmed. Cover the bottom 
of a dish (large enough to hold the duck) with cooked peas, 
carrots and turnip. Put a small cupful of the gravy, and 
let it get cool, then put in the duck (breast downwards) ; let 
the gravy be nearly cold, then pour it over the duck, which 
will then set in a firm jelly, and can be turned out on to an- 
other dish. 



POULTRY AND GAME. 191 

MAYONNAISE OF SWEETBREADS. 

(To be served cold.) 

Boil a pair of sweetbreads (after blanching) for a few 
minutes in some good veal stock, then put them to get cold 
and cut into small round pieces ; they must then be placed in 
a stewpan with pepper, salt, mace and a very small piece of 
garlic, and a half a pint or a little more of the stock they were 
first cooked in, and a quarter of an ounce of leaf gelatine ; and 
then it should simmer very steadily for fifteen minutes or so. 
The pieces should then be placed separately in a shallow 
dish, and the gravy in which they have been simmered should 
be poured over them. When they have set quite firmly they 
should be covered thickly with a mayonnaise. When quite 
cold, ornament according to taste: such as aspic or savory 
jelly, with beet-root, hard-boiled egg, cut into fancy shapes 
and placed over the dish; a little green sets the dish off well. 

BOILED TURKEY. 

Prepare as you would for baking or roasting ; fill with an 
oyster stuffing, made as the above. Tie the legs and wings 
close to the body, place in salted boiling water with the breast 
downward; skim it off and boil about two hours, but not till 
the skin breaks. Serve with oyster or celery sauce. Boil a 
nicely pickled piece of salt pork, and serve at table a thin 
slice to each plate. Some prefer bacon or ham instead of 
pork. Some roll the turkey in a cloth dipped in flour. If the 
liquor is to be used afterwards for soup, the cloth imparts 
an unpleasant flavor. The liquid can be saved and made into 
a nice soup for the next day's dinner, by adding the same 
seasonings as for chicken soup and rice, barley, or macaroni. 

TURKEY SCALLOP. 

Pick the meat from the bones of cold turkey, and chop 
it fine. Put a layer of bread crumbs on the bottom of a but- 
tered dish, moisten them with a little milk, then put in a 
layer of turkey with some of the stuffing, and cut small pieces 
of butter over the top; sprinkle with pepper and salt; then 
another layer of bread crumbs, and so until the dish is nearly 



122 POULTRY AND GAME. 

full; add a little hot water to the gravy left from the turkey 
and pour over it; then take two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of 
milk, one of melted butter, a little salt and cracker crumbs 
afi .much as will make it thick enough to spread on with a 
knife ; put bits of butter over it, and cover with a plate. Bake 
three-quarters of an hour. Ten minutes before serving, re- 
move the plate and let it brown. 

TUEKEY HASHED. 

Cut the remnants of turkey from a previous dinner into 
pieces of equal size. Boil the bones in a quart of Avater, until 
the quart is reduced to a pint; then take out the bones, and 
to the liquor in which they were boiled add turkey gravy, 
or white stock, or a small piece of butter with salt and pep- 
per; let the liquor thus prepared boil up once; then put in 
the pieces of turkey, dredge in a little flour, give it one boil- 
up, and serve in a hot dish. 

TUEKEY WAEMED OVEE. 

Pieces of cold turkey or chicken may be warmed up with 
a little butter in a frying-pan; place it on a warm platter, 
surround it with small thick slices of bread or biscuit 
halved, first dipping them in hot salted water; then place 
the platter in a warm oven with the door open. Have 
already made the following gravy to pour over all. Into the 
frying-pan put a large spoonful of butter, one or two cupfuls 
of milk, and any gravy that may be left over. Bring it to a 
boil; then add sufficient flour, wet in a little cold milk or 
water, to make it the consistency of cream. Season with salt, 
pepper and add a little of the dark meat chopped "very fine. 
Let the sauce cook a few moments ; then pour over the biscuit 
and fowl. This will be found a really nice dish. 

BONED TUEKEY. 

Clean the fowl as usual. With a sharp and pointed knife, 
begin at the extremity of the wing, and pass the knife down 
close to the bone, cutting ofE the flesh from the bone, and 
preserving the skin whole; run the knife down each side of 
the breast bone and up the legs, keeping close to the bone; 



POULTRY AND GAME. 123 

then split the back half way np, and draw out the bones ; fill 
the places whence the bones were taken with a stuffing, re- 
storing the fowl to its natural form, and sew up all the inci- 
sions made in the skin. Lard with two or three rov/s of slips 
ox fat bacon on the top, basting often with salt and water, 
and a little butter. Some like a glass of port wine in the 
gravy. This is a difficult dish to attempt by any but skillful 
hands. Carve across in slices, and servo with tomato sauce. 

BOAST GOOSE. 

The goose should not be more than eight months old, and 
the fatter the more tender and juicy the meat. Stuff with 
the following mixture: Three pints of bread crumbs, six 
ounces of butter, or part butter and part salt pork, one tea- 
spoonful each of sage, Dlack pepper and salt, one chopped 
onion. Do not stuff very full, and stitch openings firmly 
together to keep flavor in and fat out. Place in a baking 
pan with a little water, and baste frequently with salt and 
water (some add vinegar); turn often so that the sides and 
back may be nicely browned. Bake two hours or more ; when 
done take from the pan, pour off the fat, and to the brown 
gravy left, add the chopped giblets which have previously 
been stewed until tender, together with the water they were 
boiled in; thicken with a little flour and butter rubbed to- 
gether, bring to a boil and serve. English style. 

BROILED CHICKEN ON TOAST. 

Broil the usual way, and when thoroughly done take it up 
in a square tin or dripping pan, butter it well, season with 
pepper and salt, and set in the oven a few minutes, lay slices 
of moistened toast on a platter, take the chicken up over it, 
add to the gravy in the pan part of a cupful of cream, if you 
have it; if not, use milk. Thicken with a little flour and 
pour over the chicken. This is considered most excellent. 

CURRIED CHICKEN. 

Cut up a chicken weighing from a pound and a half to 
two pounds, as for fricassee, wash it well, and put it in a 



124 POULTRY AND GAME. 

stewpan with sufficient water to cover it ; boil it closely cov- 
ered, until tender; add a large teaspoonful of salt, and cook a 
few minutes longer; then remove from the fire, take out the 
chicken, pour the liquor into a bowl, and set it one side. Now 
cut up into the stewpan two small onions, and fry them with 
a piece of butter as large as an egg ; as soon as the onions are 
brown, skim them out and put in the chicken; fry for three 
or four minutes; next sprinkle over two teaspoonfuls of 
curry powder. Now pour over the liquor in which the chicken 
was stewed, stir all well together, and stew for five minutes 
longer, then stir into this a tablespoonf ul of sifted flour made 
thin with a little water; lastly, stir in a beaten yolk of egg, 
and it is done. Serve with hot boiled rice laid round on the 
edge of a platter, and the chicken curry in the centre. This 
makes a handsome side dish, and a fine relish accompanying 
a full dinner of roast beef or any roast. 

All first-class grocers and druggists keep "India Curry 
Powder," put up in bottles. Beef veal, mutton, duck, 
pigeons, partridges, rabbits or fresh fish may be substituted 
for the chicken, if preferred, and sent to the table with or 
without a dish of rice. 

To Boil Eice for Curry. — Pick over the rice, a cupful. 
Wash it thoroughly in two or three cold waters ; then leave it 
about twenty minutes in cold water. Put into a stewpan two 
quarts of water with a teaspoonful of salt in it, and when it 
boils, sprinkle in the rice. Boil it briskly for twenty minutes, 
keeping the pan covered. Take it from the fire, and drain off 
the water. Afterwards set the saucepan on the back of the 
stove, with the lid off, to allow the rice to dry and the grains 
to separate. Eice, if properly boiled, should be soft and white, 
and every grain stand alone. Serve it hot in a separate dish 
or laid round the chicken curry. 

CHICKEN POT-PIE. No. 1. 

Cut and joint a large chicken, cover with cold water, and 
let it boil gently until tender. Season with salt and pepper, 
and thicken the gravy with two tablespoonfuls of flour, mixed 
smooth with a piece of butter the size of -an egg. Have ready 
nice light bread-dough ; cut with the top of a wineglass about 
half an inch thick ; let them stand half an hour and rise, then 



POULTRY AND GAME. 125 

drop these into the boiling gravy. Put the cover on the pot 
closely, wrap a cloth around it, in order that no steam shall 
escape; and by no means allow the pot to cease boiling. Boil 
three-quarters of an hour. 

CHICKEN" POT-PIE. No. 2. 

This style of pot-pie was made more in our grandmother's 
day than now, as most cooks consider that cooking crust so 
Icng destroys its spongy lightness, and renders it too hard 
and dry. 

Take a pair of iine fowls; cut them up, wash the pieces, 
and season with pepper only. Make a light biscuit dough, 
and plenty of it, as it is always much liked by the eaters of 
pot-pie. Poll out the dough not very thin, and cut most of 
io into long squares. Butter the sides of a pot, and line them 
with dough nearly to the top. Lay slices of cold ham at the 
bottom of the pot, and then the pieces of fowl, interspersed 
all through with squares of dough and potatoes, pared and 
quartered. Pour in a quart of water. Cover the whole with 
a lid of dough, having a slit in the centre, through which the 
gravy will bubble up. Boil it steadily for two hours. Half 
an hour before you take it up, put in through the hole in 
the centre of the crust some bits of butter rolled in flour, to 
thicken the gravy. When done, put the pie on a large dish, 
r.nd pour the gravy over it. You mxay intersperse it all 
through with cold ham. 

A pot-pie may be made of ducks, rabbits, squirrels, or 
venison. Also of beef-steak. A beef-steak, or some pork- 
steaks (the lean only), greatly improve a chicken pot-pie. 
If you use no ham, season with salt. 

CHICKEN STEWED, WITH BISCUIT. 

Take chickens, and make a fricassee ; just before you are 
ready to dish it up, have ready two l)aking-tins of rich soda 
or baking-powder biscuits; take them from the oven hot, spilt 
them apart by breaking them with your hands, lay them on a 
large meat platter, covering it, then pour the hot chicken stew 
over all. Send to the table hot. This is a much better way 
than boiling this kind of biscuit in the stew, as you are more 
sure of its being always light. 



186 POULTRY AND GAME. 

SMOTHEEED CHICKEN. 
(A Southern method.) 

Dress young chickens, wash, and let them stand in water 
half an hour to make them white. Put into a baking pan 
(first cutting them open at the back). Sprinkle salt and 
pepper over them, and put a lump of butter here and there; 
then cover tightly with another pan the same size and bake 
cne hour; baste often with butter. A delicious dish. 

MARYLAND CHICKEN. 

Take two tender spring chickens, split in half, detach the 
legs and wings; lay all on a plate, and season with salt and 
pepper. Dip the pieces in beaten egg, and afterwards in 
bread crumbs. Place them in a buttered pan, pour an ounce 
of clarified butter over, and roast in the oven about twenty 
minutes. Pour half a pint of cream sauce on a serving dish, 
and arrange the fowl on it ; alternate with slices of thin boiled 
bacon, and small corn fritters. 

CHICKEN CROQUETTES. 

Boil one chicken, remove skin and chop fine. Sauce: 
One tablespoonful of butter, two tablespoons flour, half pint 
cf milk, a little grated nutmeg, tablespoon of chopped pars- 
ley, pepper and salt to taste, a dash of cayenne. When the 
sauce is cooked add the chopped chicken. Mix well, then set 
aside to cool. When cool mould into shape; dip in egg and 
bread crumbs and boil in hot fat. This quantity will make 
thirteen croquettes. 

CELERIED CHICKEN (Entree). 

Two cups cold cooked chicken cut in small pieces, one 
Clip milk, one tablespoon butter, one heaping tablespoon of 
flour, one teaspoon of celery salt, two tablespoons of finely 
chopped parsley, one teaspoon salt, four dashes of pepper, 
three slices of toast cut lengthwise. Put butter and flour in 
saucepan, stir till butter is melted and smooth, add milk, 
salt and pepper, stir till it comes to a boil, add parsley and 



POULTRY AND GAME. 127 

celery salt, which have been mixed with a little of the butter 
mixture, add chicken. Arrange toast in strips (log-cabin 
style) ; place the chicken in centre and serve. 

PERDEIX AUX CHOUX. 

Stuff partridge with turkey dressing ; then stick on breast 
pieces of pork fat. Put lard down in pot and brown the part- 
ridge alone with pepper and salt. Eoast well for twenty 
minutes in a covered pot. Then take out the partridge and 
put in the pot four onions stuck with cloves, one small cab- 
bage cut in if our, four slices of pork or bacon ; fry brown. Put 
back the partridge and cover with hot water; simmer gently 
for an hour. Before taking off put in a tablespoonful of 
browned flour. 

BLANQUETTE OF TURKEY. 

One quart of cooked turkey cut in small pieces, one large 
cupful of white stock, three tablespoonfuls of butter, a heap- 
ing tablespoonful of flour, one teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 
one cupful of cream or milk, the yolks of four eggs, salt, 
pepper. Put the butter in the sauce-pan and when hot add 
the flour; stir until smooth, but not brown; add the stock, 
and cook two minutes; then add the seasoning and cream. 
As soon as this boils up add the turkey; cook ten minutes. 
Beat the yolks of the eggs with four tablespoonfuls of milk ; 
stir into the blanquettc; cook about half a minute longer. 
This can be served in a rice or potato border. 

CHICKEN CEOQUETTES. 

One solid pint of finely chopped chicken, one tablespoon- 
ful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, one cupful of cream 
or chicken stock, one tablespoonful of flour, four eggs, one 
teaspoonful of on ion- juice, one tablespoonful of lemon- juice, 
one pint of crumbs, three tablespoonfuls of butter. Put the 
cream or stock on to boil. Mix the flour and butter together 
and stir into the boiling cream, then add the chicken and sea- 
soning; boil for two minutes, and add two of the eggs well 
beaten ; take from the fire immediately and set away to cool ; 



1!88 POULTRY AND GAME. 

when cool, shape, roll in egg and crumbs and fry. Many 
persons think a teaspoonful of chopped parsley an improve- 
ment. 

CEEAM CHICKEN. 

One chicken of four pounds, or two of six pounds; four 
sweetbreads, one can of mushrooms. Boil chicken and sweet- 
breads and when cold cut up as for salad. In a sauce-pan 
put four coffee-cups or one quart of cream. In another sauce- 
pan put four large tablespoonfuls of butter and five even 
tablespoonfuls of flour. Stir until melted, then pour in the 
hot cream and stir until it thickens. Flavor with the small 
half of a grated onion and a very little nutmeg ; season highly 
with black and red pepper. Put the chicken and cream in a 
baking-dish; add the mushrooms cut in pieces (if large), 
and cover with grated bread ; put a number of pieces of butter 
on the top and bake ten or twenty minutes. 

CHICKEN JELLY. 

Cut chicken into joints and put into a pan or stew-jar. 
Put in a very little salt and a peppercorn, and just cover with 
water ; let it stew gently for two or three hours or more, add- 
ing a little water if required. When the meat falls from the 
bones take off the meat and pound up the bones, and give 
them an extra boil. Strain the liquid from the meat (and 
bones) and when cold take off any fat. It becomes a jelly, 
and can be eaten cold or warmed up. 

CHICKEN CEOQUETTES. 

Two cups finely chopped chicken, a little nutmeg, mace, 
pepper and salt to taste. One cup of chicken stock, half a 
cup of cream or milk, one tablespoonful butter, one table- 
spoonful flour. Mix the butter and flour together, and when 
the milk and stock have come to a boil add them to the butter 
and flour. Add the meat, and let all simmer together ten 
minuTes, then add two eggs pretty well beaten. Leave on 
the back of stove for a few minutes, but do not allow it to 
simmer. Pour in a dish to cool. When quite cool form into 
small rolls and roll in bread-crumbs, then in egg, and again 
in bread-crumbs. Cook in boiling lard. 



POULTRY AND GAME. 129 

FONDU OF CHICKEN. 

Take cold chicken, veal or turkey, mince very fine; one 
cupful of chicken, one cupful of hread-crumbs, one cupful 
of boiling milk, one tablespoonful of butter, one slice of cold 
boiled ham, minced; half an onion boiled in and strained out 
of the milk, two beaten eggs, a pinch of soda dissolved in the 
milk; pepper and salt. Soak the crumbs in the milk, stir in 
the butter and beat very light. Let the mixture cool while 
you mince the meat and beat the eggs. Stir in the meat 
when the bread and milk are nearly cold; season, lastly add- 
ing the eggs. Beat well up. Put it into a well-greased 
baking dish ; set in a brisk oven. When the f ondu is a light 
delicate brown puff send at once to the table in the same 
dish in which it has been baked. 

ROAST DUCKS. 

Clean with care, and, after washing well, rinse out with 
soda and water. Lay in cold water for half an hour; wipe 
dry and stuff with bread-crumbs, seasoned with butter, pep- 
per, salt, a half teaspoonful of onion-juice, and just a pinch 
of powdered sage. Dredge with salt, pepper, and flour ; dash 
a cupful of boiling water over them and roast, covered, twelve 
minutes to the pound, if you like them rather rare; fifteen, 
if you would have them well done. Baste four times, the last 
time with butter, after which dredge with flour and brown. 

Chop the giblets for the gravy, and thicken with browned 
flour. Green peas should accompany ducks. 

STEWED DUCKS. 

Ducks which are no longer in the first flush of youth may 
be treated satisfactorily in this way. Joint as for fricassee; 
pepper, salt, and flour them. Heat good dripping in a fry- 
ing-pan and fry a sliced onion to a light brown. Take out 
the onion, put in the duck, and cook ten minutes, turning 
two or three times. Put into a sauce-pan a cupful of stock 
or consomme, and while it is still cold lay in the jointed 
duck. Cover and stew slowly until tender, season with 
♦9 



130 POULTRY AND GAME. 

pepper and salt, a tablespoonful of tomato catsup, and a 
dash of lemon- juice. Simmer three minutes, stir in a table- 
spoonful of brown roux, cook a minute to thicken it, add a 
glass of sherry, and serve. 

SALMI OF DUCK. 

Cut up the meat of a roasted or braised duck into neat 
dice, the bones, stuffing, and skin into small pieces. Cover 
the meat-dice with a marinade of salad oil and lemon-juice, 
and leave in a cold place while you prepare the gravy 
or sauce. Cover the bones, etc., well with cold water, add 
parsley, pepper, and salt, and simmer, after this reaches the 
boil, for two hours. Strain, thicken the gravy with browned 
flour rubbed up with a spoonful of butter; add the juice of 
half an onion, boil up and put in the meat. Draw to the side 
of the range and let it almost, but not quite, boil. Take out 
the meat and arrange neatly upon a flat dish. Add to the 
gravy half a can of champignons (or, if you can get them, 
fresh mushrooms are far |)etter). Simmer three minutes 
and pour over the meat. Garnish with sippets of fried bread. 

EOAST DUCKLINGS. 

Whip three tablespoonfuls of mashed potatoes to a white 
cream wifh butter and a tablespoonful of cream. Season 
with celery salt and white pepper, add three tablespoonfuls 
of almonds, blanched and chopped very fine. With this mix- 
ture stuff your young ducks when you have cleaned and 
washed them. Do not distend the bodies, but fill without 
packing. Truss and bind legs and wings into position with 
cotton-twine. Lay the plump creatures (they must be fat 
and white) upon the grating of your roaster, rub the breast 
with a split onion, dust with pepper, salt, and flour; put a 
cupful of boiling water into the pan and cover. Set in a 
very quick oven for the first fifteen minutes. Change, then, 
to a more moderate, and cook, still covered, ten minutes to 
the pound. Uncover, baste well with gravy, then with butter, 
dredge with flour, and brown. Skim the fat from the gravy, 
thicken with a tablespoonful of browned flour, rubbed up 



POULTRY AND GAME. 131 

with two tablespoonfuls of currant Jelly, and send to table 
in a boat. This is one of the choicest of summer delicacies. 

RAGOUT OP DUCK AND GREEN PEAS. 

Cook the remnants of a pair of roast ducks as directed in 
recipe for Salmi of Duck, and when done pile the meat in the 
centre of the dish ; put a quart of green peas, well boiled and 
drained, about them like a green fence, and pour the gravy 
over all. 

REDHEAD OR CANVASBACK DUCKS (ROASTED). 

Singe and draw, but do not wash the ducks. Wipe them, 
inside and out, with a soft, damp cloth. Cut off the pinions 
and tie what is left of the wings to the bodies. Instead of 
stuffing them, pepper and salt the cavity of the body, wash 
out with salad oil and lemon-juice and put a teaspoonful of 
currant jelly, or three or four cranberries, in each. Put into 
your covered roaster ; pour half a cupful of boiling water into 
the dripping-pan beneath; cover closely and cook half an 
hour, basting three times. Uncover, wash all over with a 
mixture of butter and lemon- juice, and brown. Serve with 
currant jelly. 

REDHEAD OR CANVASBACK DUCKS (BROILED). 

Clean and wipe with a soft, damp cloth within and with- 
out. Split down the back and flatten the protuberant breast- 
bone with the broadside of a hatchet, then leave them in a 
marinade of salad oil and lemon-juice for one hour, setting 
them in cold place. Without wiping them, broil over red, 
clear coals for twenty minutes, if they are plump and large; 
less time will do for small birds. Turn them twice. Serve 
with currant or grape jelly, and when dishing put upon each 
breast a teaspoonful of butter beaten to a cream with lemon- 
juice and finely chopped parsley. 

ROAST PRAIRIE CHICKENS OR GROUSE. 

Test them, after cleaning and wiping, and if they are 
tough put them — trussed as for roasting — into a steamer 



132 POULTRY AND GAME. 

and set over hard-boiling water for half an hour. While still 
hot rub them well with butter and lemon- juice, salt and 
pepper, inside and out, put a small bit of fat salt pork in 
each and roast, covered, in a quick oven for half an hour. 
Baste three times with butter and hot water, and, just before 
taking them up, with butter alone. They are dry birds and 
need mollifying. Serve with currant jelly and bread sauce. 

BROILED GROUSE (LARDED). 

Singe, clean, wipe well, split down the back, and lard the 
breasts with narrow strips of fat salt pork, drawn through 
the skin for an inch and out the other side with a larding- 
needle. Or if they are decidedly tough, steam for half an 
hour and lay until cold in a marinade of lemon-juice and oil. 
Pepper and salt and broil for fifteen minutes. Serve upon 
squares of toasted bread, or upon oblongs of fried hominy. 
Butter well before sending to table. 

SALMI OF GROUSE. 

Cut neatly into joints a pair of underdone grouse and 
divide the breasts into two pieces each. Put a cupful of good 
stock or consomm6 in a saucepan, season well, add a minced 
onion, a chopped carrot, and a stalk of celery, with a little 
minced parsley, and cook slowly one hour. Rub through a 
colander, stir in a tablespoonful of brown roux, bring to a 
boil, and put in the grouse. After this it must not boil, but 
set it in a saucepan of boiling water just where it will keep 
at the scalding-point for half an hour. At the last put in 
half a cupful of mushrooms, heated in their own liquor, and 
serve. 

If you have preserved the cooked giblets of the grouse, 
minca them fine, work them to a paste with butter, season with 
salt and pepper, and spread them on buttered toast upon the 
dish intended for the salmi before it goes in. The toast will 
absorb the gravy and be delicious. 

ROAST QUAILS. 

Draw and wipe carefully within and without with a soft, 
damp cloth. Put a whole raw oyster in the body of each, and 



POULTRY AND GAME. 133 

truss as you would a chicken. Bind thin slices of fat bacon 
over the breast; lay upon the grating of your roaster, put a 
very little hot water under them and cook, covered, in a lively 
oven, for twenty minutes, basting three times with butter and 
water. Wash well with butter, pepper, and salt, and serve 
upon squares of buttered toast, wet with gravy from the 
roaster. 

BEOILED QUAILS. 

Draw, wipe, and split down the back, then leave them in 
a marinade of salad oil and lemon-juice for half an hour. 
Without wiping, broil on a wire " bird-broiler '^ for ten min- 
utes, turning twice. Butter, salt, and pepper them, and 
serve on squares of buttered toast, upon each of which has 
been poured a teaspoonful of hot stock. 

ROAST PARTEIDGES. 

Clean and truss as you would chickens. Bind thin slices 
of fat salt pork or bacon over the breasts and put into your 
roaster with half a cupful of boiling water. Pepper and salt 
the birds and wash over with melted butter, letting it drip 
into the pan below. Cook, covered, forty-five minutes, bast- 
ing four times with butter and water. Serve with a good 
bread sauce, but after dishing pour over the birds several 
spoonfuls of their own gravy from the pan. 

EOAST PIGEONS (WILD). 

Unless you are sure that they are tender, stew them or 
put them into a pie. Draw and wash them thoroughly; wipe 
dry, salt and pepper the insides; truss and bind them into 
shape with cotton string; cover the breasts with thin slices 
of fat bacon tied in place, lay them, breasts upward, in your 
roaster, and pour in half a cupful of hot water or weak stock. 
Cook, covered, fifteen minutes ; remove the pork, rub all over 
with butter and lemon-juice, and brown. Keep the pigeons 
hot while you stir into the gravy a tablespoonful of butter 
cut up in one of browned flour and another of currant jelly. 
Boil up once and pour over the pigeons. 



134 POULTRY AND GAME. 

BEOILED SQUABS. 

Split down the back, rub all over with butter, salt and 
pepper them, and broil over red coals. Serve upon buttered 
toast wet with a little hot stock or gravy. 

BEAISED PIGEONS WITH MUSHEOOMS. 

Drain, wash, and stuff with a force-meat of crumbs and 
chopped fat pork, seasoned with onion-juice, salt, and pepper. 
Prepare the usual bed of vegetables — minced carrot, onion, 
celery, and parsley. Lay the pigeons upon it; add a cupful 
of stock, or of butter and water, cover and cook gently one 
hour, or until tender. Dish the birds and keep hot; rub the 
gravy through a colander into a sauce-pan, season to taste, 
add a dozen fresh mushrooms cut into small pieces, simmer 
five minutes, thicken with a tablespoonful of brown roux, boil 
up and pour over the pigeons. 

PIGEON PIE. 

Clean, wash, and joint; wipe dry, pepper, salt, and saute 
them in hot dripping in which an onion has been fried. 
Butter a deep dish and lay in the meat alternately with layers 
of fat salt pork, chopped fine, hard-boiled eggs, and the gib- 
lets of the birds boiled and minced. Dredge flour over the 
pigeons as they go in. When the dish is full pour in a cup- 
ful of water in which the giblets were cooked, seasoned with 
pepper and salt. Cover the pie with a good crust, cut a slit 
in the middle, and bake one hour in a moderate oven. 

ENGLISH JUGGED PIGEONS. 

Clean, wash, and stuff with a good force-meat of crumbs, 
chopped fat pork, the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs rubbed 
to powder, and a tablespoonful of celery boiled tender and 
chopped. Season to taste with onion- juice, pepper, and salt. 
Truss the birds; tie wings and legs close to the bodies and 
pack in an agate-iron pail with a close top. Plunge this into 
boiling water flcep enough to cover the pail almost to the top, 
but not to float it. Put a weight on the top to keep the pail 
from turning over as. the boiling becomes hard, and cook for 



POULTRY AND GAME. 135 

three hours if the pigeons are tough. Dish the birds, thicken 
the gravy with browned flour, add a tablespoonful of tomato 
catsup, boil up and pour over the pigeons. 

CUKRIED PIGEONS. 

Cook as above directed, dish and add to the gravy two 
teaspoonfuls of curry-powder. Boil one minute before pour- 
ing over the birds. Serve with boiled rice. Serve ice-cold 
bananas with this dish. 

WOODCOCK, SNIPE, AND OTHER SMALL BIRDS 

are usually broiled in the same manner as squabs. They are 
also nice (especially woodcock) cleaned and left whole, the 
head skinned, the eyes extracted, and the head twisted over 
the shoulder until the bill pierces the body. Bind a thin slice 
of fat pork or bacon closely about each bird. When all are 
ready lay them upon the grating of your covered roaster, pour 
a very little boiling water under them, cover and roast fifteen 
minutes. Remove the bacon, wash the birds over with butter, 
and brown. Boil the giblets and pound fine; rub to a paste 
with butter; season to taste. Have ready squares of toast, 
buttered. Wet with the pan-gravy and spread with the 
paste, laying a bird upon each. 

BORDEAUX STEWED RABBITS. 

Skin, clean, and joint. Heat a tablespoonful of butter 
in a sauce-pan and fry in it a sliced onion. When it is 
slightly colored put in the pieces of hare, salted, peppered, 
and dredged with flour, and cook five minutes, turning over 
and over that all parts may be seared. Cover with cold water 
or weak stock, add parsley, sweet marjoram, pepper, and salt, 
and stew gently until tender. Take up the meat with a 
skimmer and pile upon a dish. Add to the gravy in the 
sauce-pan a great spoonful of brown roux, a teaspoonful of 
Worcestershire sauce, and, if you like, half a cupful of chop- 
ped champignons. Boil two minutes, take from the fire, 
add a glass of claret, pour over the meat, cover and set in an 
open oven for five minutes before serving. 



136 POULTRY AND GAME. 

ROAST HARES OR RABBITS. 

" Old hare '' at the South, let the age be what it may. 
At the North and West it is rabbit, tame or wild. Skin and 
clean them. The latter process should be thorough. Good 
cooks are sometimes less heedful than they should be in this 
respect. Chop the livers fine, also a slice of ifat pork, and 
mix with bread-crumbs. You may add a few champignons 
or mushrooms if you like. Season with pepper, salt, and 
onion- juice. Stuff the rabbits with this, sew them up, and 
anoint well with salad oil and lemon- juice, leaving them in 
this marinade for an hour. Put into the roaster, pour a 
cupful of weak stock, or consomme, or butter and water under 
them ; cover and cook for an hour. Take off the bacon, wash 
over with butter, and brown. Dish the hares, and keep hot, 
while you thicken the gravy with browned flour, boil up, add 
a teaspoonful of catsup and half a glass of claret, pour a 
few spoonfuls over the rabbits, the rest into a boat. 

JUGGED HARE. 

Skin, clean, and joint a full-grown rabbit, or hare. Cut 
the back into two pieces and sever every joint. Fry a sliced 
onion to a pale brown in hot dripping, put in the meat, 
peppered, salted, and floured, and cook for ten minutes, fast, 
turning often. Put into the bottom of an agate-iron sauce- 
pan a layer of chopped fat salt pork, sprinkle with onion, 
parsley, and paprica. Upon this lay the pieces of hare and 
cover with another layer of chopped pork and onion. A few 
bits of fresh tomato would not be amiss. Pour in a cupful of 
cold, weak stock in which a stalk of celery has been boiled, 
then remove. Fit on a tight top, set in a vessel of cold water, 
and bring slowly to a boil. Keep this up for three hours, or 
until the meat is tender. Dish the pieces of rabbit, thicken 
the gravy with browned flour ; add a tablespoonf ul of currant 
jelly and one of lemon-juice, simmer one minute, pour in a 
glass of sherry and turn all upon the meat. Garnish with 
triangles of fried hominy, serving a bit with each portion of 
hare. This is an English dish and good. 



POULTRY AND GAME. 137 

EOAST HAUNCH OF VENISON. 

(English Style.) 

To prepare a haunch of venison for roasting, wash it 
slightly in tepid water, and dry it thoroughly by rubbing it 
with a clean, soft cloth. Lay over the fat side a large sheet 
of thickly buttered paper, and next a paste of flour and water 
about three-quarters of an inch thick ; cover this again with 
two or three sheets of stout paper, secure the whole well with 
twine, and put down to roast, with a little water, in the drip- 
ping-pan. Let the fire be clear and strong; baste the paper 
injmediately with butter or clarified drippings, and roast the 
joint from three to four hours, according to its weight and 
quality. Doe venison will require half an hour less time than 
buck venison. About twenty minutes before the joint is 
done remove the paste and paper, baste the meat in every part 
with butter, and dredge it very lightly with flour; let it 
take a pale brown color, and serve hot with unflavored gravy 
made with a thickening, in a tureen and good currant jelly. 
Venison is much better when the deer has been killed in the 
autumn, when wild berries are plentiful, and it has had 
abundant opportunities to fatten upon this and other fresh 
food. Venison should never be roasted unless very fat. The 
shoulder is a roasting piece, and may be done without the 
paper or paste. 

BEOILED VENISON STEAK. 

Venison steak should be broiled over a clear fire, turning 
often. It requires more cooking than beef. When suffici- 
ently done, season with salt and pepper, pour over two table- 
spoonfuls of currant jelly, melted with a piece of butter. 
Serve hot on plates. 

Delicious steaks, corresponding to the shape of mutton 
chops, are cut from the loin. 

BAKED SADDLE OF VENISON. 

Wash the saddle carefully ; see that no hairs are left dried 
on to the outside. Use a saddle of venison of about ten 
pounds. Cut some salt pork in strips about two inches long. 



138 POULTRY AND GAME. ■ 

and an eighth of an inch thick, with which lard the saddle 
with two rows on each side. In a large dripping-pan cut 
two carrots, one onion, and some salt pork in thin slices ; add 
two bay leaves, two cloves, four kernels of allspice, half a 
lemon, sliced, and season with salt and pepper; place the 
saddle of venison in the pan, with a quart or good stock, boil- 
ing hot, and a small piece of butter, and let it boil about 
fifteen minutes on top of the stove; then put it in a hot 
oven and bake, basting well every five minute?^ until it is 
medium rare, so that the blood runs when cut; serve with 
jelly or a wine sauce. If the venison is desired well done 
cook much longer, and use a cream sauce with it, or stir 
cream into the venison gravy. In ordering the saddle request 
the butcher to cut the ribs off pretty close, as the only part 
that is of much account is the tendeiloin and thick meat thai 
lies along the. backbone up to the neck. The ribs which ex- 
tend from this have very little meat on them, but are always 
sold with the saddle. When neatly cut off they leave the 
saddle in a better shape, and the ribs can be put into your 
stock-pot to boil for soup. 

VENISON PIE OE PASTEY. 

The neck, breast and shoulder are the parts used for u 
venison pie or pastry. Cut the meat into pieces (fat and 
lean together) and put the bones and trimmings into the 
stew-pan with pepper and salt, and water or veal broth enough 
to cover it. Simmer it till you have drawn out a good gravy. 
Then strain it. 

In the meantime, make a good rich paste, and roll it rather 
thick. Cover the bottom and sides of a deep dish with one 
sheet of it, and put in your meat, having seasoned it with 
pepper, salt, nutmeg and mace. Pour in the gravy which you 
have prepared from the trimmings, and a glass of port wine. 
Ijay on the top some bits of butter rolled in flour. Cover the 
pie with a thick lid of paste and ornament it handsomely 
v/ith leaves and flowers formed with a tin cutter. Bake two 
or more hours according to the size. Just before it is done, 
pull it forward in the oven, and brush it over with beaten 
egg; push it back and let it slightly brown. 



POULTRY AND GAME. 139 

SOUFFLE DE VOLAILLE. 

One pound raw chicken, three ounces butter, four eggs, 
one and one-half pints double cream, pepper and salt to taste. 
Pound meat in a mortar (or pass twice through fine mincer), 
add gradually three ounces butter, four yolks and two whites 
of eggs. Season to taste and then pass through a hair sieve ; 
whip the remaining two whites of eggs to a stiff froth; half 
whip the cream and stir these in very gently to the chicken 
mixture. Steam very gently in mould for three-quarters of 
an hour. Turn out and serve with good white sauce made 
with butter, flour, milk, good chicken stock and a little cream. 

" MY DEVIL.^' 

One tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce, one small 
dessertspoonful of anchovy sauce, three spoonfuls of made 
mustard, one saltspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of black 
pepper, half a saltspoonful of cayenne, one tablespoonful of 
vinegar, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, one squeeze of 
lemon, one glass of port wine. Mix together and heat in 
saucepan, and pour over grilled turkey legs, or any cold meat 
grilled for breakfast or lunch. 

TIMBALS. 

One cup milk, one cup flour, one egg, well beaten. Beat 
all together; let stand one hour. Have ready a saucepan of 
boiling lard. Put timbal-iron first in lard, then in batter 
find then in lard again for one-half minute, when the shells 
will fall off the iron readily. Fill with creamed chicken 
and garnish with parsley or cress after heating a few 
moments in the oven. The shells can be made the day before 
if desired and heated when required. 

.GAME SAUCE. 

One peck of ripe plums, half a dozen silver-skin onions, 
one pint of vinegar, four pounds of white sugar, one teaspoon- 
ful of cayenne, one teaspoonful of black pepper, two ounces of 
cinnamon broken in small pieces, one teaspoonful of salt. 



140 POULTRY AND GAME. 

Stone the plums. Chop onions and plums very fine. Put 
the plums on to cook in a saucepan, the onions on in the 
vinegar. Cook until done. Then add the plums, also sugar 
and seasoning. It will take several hours to cook, doing 
slowly at the back of the stove. When cool cork tight in 
bottles. 

CREAMED CHICKEN. 

Two and a quarter pounds of chicken before it is cooked, 
half a pound of sweet-breads cooked, half a can mushrooms 
chopped fine. When chicken and sweet-breads have been 
cooked tender allow them to cool, chopping sweet-breads fine. 
Put in a saucepan two large spoonfuls of butter ; when melted 
add two and a half large spoonfuls of flour, and when dis- 
solved add one pint of cream, which has been heated. When 
thick add seasoning and chicken. Mix all well together; 
pour into a baking-dish, spread bread-crumbs and butter on 
top and bake twenty minutes. Garnish with parsley. 

POTATO STUFFING FOR ROAST GOOSE. 

Eight good-sized potatoes, boil and mash, salt and pepper 
to taste, four onions very finely chopped and mixed with hot 
potato. Stuff body of goose as full as possible. 

FOWL DRESSING. 

Steam very stale bread according to size of fowl, add 
finely chopped onions and apples, raw eggs, salt, pepper and 
allspice to taste. Quantities : for a duck : Small bowl bread, 
one onion, two apples, three eggs, mixed well. 

APPLE STUFFING. 

One pint tart apple-sauce, one small cup bread-crumbs, 
sage, one small onion finely minced, salt and pepper. For 
roast goose, duck and game. 



POULTRY AND GAME. 141 

BOUCHEES A LA EEINE. 

Half minced chicken, two ounces ham, six minced mush- 
rooms, trouffle, gill of cream, yolks of two eggs. Make 
some caisses of puff paste, or line little moulds with the paste. 
Put into a stewpan white sauce, add the chicken, ham, etc., 
when it is hot add the cream and lastly stir in the yolks of 
eggs. Fill the caisses and serve. 

GAME PIE. 

Two turkey livers, the legs of two partridges, one and a 
half pounds of forcemeat, one and a half cups of bread- 
crumbs, half a teaspoonful of cinnamon, half a teaspoonful 
of cloves. Chop up the livers very fine, also the meat of the 
partridge legs; add the bread-crumbs after having put them 
through a sifter; add pepper and salt to taste. Mix all to- 
gether and moisten with water. Put it in a pan and cook for 
half an hour, keeping it moist and turning over often. Put 
in a pie dish and cover with paste and bake. To be eaten 
cold. 

ONION SAUCE POE FOWL OR. GAME. 

Mix four tablespoons of ilour and one pinch salt with one- 
half pint cream or milk. Bring one pint of milk to a boil 
and slowly add the first mixture, stirring gently. When thick, 
stir in one-half cup onions which have been cut very fine and 
boiled very soft. 

CHICKEN SAUTE, A LA WEBB. 

Secure a nice plump young chicken, clean and cut into 
pieces, not too small; flour them and saute in good butter 
until of a nice golden brown color; mince half clove of 
garlic very fine, also quarter pod green peppers and cook 
in butter for five minutes. Mix sufficient flour to absorb 
butter, and moisten with half a pint of strong chicken broth ; 
stew with a few carrots and turnips cut into small diamond 
shapes until tender; season with salt, and serve on platter 
with Saratoga chip border sprinkled with French peas. 



142 POULTRY AND GAME. 

JELLIED VENISON. 

Take a good sized boiling piece of venison, soak in salted 
floater one-half hour, then put on to boil, with a small onion, 
a little cayenne pepper, a few cloves, and a dessertspoonful 
of grmmd cinnamon. When done take the venison out care- 
fully so as not to break; put in mould, then take the liquor 
or stock, add a wine-glass of good port, strain all and pour 
over venison; add a little gelatine if liquor is not sufficient 
to harden. 

SAUCE FOE WILD DUCK OR VENISON. 

One wine glass of claret or port wine, one wine glass of 
red currant jelly, one wine glass of Harvey sauce, one wine 
glass of Worcester sauce, a squeeze of lemon, cayenne pepper 
and salt to taste ; add a little gravy and flour. 

PORT WINE SAUCE (FOR GAME). 

One-half tumbler currant jelly, one-half tumbler port 
wine, one-half tumbler stock, one-half teaspoon salt, two 
tablespoons lemon juice, four cloves, spick of cayenne pepper. 
Let cloves and stock simmer together for one-half hour; 
drain into the other ingredients, and let all melt together. 
Part of the gravy for the game may be added. 



VEGETABLES. 



Vegetables of all kinds should be thoroughly picked over, 
throwing out all decayed or unripe parts, then well washed in 
several waters. Most vegetables, when washed, are better 
when laid in cold water a short time before cooKlng. When 
partly cooked, a little salt should be thrown into the water 
in which they are boiled, and they should cook steadily after 
they are put on, not allowed to stop boiling or simmering 
until they are thoroughly done. Every sort of culinary vege- 
table is much better when freshly gathered and cooked as soon 
as possible, and, when done, thoroughly drained, and served 
immediately while hot. 

Onions, cabbage, carrots and turnips should be cooked in 
a great deal of water, boiled only long enough to sufficiently 
cook them, and immediately drained. Longer boiling makes 
them insipid in taste, and with too little water they turn a 
dark color. 

Potatoes rank first in importance in the vegetable line, 
and consequently should be properly served. It requires some 
little intelligence to cook even so simple and common a dish 
as boiled potatoes. In the first place, all defective or green 
ones should be cast out; a bad one will flavor a whole dish. 
If they are not uniform in size, they should be made so by 
cutting after they are peeled. The best part of a potato, or 
the most nutritious, is next to the skin, therefore they should 
be pared very thinly, if at all; then (if old, the cores should 
be cut out) thrown into cold water salted a little, and boiled 
until soft enough for a fork to pierce through easily; drain 
immediately, and replace the kettle on the fire with the cover 
partly removed, until they are completely dried. New pota- 
toes should be put into boiling water, and when partly done 
salted a little. They should be prepared just in time for 
cooking, by scraping off the thin outside skin. They require 
about twenty minutes to boil. 



144 VEGETABLES. 

POTATO EICE. 

Press well-seasoned mashed potatoes through a colander 
or a potato press on to the centre of a dish, leaving the little 
flakes piled up. Serve chops or minced meat around the 
mound of potato. 

BAKED POTATOES. 

Select large potatoes of uniform size and shape, wash and 
scrub them with a brush; bake them in a hot oven about an 
hour ; press them to see if done, but do not pierce them with 
a fork; when soft break the skin in one place and serve at 
once. They become watery if kept. 

LIMA BEANS. 

Put them into salted boiling water, and cook until tender, 
then drain off the water. Moisten them with butter, and sea- 
son with salt and pepper; and add, if convenient, a little 
hot cream or cover with white sauce. 

ASPARAGUS TIPS. 

Cut the asparagus stalks into pieces about an inch long, 
and as far down as tender ; cook them in salted boiling water. 
Drain and stir into them just enough white sauce to well 
cover them. 

SWEET POTATO PUEEE. 

Mash thoroughly the boiled potatoes, and season them well 
v,dth salt, pepper, and butter ; add enough hot milk to moisten 
them. Serve it the same as mashed white potato; or put it 
in a pudding-dish, brush the top with egg, and brown it in the . 
even. Serve with it a t(Jmato sauce, and use as a luncheon 
dish. Either boiled or baked potatoes may be used. 

STUFFED TOMATOES. 

Select large, firm tomatoes ; do not remove the skins ; cut 
a small slice off the stem end, and scoop out the inside. Fill 



VEGETABLES. 145 

them with a stuffing made as follows : Put one tablespoonful 
of butter in a saucepan; when hot add one tablespoonful of 
onion chopped fine. Let it color slightly; then add three 
quarters of a cupful of any minced meat, chicken, or livers, 
one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one cupful of bread- 
crumbs, the pulp taken from the tomatoes, one teaspoonful 
of salt, one quarter teaspoonful of pepper, and also an egg if 
desired. Stir it over the fire until it is consistent. Dust the 
inside of the tomatoes with salt and pepper, and fill them, 
letting the stuffing rise half an inch above the tomato, and 
place a piece of butter on it. The above amount of stuffing 
is enough for eight tomatoes. Cut slices of bread one half 
inch thick into circles the size of the tomato ; dip them quick- 
ly in water, and place in a baking-pan. Place a tomato on 
each piece of bread, and bake in oven about fifteen minutes. 
Of until the stuffing is browned. A brown sauce may be 
served with this dish. The meat may be omitted from the 
stuffing if desired. If convenient it is better to use oil instead 
of butter with tomatoes. 

EOASTED TOMATOES. 

Peel the tomatoes; cut a piece off the top, and remove a 
little of the pulp. Put a piece of butter or a few drops of oil 
in each one; dust with salt and pepper, replace the top, 
sprinkle it with crumbs, pepper, and salt. Put a small piece 
of butter or a little oil on each one, and place on a slice of 
bread. Bake in oven fifteen to twenty minutes. 

BROILED TOMATOES. 

Cut the tomatoes horizontally in two ; leave the skins on. 
Place them on a broiler with the skin side down; dust with 
salt and pepper, and broil without turning, over a moderate 
fire, fifteen to twenty minutes, or until tender. Lay them on 
a hot dish, and spread each piece with either butter, oil, 
niaitre d'hotel sauce, hot Mayonnaise or Bearnaise, or the to- 
matoes may be cut into thick slices, covered with oil, and then 
broiled, turning frequently. 
*10 



146 VEGETABLES. 

LYONNAISE POTATOES. 

Put one and a half tablespoonfuls of butter in a frying- 
pan. When melted add a scant tablespoonful of chopped 
onion ; let it slightly color, then add two cupf uls of cold boiled 
potatoes cut into dice. Stir until the potato has absorbed all 
the butter, and become slightly browned; then sprinkle with 
salt, pepper, and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Mix 
well, and serve very hot. 

FRIED POTATOES. 

Cold boiled potatoes are sliced, then put into a saute-pan 
with butter, and cooked -until browned on both sides. If 
rolled in flour they will form a crisp crust. Raw potatoes 
are sliced or cut into any shape, and put into cold water for 
hall an hour. They are then well dried on a napkin, and im- 
mersed in hot fat until done. Too many must not be put 
in the basket at once, as it cools the fat. Fry them to an 
amber color; then drain, and place them on a paper in the 
oven until all are done. Serve them at once, as tbey lose their 
crispness if kept. 

FRIED POTATO BALLS AND STRAWS. 

To make balls use a potato scoop ; press it well into the po- 
tato before turning it. To make straws cut the potato into 
slices lengthwise, and then into strips, making each one about 
one-eighth of an inch thick. 

Slices or strips cut with a fluted knife are good forms for 
fried potatoes. Fry the potatoes in hot fat, using a basket. 
Fancy fried potatoes are nsed to garnish any broiled meat 
dish. There are many kinds of cutters to give different 
shapes to potatoes. 

SARATOGA CHIPS. 

Cut the potatoes with a plane into slices as thin as paper 
if possible. Lot them soak in cold water for a little time to 
v/ash out the starch ; then put them into fresh water with a 
piece of ice to thoroughly chill them. Drain a few of the 



VEGETABLES. 147 

slices at a time, dry them on a napkin ; put them in a f rying- 
basket and immerse them in smoking-hot fat. Keep them 
separated, and remove as soon as slightly colored. Turn them 
into a colander to drain, and sprinkle them with salt. When 
the second lot are fried turn those in the colander on to a 
paper in the open oven, and so on until all are done. Sara- 
toga potatoes should be perfectly dry and crisp. They may 
be used hot or cold, and vrill keep for some time in a dry 
place. If wanted hot, place them in the oven a moment be- 
fore serving. 

PUFFED OE SOUFFLE POTATOES. 

Peel the potatoes; cut the sides square, and trim off the 
corners, so as to give an oval shape. With one even cut slice 
them one-eighth of an inch thick the length of the potato; 
they must be all the same size and shape. Soak them in cold 
water for half an hour; dry them on a napkin, and fry them 
ir fat which is only moderately hot until they are soft, but 
not colored. Remove and place them on a sieve to drain and 
cool. Then immerse them in hot fat, when they will puff 
into balls. Toss the basket, and remove any that do not puff. 
Sprinkle with salt, and serve them on a napkin, or as a 
garnisli. Holland potatoes best suit this purpose; it is im- 
possible to get the same result with most of the other varieties. 

SWEET POTATOES. 

Wash and scrub the potatoes; put them in boiling water, 
and cook until they can be pierced with a fork ; then pour off 
the water. Cover the pot with a cloth, and draw it to the 
side of the range to let the potatoes steam for ten minutes. 
Peel them before serving. 

BAKED SWEET POTATOES. 

Wash and scrub the potatoes without breaking the skin. 
I'ake until soft; then break the skin in one place, and serve 
at once. 



148 VEGETABLES. 



BROWNED SWEET POTATOES. 

Cut cold boiled potatoes into slices one-quarter of an inch 
tliick. Sprinkle them with salt and pepper; spread with 
butter, and sprinkle with sugar. Place them in a hot oven 
to brown. 

TOMATO PILAFF. 

Cook together one cup of stewed and strained tomato, one 
minced onion, one cup stock or gravy, with seasoning of salt 
and pepper. When boiling add one cupful of rice and toss 
lightly until the liquor is absorbed. Elicit one-half cupful of 
butter, pour over the rice and set on back of stove to steam. 
After about twenty minutes remove the cover, shake well, 
that the kernels may be distinct, and cover with a towel until 
ready to serve. 

CREAMED ONIONS. 

Peel one quart of medium-sized onions, place them in a 
saucepan, cover with boiling water; add one teaspoonful of 
sugar, and boil until nearly done; add one teaspoonful salt; 
boil a few minutes longer, then drain in a colander. Melt 
two tablespoonfuls of butter, add half a tablespoonful of 
flour. Stir and cook two minutes ; add one cupful of hot milk 
find cook two minutes longer, and season with whole pepper 
and salt. Put the onions in a hot dish and pour the sauce 
over them. 

RICE CROQUETTES. 

Put three-quarters of a cup of milk in a sauce-pan over the 
fire with a generous tablespoonful of butter, a heaping tea- 
spoonful 01 sugar, and, when it comes to a boil, add a cup and 
a half of boiled rice, a saltspoonful of powdered cinnamon or 
nutmeg, and salt to taste. Mix well, let it come to a boil. 
Add a beaten egg, remove from the fire, turn into a plate to 
get cold, form into cylinders and fry in hot butter. 



VEGETABLES. 149 

TUENIPS A LA CEEME. 

Cook some young turnips in the usual manner and mash 
them with plenty of cream. Serve in small portions on slices 
of toast or fried bread with a few capers spread over them. 
This makes a nice dish with which to commence a dinner 
where soup is not served. 

POTATO RISSOLES. 

Take some stiff mashed potatoes. Make a stuffing with 
two teaspoonfuls of breadcrumbs, a chopped tomato, a little 
parsley or herb seasoning, and moisten with beaten egg. Shape 
two rounds of potato, make a little hollow in one, fill with 
stuffing and press the other over it, roll in egg and bread- 
crumbs and then fry. 

SPINACH SOUFFLE. 

Boil some spinach thoroughly, pass it through a sieve and 
add two or three well-beaten eggs and a small amount of milk 
with pepper and salt; mix it thoroughly, put it in well but- 
tered souffle dishes and bake for ten minutes. This makes 
a nutritious and tasty dish. 

WAYS OF COOKING CABBAGE. 

Select firm, crisp heads, and boil briskly in plenty of water, 
keeping closely covered, or if possible cut up the cabbage, 
remove the hard core and steam. This will avoid the odor 
of cooking. When perfectly tender chop in a wooden bowl, 
have a white sauce ready of milk well thickened with corn- 
starch and flavored mth mace or nutmeg. In this stir your 
chopped soft cabbage, beat vigorously until becoming pulpy, 
adding for a good sized vegetable dishful a lump of butter the 
size of a small egg. Keep very hot and seive with any roast 
or poultry. Persons who dislike cabbage enjoy this dish and 
often ask what it is. 

Cabbage is perfectly delicious cooked with buttor and 
flour. Put it, with a heaping tablespoonful of butter and a 
level tablespoonful of flour, in a frying-pan, and cook until 
tender. Green savoy cabbage is especially good thus. 



150 VEGETABLES. 

A tablespoonful of vinegar in the water in which cabbage 
IS boiled destroys the odor of cooking. The same small con- 
diment in water in which a tough cut of beef is cooked will 
verj'- much improve its tenderness. 

"Kail cannon'' is cold cooked cabbage^ cold mashed or 
chopped potatoes, sliced onions and seasoning of pepper and 
salt, slowly fried with butter in a covered pan. 

YOUNG BOILED BEETS. 

After washing them, boil three-quarters of an hour, 
scrape, slice, and pour over them a tablespoonful of butter, 
Iwo of vinegar, and a little pepper and salt 

OLD BEETS (BOILED). 

Wash and cook in hot, salted water from two to three- 
hours, according to age and size. Throw at once into cold 
water when done, to loosen the skins ; peel quickly, slice thin, 
dish, and pour over them a sauce made of three tablespoon- 
fuls of scalding vinegar, a tablespoonful of butter, and a 
little pepper, and salt. Serve hot. "Left-overs" of beets 
should be kept for salad and for garnishes. 

BOILED ASPAEAGUS. 

Scrape the stalks and lay them in cold water for half an 
hour; tie into rather loose bundles with soft string, and 
cook in hot, salted water for half an hour. It is no longer 
considered necessary to serve boiled asparagus upon toast, 
many good judges of cooking preferring it without the sodden 
underpinning. If you are thus minded, undo the strings 
and arrange the stalks upon a hot dish. Pour white or Hoi- 
landaise sauce over it, or pass this separately. Or you may 
serve melted butter with it. 

ASPARAGUS A LA VINAIGEETTE. 

Boil as directed, and while the stalks are hot pour over 
them a dressing made of three tablespoonfuls of salad oil to 
one of vinegar, a teaspoonful of French mustard, a little salt 



VEGETABLES. 151 

and cayenne, and a saltspoonful of sugar. Set away in a 
closely covered dish, and when cold put upon the ice for 
some hours before sen-ing. It ranks among salads, but is 
a delicious accompaniment to cold lamb or chicken on a hot 
day. 

SCALLOPED ASPARAGUS. 

Wash the asparagus and cut off the hard, woody part of 
the stalks. Cut the tender part into inch lengths and par- 
boil for ten minutes in hot, salted water. Drain and put a 
layer of them in a buttered bake-dish. Scatter over this 
minced, hard-boiled eggs, season with salt, pepper, and butter- 
bits, and go on thus until the ingredients are used up. You 
need about four eggs to a bunch of asparagus. Make a roux 
of a large tablespoonful of butter and one of flour, and thin 
with a cupful of hot milk. Cook for a minute, season with 
paprica, and pour over the asparagus, a layer of which should 
be uppermost in the scallop; sift fine crumbs over all with 
bits of butter stuck in it and grated cheese upon this. Bake 
twenty minutes, covered, then brown slightly. 

ASPAEAGUS TIPS. 

Use for this dish only the delicate tips of asparagus, less 
than two inches long. Boil in hot, salted water until tender ; 
drain, turn into a deep dish, pepper, salt, butter, and pour a 
good white sauce over them — ^half a cupful to one cupful of - 
the tips. 

ASPARAGUS PATES. 

Cut rounds of stale bread an inch and a half thick. Press 
a small cutter an inch deep into each, and dig out the inside, 
leaving a round, saucer-like cavity. Butter these well and 
set upon the grating of a hot oven to crisp and to color light- 
ly. Fill them with asparagus tips prepared as in the last 
recipe, and serve hot. This is a nice luncheon entree. 

TOMATO BUTTER. 

Peel and cut ten pounds of tomatoes, one quart of vinegar, 
three pounds of brown sugar, four large apples, quarter of 



ib2 VEGETABLES. 

a teaspoonf ul cayenne, one tablespoonf ul each of whole cloves, 
whole cinnamon, whole allspice and salt. Tie spices in mus- 
lin bag and boil three hours. 

TOMATOES AND CHEESE. 

One tin of tomatoes, one cup of grated cheese, dash of 
cayenne pepper and salt in cheese, lump of butter on top, 
four or five soda biscuits crumbed. Bake in a pudding-dish 
in oven. 

CAULIFLOWEE AU OEATIN. 

Boil one or two cauliflowers (after removing leaves) until 
tender. Strain off the water and place in a dish. Cover 
with grated cheese, some white sauce and some fried bread- 
crumbs. Add some small pieces of butter and bake until ii 
nice brown. 

BOILED RICE. 

Have a large sauce-pan three parts full of water, let the 
water boil very fast, drop the rice in through the fingers, 
stirring with a fork ; keep it boiling very fast for ten minutes, 
stirring all the time. Put it into a wire sieve and let cold 
water run through for three minutes, put back into a dry 
sauce-pan; separate the grains with a fork; stand it on the 
stove to dry, stirring occasionally. Do not cover rice while 
drying. 

BERMUDA ONIONS (STUFFED). 



Peel large Bermuda or Spanish onions, and parboil them 
for ten minutes. Drain, and let them get perft^ctly cold. 
With a sharp knife dig out the centre from each and fill with 
a force-meat of minced meat, veal, ham, or chicken, well 
seasoned, and mixed with one-third as much fine crumbs. 
Season with salt and cayenne and a little butter. Set the 
stuffed onions close together in a dish, fill the interstices with 
crumbs, and scatter more over the top. Pour about them 
enough weak stock to keep them from burning — about an 



VEGETABLES. 153 

inch in the bottom of the dish will do — and cook, covered, 
half an hour. Uncover and brown lightly. Onion-lovers 
will find this very palatable. 

STUFFED GREEN PEPPERS. 

Cut the tops off the sweet green peppers and carefully 
remove the seeds. Chop together very fine two peppers, one 
small onion and one large tomato (peeled) ; add an equal 
amount of stale bread-crumbs, one teaspoonful of salt and 
sufficient melted butter to moisten the mixture. Fill the pep- 
pers with the mixture, replace the tops and bake for half 
an hour in a moderate oven. 

BAKED OYSTER PLANT (SALSIFY). 

Boil the salsify until perfectly tender, then mash through 
a strainer. Season with pepper and salt. Add a tablespoonful 
of butter and half a cup of milk. Put in a bake-dish, cover 
with bread-crumbs and bits of butter, and bake fifteen 
minutes. 

ONION SOUFFLE. 

" Oh ! that some one would patent — 
Would patent, make, and sell — 
An onion, with an onion taste, 
But with a violet smell." 

One cup white sauce, one-half cup bread crumbs, one cup 
finely cut, chopped, cooked, cold onions, two-thirds cup milk, 
one-eighth teaspoon white pepper, yolks three eggs, whites 
of three beaten dry, one-eighth teaspoon salt. Soak the 
crumbs in cold milk, add white sauce, onions, yolks, pepper, 
salt, and last beaten whites. Turn into buttered mould and 
bake forty-five minutes. 

SALSIFY. 

Scrape roots and put in water with spoonful of vinegar. 
Boil in plenty of water for an hour (water boiling when sal- 
sify put in) with an ounce of butter, two tablespoonfuls of 



164 VEGETABLES. 

vinegar and salt. Drain and serve with white or brown 
sauce, or serve egged and fried in breadcrumbs, or may be 
cnt small and scalloped like oysters, or may be set to cool 
sliced in rounds and set in aspic jelly as an accompaniment 
to various cold meats, or to garnish jellied meats, or to ac- 
company a light French salad, for which it must be in jelly. 
( Salsify, or oyster plant, is one of the most delightful of vege- 
tables, not half enough used.) 

BOILED COEN. 

Husk, clearing the ear of every strand of silk, and trim 
off stem and top neatly. Boil fifteen or twenty minutes, ac- 
cording to the age of the corn. Drain, sprinkle the corn with 
salt, and serve upon a hot napkin upon a platter. Fold the 
corners of the napkin over the corn. 

STEWED COEN. 

Husk and clean the corn, and leave it in cold water for 
fifteen minutes. With a sharp knife split each row of grains 
all the way down from stem to tip of the ear; then shave, 
rather than cut, them off down to the cob. Cover with hot 
water in a sauce-pan, and stew slowly for twenty minutes. 
Stir in a tablespoonful of butter for a pint of corn : pepper 
and salt and serve. 

STEWED COEN AND TOMATOES. 

Cook as in last recipe, and when the corn has simmered five 
minutes add a cupful of chopped tomatoes (peeled). Cook 
twenty minutes longer after the boil recommences, season and 
serve. If there is much liquid in the stew, roll the butter in 
flour before adding it, and boil a minute more than if the 
flour were not used. 

COEN FEITTEES. 

Two cupfuls of grated -green corn; two eggs; one cupful 
of milk ; a pinch of soda ; salt and pepper to taste ; one table- 
spoonful of melted butter, two tablespoonfuls of flour. Mix 
and fry as you would griddle-cakes, and send in hot, in relays. 



VEGETABLES. 155 

SUCCOTASH. 

Six ears of corn, one pint of string-beans, trimmed and 
cut into short pieces; one tablespoonful of butter rolled in 
flour; one cupful of milk; pepper and salt. Cut the corn 
from the cob, bruising as little as possible. Put over the fire 
with the beans in enough hot water, salted, to cover them, 
and stew gently half an hour. Turn off nearly all the water 
and add a cupful of milk. Simmer in this, stirring to pre- 
vent burning, twenty minutes; add the floured butter, the 
pepper and salt, and stew ten minutes. Serve in a deep dish. 

CANNED COEN 

may be used satisfactorily in most dishes that call for greeji 
corn. If, before cooking it, the contents of the can be turned 
into a fine colander, and cold water poured over it to wash 
off the liquor in which it was preserved, the taste will be 
cleaner and sweeter. Like all other "canned goods'^ corn 
should be opened and poured out upon an open dish for some 
hours before it is used to get rid of the close, smoky flavor 
and smell. 

ONION FRITTERS. 

Slice onion across and then pull ajDart. Then make a 
batter — the whites of two eggs, half cup milk; put in slowly 
two heaping tablespoonfuls of flour and a little salt; mix 
in onion thoroughly and fry in boiling lard; dry on brown 
paper. 

CORN FRITTERS. 

One can of corn, two eggs, seasoning to taste, two table- 
spoonfuls of milk or cream. Beat eggs well; add corn by 
degrees, beating very hard; salt to taste; one tablespoonful 
of butter; stir in milk and thickening enough to hold to- 
gether for frying. 

STEWED TOMATOES. 

Pour boiling water upon tomatoes to loosen their skins, 
and peel them. Slice, or cut int« dice, and cook in a porce- 



156 VEGETABLES. 

lain or agate-iron saucepan for twenty minutes. Drain off 
the superfluous liquid, pepper and salt it, and keep for sauces, 
stews, and soups. Stir into the hot tomatoes, for each quart, 
a tablespoonful of butter rolled in corn-starch or in fine 
cracker-dust, a teaspoonf ul each of salt and pepper, and half a 
teaspoonful of grated onion. Cook three minutes longer and 
serve. 

TOMATOES AU GRATIN. 

One quart fine, smooth tomatoes; one cupful bread- 
crumbs; one small onion, minced fine; one teaspoonful white 
sugar; two tablespoonfuls butter — ^melted; cayenne and salt. 
Cut a piece from the top of each tomato. Scoop out the in- 
side, leaving a hollow shell. Chop the pulp fine, mix with 
the crumbs, butter, sugar, pepper, salt, and onion. Fill the 
cavities of the tomatoes with this stuffing, heaping and round- 
ing each; scatter fine crumbs on the top, and arrange in a 
bake-dish. Sei the dish, covered, in an oven, and bake half 
an hour before uncovering, after which brown lightly, and 
send to table on a hot platter. 

BROILED TOMATOES WITH SAUCE. 

Six fine, firm tomatoes, pared and sliced nearly half an 
inch thick; yolks of three hard-boiled eggs, pounded; three 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter and same of vinegar; two 
raw eggs, beaten light; one teaspoonful of sugar and half as 
much, each, of made mustard and salt; a pinch of cayenne. 
Eub butter, pounded yolks, pepper, salt, mustard, and sugar 
together. Beat hard, add vinegar, and heat to a boil. Put 
this gradually upon the beaten eggs and whip to a smooth 
cream. Set in hot water while you broil the tomatoes in an 
oyster-boiler over clear coals. Lay this upon a hot-water 
dish and pour the scalding dressing upon them. 

You may substitute a simpler sauce for this dressing, 
such as maitre d'hotel sauce, or one made by beating two tea- 
spoonfuls of lemon juice in three tablespoonfuls of butter, 
and seasoning this with a little mustard or cayenne. 



VEGETABLES. 157 

SCALLOPED TOMATOES (No. 1). 

Butter a bake-dish and cover the bottom with fine, dry 
crumbs. Next put a layer of sliced and peeled tomatoes; 
season with pepper, salt, sugar, butter, and a few drops of 
onion-juice. More crumbs and more tomatoes until the dish 
if* full. The top layer should be crumbs, peppered, salted, 
and buttered. Bake half an hour, covered. Uncover and 
brown. If canned tomatoes are used, drain off half the juice 
before you begin the scallop, or it will be too watery. Season 
the liquor and save for sauces and soups. 

SCALLOPED TOMATOES (No. 2). 

Peel and slice tomatoes. Chop fine two slices of fat salt 
pork and a small onion. Place a layer of tomatoes in a pud- 
ding-dish, pepper and salt lightly, sprinkle with a very little 
sugar and with the pork and onion. Cover with crumbs and 
continue using the ingredients in this order until the dish 
is full. Have the top layer crumbs. Bake, covered, half an 
hour, then uncover and brown ten minutes. Serve in the 
dish in which they were baked. 

BAKED TOMATOES. 

Peel with a sharp knife. Cut a piece from the top and 
gouge out most of the pulp, leaving the walls intact. Season 
what you have removed witb pepper, salt, sugar, a few drops 
of onion-juice, and twice as much salad oil when you have 
chopped the pulp rather coarsely. Put it back into the to- 
matoes, replace the top, sprinkle with oil, paprica, and salt, 
and arrange upon a baking-pan. Bake, covered, for twenty 
minutes, and uncovered for five, and serve upon buttered Gra- 
ham-bread toast. 

FRIED TOMATOES IN BATTER. 

A nice side-dish is made by dipping slices of ripe toma- 
toes into a batter made of flour, milk and an egg, and then 
irymg them a delicate brown. 



158 VEGETABLES. 

FKIED TOMATOE>S (PLAIN). 

Wash and wipe, but do not peel, the tomatoes. Slice, 
dust each piece with paprica, salt, and sugar, sprinkle with 
a few drops of onion-juice; dip in fine corn-meal, and fry in 
deep, hot cottolene, as you would fritters. Serve dry with 
fish or with chops. 

DEVILED TOMATOES. 

Fine, firm tomatoes — about a quart; three hard-boiled 
eggs — the yolks only; three tablespoonfuls of melted butter; 
three tablespoonfuls of vinegar ; two raw eggs, whipped light ; 
one teaspoonful of powdered sugar; one saltspoonful of salt; 
cne teaspoonful of made mustard; a good pinch of cayenne 
pepper. Pound the boiled yolks; rub in the butter and sea- 
soning. Beat light, add the vinegar, and heat almost to a 
boil. Stir in the beaten egg until the mixture begins to 
thicken. Set in hot water while you cut the tomatoes in slices 
nearly half an inch thick. Broil over a clear fire upon a wire 
oyster-broiler. Lay on a hot-water dish, and pour the hot 
sauce over them, 

EAST INDIAN RAGOUT OF TOMATOES. 

Break the shell of a cocoanut, saving the milk if it be 
sweet. Grate the meat when you have taken off the brown 
skin. Heat the milk and pour over the grated cocoanut. (If 
the milk be not sweet use a cupful of boiling water, slightly 
sweetened with loaf-sugar.) Set aside, covered, until per- 
fectly cold, then strain through a muslin bag, squeezing out 
every drop of liquid. Peel and cut up fine enough firm to- 
matoes to make two cupf uls ; add a large green pepper, chop- 
ped, a tiny pinch of chopped garlic, a tablespoonful of grated 
onion, and stew gently for twenty minutes. Add then a tea- 
spoonful of curry and draM^ to the side of the range, while 
you heat the cocoanut-milk and thin with it a roux of one 
tablespoonful of flour, stirred smooth into a larger spoonful 
of boiling butter. Season with salt to taste, pour all together 
in a deep dish, stir in a quarter-teaspoonful of soda, and serve 
while frothing. It will be relished by the lovers of highly 
seasoned sauces and stews. Eat with roast, or boiled chicken, 
or with fish. 



VEGETABLES. 159 



GREEN PEAS. 

Shell and wash ; put them in slightly salted boiling water, 
ond cook them in this for twenty-five minutes. Drain well, 
turn into a hot dish, put a lump of butter the size of an egg 
upon them and a little pepper and salt. 

CANNED PEAS. 

Drain and leave in cold water for ten minutes, put on in 
palted boiling water, cook fifteen minutes ; drop in a lump of 
white sugar and a small sprig of mint, and cook five minutes 
longer. Drain, butter, pepper and salt, and serve. 

PUREE OF GREEN PEAS. 

Shell half a peck of peas and set them in a cold place 
while you boil the pods for twenty minutes in just enough 
hot, salted water to cover them. Strain them; return the 
water to the fire with the peas and a sprig of mint, and boil 
until they are soft enough to rub through a colander. When 
you have pressed all through that will go, stir into them a 
cupful of the water in which they were cooked, season with 
pepper and salt and put back into the colander. As they 
begin to simmer stir in a roux of one tablespoonful of flour, 
cooked for three minutes in two tablespoonfuls of butter, 
cook one minute, take from the fire and add three tablespoon- 
fuls of cream, that have been heated with a tiny bit of soda. 
Pour upon squares of fried bread laid on a hot platter. 

PLAIN PUREE OP GREEN PEAS. 

Boil and rub a quart of peas through a colander, or pass 
them through a vegetable-press. Heat a table :poonful of 
butter in a saucepan with pepper, paprica, or a dash of cay- 
enne, half a teaspoonful of sugar, and three mint leaves, finely 
minced. Stir in the pulped peas and toss and stir with a 
silver fork until they are very hot. Pile upon a hot platter 
and lay triangles of fried bread about the base. 



160 VEGETABLES. 

GEEEN-PEA PANCAKES. 

Two ciipfuls of green peas left over from dinner, or boiled 
expressly for this dish, mashed while hot, and rubbed through 
a colander. Season with pepper, salt, and butter to taste; 
let them get cold; then add two beaten eggs and a cupful of 
milk. Sift half a teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder 
twice through half a cupful of flour, and beat in lightly at the 
last. Mix well and bake as you would griddle-cakes. Eat hot. 

LIMA BEANS (STEWED). 

Shell a quart of beans, and boil tender in hot, salted water. 
Drain, add four tablespoonfuls of hot milk, in which has 
been melted a tablespoonful of butter rolled in a teaspoonful 
of flour. Simmer for five minutes, season with pepper and 
salt, and serve. 

KIDNEY BEANS. 

If fresh, cook them as you would Lima beans. If dried, 
soak over night, and put over the fire in the morning in salted 
boiling water, and cook gently one hour, or until soft, but not 
broken. Drain, stir in pepper, salt, and a lump of butter, 
and serve. 

KIDNEY BEANS A LA LYONNAISE. 

Soak over night and boil tender, but not until they break ; 
drain perfectly dry, throw in a little salt, and leave over an 
empty pot in the colander at the side of the range, as you 
would potatoes, to " dry off." Have ready in a frying-pan a 
great spoonful of clarified dripping (that from roast beef is 
best), with half a small onion, grated, and a little chopped 
parsley. Salt and pepper to taste, and when hissing hot put 
ir the beans. Shake over the fire about two minutes, until 
the content^ of the pan are well mixed, and as hot as may be 
without scorching, then serve. 

" BLACK-EYED PEAS " 

are really a species of bean, although known at the South, 
where they are abundant, by the name given above. They are 



VEGETABLES. 161 

boiled always with a bit of fat bacon, to give them richness. 
Drain well, pepper, salt, and serve with the bacon on the top 
of the peas; or, after they are boiled they are drained and 
turned into a frying-pan in which slices of fat bacon have 
been cooked and then taken out, leaving the fat in the pan. 
Saute the peas in this until dry, hot, and well-seasoned by 
the fat. Serve dry, and lay the fried bacon on or about the 
peas. Dried black-eyed peas must be soaked over night. 

BOILED CAULIFLOWER. 

Boil the cauliflower, tied in a net, in plenty of hot, salted 
water, in which has been stirred a tablespoonful of vinegar; 
when done, drain and dish, the flower upward. Pour over it 
a cupful of drawn butter seasoned with lemon-juice, pepper, 
and salt. Serve very hot. 

BOILED CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE. 

Cook as directed in last recipe, but when dished pour over 
it, instead of the white sauce, a cupful of strained tomato 
sauce, seasoned with butter, sugar, salt, and paprica. 

CAULIFLOWER (PARISIAN STYLE). 

Boil a good-sized cauliflower until tender, chop it coarsely, 
and press it hard in a bowl or mould, so that it will keep its 
form when turned out. Put the shape thus made upon a dish 
til at will stand the heat, and pour over it a tomato sauce. 
Make this by cooking together a tablespoonful of butter and 
flour in a saucepan, and pouring upon them a pint of strain- 
ed tomato-juice in which half an onion has been stewed. Stir 
until smooth, and thicken still more by the addition of three 
or four tablespoonfuls of cracker-dust. Salt to taste, turn 
the sauce over the moulded cauliflower, set it in the oven for 
about ten minutes, and serve in the dish in which it is cooked. 

BAKED Cx\ULIFLOWER. 

Cut into clusters and stew tender in boiling, salted water. 
Or, if you have a couple of small cauliflowers, boil them whole 
♦11 



162 VEGETABLES. 

and dish together. Drain and lay in a bake-dish. Pour 
over it a good white sauce (hot), sprinkle with grated cheese 
and paprica, and bake, covered, twenty minutes. It will be 
found very nice. 

SPINACH SOUFFLE. 

Boil and chop a peck of spinach, and while hot stir in a 
tablespoonful of butter and a beaten egg, salt, and nutmeg. 
Season with a little sugar, pepper, and set away to get cold. 
When you are ready for it, whip into the cold spinach two 
tablespoonfuls of cream and the stiffened whites of three eggs. 
Pour into a handsome bake-dish, sift a small teaspoonful of 
powdered sugar on top, and bake in a hot oven ten minutes, 
covered, five minutes when you have uncovered it. Send 
immediately to table, as it soon falls. It may be served as a 
separate course at a luncheon. Each portion should be helped 
out upon a square of fried bread laid upon each plate. As 
the initiated will at once see, this is also a' French recipe. 

SPINACH BOILED PLAIN. 

Wash a peck of spinach, pick the leaves from the stems, 
and, without shaking off the wet, put them into an agate-iron 
0]- porcelain saucepan. Set this in a pot of boiling water, 
cover closely, and cook for fifteen minutes. Stir up well 
from the bottom, then, and put into the saucepan a table- 
spoonful of hot water in which has been dissolved half a 
saltspoon of soda. Beat in well, cover the pot, and cook ten 
minutes longer. Drain the spinach in a colander without 
pressing it at first, seasoning with salt, pepper, butter, a little 
sugar, and half a teaspoonful of lemon-juice. Turn into a 
hot colander, press out the rem.aining juice very gently not 
to bruise the spinach, and serve on a heated platter. Cover 
with slices of hard boiled egg, and serve one with each por- 
tion of spinach. The soda gives a fine green to this vegetable. 

BOILED SQUASH. 

Pare off the outer shell, take out the seeds, and cut into 
small pieces. Boil in hot, salted water until tender. If 



VEGETABLES. 163 

young, twenty minutes will do this ; a longer time is required 
for full-grown squash. Drain well, rub through a vegetable- 
press, and return to the saucepan. Mix with salt, pepper, 
and a tablespoonful of butter made into a roux with a table- 
spoonful of flour. Stir and beat for a whole minute, until 
j-ou have a creamy, smoking mass, and pour out. Squash 
cooked in this way is a very different thing from the watery 
stuff usually served under that name. 

BAKED SQUASH. 

Boil and mash the squash, stir in two teaspoonfuls of 
butter, an egg, beaten light, a quarter of a cupful of milk, 
and pepper and salt to taste. Fill a buttered pudding-dish 
with this, strew fine bread-crumbs over the top and bake to a 
nice brown. 

SQUASH FEITTERS. 

To two cupfuls of cooked and creamed squash (cold) 
allow two of milk, two eggs, a saltspoonful of salt, and half 
a cupful of flour in which has been sifted half a teaspoonfuJ 
of Magic Baking Powder. There should be Just enough 
flour to hold the mixture together. Bake on a griddle as you 
would cakes, and send to table hot. 

FEIED EGG-PLANT. 

Slice the egg-plant about half an inch thick, peeling the 
slices. Lay them in salt and water for an hour, placing a 
plate on them to keep them down. Wipe each slice dry, and 
dip into a batter made of a beaten egg, a cupful of milk, half 
n cupful of flour, and pepper and salt. Fry in boiling drip- 
ping and serve on a hot dish, first draining off all the grease. 

BROILED EGG-PLANT. 

Peel and cut into rather thin slices and lay in salted ice- 
water for an hour; spread upon a soft towel and cover with 
another, patting and pressing the slices until they are en- 
tirely dry. Leave them for ten minutes in a mixture of three 
tablespoonfuls of olive oil and the juice of half a lemon; 
sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and broil quickly upon a 
wire broiler. Twelve minutes should cook both sides. 



164 VEGETABLES. 

STEWED CAEKOTS. 

Scrape and boil whole three-quarters of an hour, drain, 
and cut into cubes half an inch square. Have ready in a 
saucepan enough weak stock to cover the carrot-dice. Put 
them on in it and cook twenty minutes, or until tender. Add 
then two tablespoonfuls of milk, a tablespoonful of butter cut 
up in one of flour, salt and pepper to taste. Simmer five 
minutes and serve. 

YOUNG CAEEOTS A LA PAEISIENNE. 

Boil for five minutes; take up and rub off the skins with 
a coarse cloth. Eeturn to the fire and cook until tender. 
Slice lengthwise, making three pieces of a medium-sized car- 
rot, two of a small. Have hot in a frying-pan a tablespoon- 
ful of butter for each cupful of the carrots, and when 
it bubbles lay in the slices. Saute on both sides, quickly, and 
just before taking them up sprinkle with chopped parsley. 
Dish dry; stew over them a little white sugar, pepper, and 
salt, and serve very hot. 

FEIED SWEET PEPPEES. 

Cut open crosswise, extract the seeds, cut the peppers into 
slices, lay in cold water for fifteen minutes, salt slightly, dust 
with flour and fry in hot cottolene for five or six minutes. 
They are an appetizing accompaniment to cold meat or to 
boiled fish. 

SALSIFY PEITTEES. 

One bunch of salsify; two eggs; half a cupful of milk; 
flour for thin batter; dripping or cottolene; salt to taste. 
Scrape and grate the roots, and stir into a batter made of the 
beaten eggs, the milk, and flour. Grate the salsify directly 
into this, that it may not blacken by exposure to the air. 
Salt, and drop a spoonful into the hot fat to see if it is of the 
right consistency. As fast as you fry the fritters, throw 
into a hot colander to drain. One great spoonful of batter 
should make a fritter. 



VEGETABLES. 165 

STEWED SALSIFY. 

Scrape a bunch of salsify and drop into cold water as you 
cu5 into inch lengths. Boil in hot, salted water until tender. 
Drain this off, and pour into the saucepan with the salsify a 
cupful of hot niillv. Simmer five minutes, and stir in a 
tablespoonful of butter and three tablespoonfuls of cracker- 
dust, with pepper and salt. Stew putly for three minutes 
and dish. 

BUTTEEED PAESNIPS. 

Boil tender and scrapie Slice lengthwise and saute in a 
little butter heated in a frying-pan and seasoned mth pepper, 
salt, and minced parsley. Shake and turn until the parsnips 
are well coated and hot through. Dish, and pour the butter 
over them. 

FEIED PAESNIPS. 

Boil tender in salted, hot water ; let them get cold, scrape 
off the skin and slice lengthwise. Pepper and salt, dredge 
with flour, and fry in hot dripping to a light brown. Drain 
and serve. 

PARSNIP CAKES. 

Wash, scrape and boil the parsnips tender. While hot 
raash, season with salt and pepper, and make with floured 
hands into small, flat cakes. Flour well and fry in clarified 
dripping. 

CEEAMED PARSNIPS. 

Boil, scrape, and slice crosswise. Heat a tablespoonful 
of butter in a saucepan ; put in the parsnips and shake and 
turn until all are coated with the butter and very hot. Turn 
them into a deep dish and pour over them a sauce made by 
adding to the butter left in the saucepan a teaspoonful of 
flour and thinning it with three or four tablespoonfuls of 
hot cream. Boil up once, and when you have covered the 
parsnips with it, serve. 



166 VEGETABLES. 

YOUNG TURNIPS. 

Peel and quarter. Cook half an hour, or until tender, but 
not broken, in boiling, salted water. Drain, still without 
breaking, and dish. Sprinkle with pepper and salt, then 
butter plentifully and serve. Turnips must be served hot, 
oi- they are not fit to eat. 

YOUNG TURNIPS (STEWED). 

Peel and quarter, or slice. Boil fifteen minutes in hot, 
salted water, drain and cover with a cupful of milk that has 
been heated in a separate vessel with a tiny bit of soda. When 
they simmer again stir in a tablespoonful of butter rolled in 
balf as much flour, pepper and salt to taste, and stew gently 
fifteen minutes more. Serve in a deep, covered dish, and 
very hot. 

YOUNG TURNIPS (FRIED). 

Pare and slice crosswise a quarter of an inch thick. Lay 
in ice-cold water half an hour, then cook tender, but not too 
soft, in boiling water without salt. Drain, lay upon a soft 
cloth until dry and lukewarm., sprinkle with pepper and salt, 
flour, and fry in hot cottolene; or, dip in beaten egg, then in 
cracker-dust, and fry. 

BOILED ARTICHOKES. 

Pare off the stems and the lower and coarser leaves. With 
a sharp knife trim the tops evenly, and take out the hard 
core. Wash and lay in cold water ten minutes. Shake off 
the wet and cook in boiling, salted water for thirty-five min- 
utes, or until the bottoms are tender. If large, cut into 
halves; if of moderate size, serve whole with drawn butter 
or sauce piquante poured over them. 

FRIED BANANAS. 

Strip off the skins; cut each banana (or plantain) into 
three slices, and flour well. Saute in hot butter in a frying- 
pan, or fry in deep fat. Drain dry and serve hot. Or, roll in 



VEGETABLES. 167 

egg, then in cracker dust; set on ice for one hour and fry Id 
hot, deep cottolene. 

BANANA CROQUETTES. 

For this purpose select small, yellow bananas (or plan- 
tains) ; strip off the skins and cut ofE the ends, so as to makp 
them look like croquettes; pepper and salt, roll in egg, then 
in cracker-crumbs, set on the ice for one hour to stiifen them, 
and fry in hot, deep cottolene to a golden brown. Serve dry 
and hot. They should accompany chicken or lamb, being a 
delicate yet piquante vegetable, and unfit to attend roast beef 
or other heavy meats. 

CEEAMED CELERY. 

Cut into inch-long pieces. Cook tender in boiling, salted 
water, drain this off, and cover with a cupful of hot milk 
(half cream, if you have it) in which has been stirred a table- 
spoonful of white roux. Simmer five minutes and serve. 

SAVORY CELERY. 

Select the whitest and tenderest stalks and lay aside in 
ice- water. Cut the outer, coarser stalks into three-inch lengths, 
and stew in a cupful of stock, seasoned with half teaspoonful 
of onion-juice, salt, pepper, and parsley. Cook, covered, for 
an hour, slowly. Drain and press in a colander. Return the 
stock to the fire, and when it boils put the reserved stalks, 
also cut into short lengths, into it. Cook gently until tender, 
thicken with a good spoonful of ronx, boil up and serve. 

TOMATOES ON TOAST (A LA AUNT KATE). 

Wash and slice in half -inch rounds good firm tomatoes; 
place a layer of tomatoes on slices of bread half -inch thick; 
sprinkle "with pepper and salt, and on each round of tomato 
put a small piece of butter. Bake in shallow meat-pan in 
rather quick oven until bread turns golden brown. Serve at 
once. 



168 VEGETABLES. 

CAULIFLOWER AU GRATIN. 

Cook cauliflower; drain well and remove the flowerettes, 
tear the rest to pieces with a fork, lay it in a deep dish and 
sprinkle over it a little salt, pepper and grated cheese and a 
few dried crumbs moistened with milk. Then add the top 
layer of the flowerettes and sprinkle with the salt, pepper 
and cheese, and bake until slightly brown.. 

LEEKS. 

Boil in salted water until tender. Serve on serviette on 
platter with sauce-boat of rich white sauce. 

HORSERADISH SAUCE. 

One-half teaspoon mustard, two teaspoons granulated 
sugar, salt and pepper to taste, one-quarter cup vinegar, one- 
quarter cup grated horseradish. Mix mustard and sugar, 
vinegar, etc. ; add radish ; three-quarters cup whipped cream. 

COLD SAVORY. 

One pint cream whipped stiff, then mix in one ounce of 
dissolved isinglass and some grated cheese. Put in tiny 
moulds when cold, turn out and serve on lettuce leaves, with a 
slice of tomato under each leaf. 

POTATO CROQUETTES. 

One and a half cups of mashed potatoes, two eggs, two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, a little salt and chopped parsley. 
Mix, form into croquettes, roll in egg and broAvned crumbs 
and fry in deep kettle of boiling lard. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 



It depends as much upon the Judgment of the cook as on 
the materials used to make a good pudding. Everything 
should be the best in the way of materials, and a proper at- 
tention to the rules, with some practice, will ensure success. 

Puddings are either boiled, baked, or steamed; if boiled, 
the materials should be well worked together, put into a thick 
cloth bag, previously dipped in hot water, wringing it slightly 
and dredging the inside thickly with flour; tie it firmly, al- 
lowing room for it to swell; drop it into a kettle of boiling 
•water, with a small plate or saucer in the bottom to keep it 
from sticking to the kettle. It should not cease boiling one 
moment from the time it is put in until taken out, and the 
pot must be tightly covered, and the cover not removed ex- 
cept when necessary to add water from the boiling tea-kettle 
when the water is getting low. When done, dip immediately 
in cold water and turn out. This should be done just before 
placing on the table. 

Or, butter a tin pudding mould or an earthen bowl ; close 
it tight 60 that water cannot penetrate; drop it into boiling 
water and boil steadily the required time. If a bowl is used 
it should be well buttered, and not quite filled with the pud- 
ding, allowing room for it to swell ; then a cloth wet in hot 
water, slightly wringing it, then floured on the inner side, 
and tied over the bowl, meeting under the bottom. 

To steam a pudding, put it into a tin pan or earthen dish ; 
tie a cloth over the top, first dredging it in flour, and set it 
into a steamer. Cover the steamer closely; allow a little 
longer time than you do for boiling. 

Moulds or basins for baking, steaming or boiling should 
be well buttered before the mixture is put into them. 



170 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

Dumplings boiled the same way, put into little separate 
cloths. 

Batter puddings should be smoothly mixed and free from 
lumps. To ensure this, first mix the flour with a very small 
proportion of milk, the yolks of the eggs and sugar thoroughly 
beaten together, and added to this; tlien add the remainder 
of tlie milk by degrees, then the seasoning, then the beaten 
whit(.^ of eggs last. Much success in making this kind of 
pudding depends upon a strict observance of this rule; for, 
nllLough the materials may be good, if the eggs are put into 
the milk before they arc mixed with the flour, there will .be 
a custard at the top and a soft dough at the bottom of your 
dish. 

All sweet puddings require a little salt to prevent insipid- 
ity and to draw out the flavor of the several ingredients, but 
a grain too much will spoil any pudding. 

In puddings where wine, brandy, cider, lemon-juice or 
any acid is used, it should be stirred in last, and gradually, or 
it is apt to curdle the milk or eggs. 

In making custard puddings (puddings made with eggs 
and milk) , the yolk of tlie eggs and sugar should be thorough- 
ly beaten together before any of the milk or seasoning is 
added, and the beaten whites of egg last. 

In making puddings of bread, rice, sago, tapioca, etc., 
the eggs should be beaten very light, and mixed with a por- 
tion of the milk, before adding them to the other ingredients. 
If the eggs are mixed with the milk, without having been 
thus beaten, the milk will be absorbed by the bread, rice, sago, 
tapioca, etc., without rendering them light. 

The freshness of aU pudding ingredients is of much im- 
portance, as one bad article will taint the whole mixture. 

When the freshness of eggs is doubtful, break each one 
separately in a cup, before mixing them all together. The 
yolks and whites beaten separately make the articles they are 
put into much lighter. 

Baisins and dried fruits for puddings should be carefully 
picked, and, in many cases, stoned. Currants should be well 
washed, pressed in a cloth, and placed on a dish before the firp 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 171 

to get thoroughly dry; they should then be picked carefully 
over, and every piece of grit or stone removed from amongst 
them. To plump them, some cooks pour boiling water over 
them, and then dry them before the fire. 

Many baked-pudding recipes are quite as good boiled. As 
a safe rule, boil the pudding twice as long as you would re- 
quire to bake it ; and remember that a boiling pudding should 
never be touched after it is once put on tbe stove; a jar of 
the kettle destroys the lightness of the pudding. If the water 
boils down and m.ore must be added, it must be done so care- 
fully that the mould will not hit the side of the kettle, and it 
must not be allowed to stop boiling for an instant. 

Batter should never stick to the knife when it is sent to 
the table; it will do this both when an insufficient num- 
ber of eggs is mixed with it and when it is not enough 
cooked; about four eggs to the half pound of flour will make 
it firm enough to cut smoothly. 

When baked or boiled puddings are sufficiently solid, turn 
them out of the dish they were cooked in, bottom uppermost, 
and strew over them finely sifted sugar. 

When pastry or baked puddings are not done through, 
and yet the outside is sufficiently brown, cover them over with 
a piece of white paper until thorougbly cooked; this pre- 
vents them from scorching. 

TO CLEAN CUEEANTS. 

Put them in a sieve or colander, and sprinkle them thickly 
with flour; rub them well until tliey are separated, and the 
flour, grit and fine stems have passed through the strainer. 
Place the strainer and currants in a pan of water and wash 
thoroughly, then lift the strainer and the currants together, 
and change the water until it is clear. Dry the currants be- 
tween clean towels. It hardens them to dry in an oven. 

TO CHOP SUET. 

Break or cut in small pieces, sprinkle with sifted flour, 
and chop in a cold place to keep it from becoming sticky and 
soft. 



172 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

TO STONE EAISINS. 

Put them in a dish and pour boiling water over them; 
cover and let them remain in it ten minutes; it will soften 
so that by rubbing each raisin between the thumb and finger, 
the seeds will come out clean ; then they are ready for cutting 
or chopping if required. 

MAEMALADE PUDDING. 

Four tablespoonfuls of marmalade, about three cups of 
bread crumbs, half a. cup of milk and water mixed, one cup 
of suet, one cup flour, one spoonful Magic Baking Powder, 
pinch of salt. Steam and serve with sauce. 

COLD FEUIT PUDDING. 

Hot stewed fruit poured over layers of bread and butter 
in a mould; when cold serve with cream. 

COTTAGE PUDDING. 

Two tablespoonfuls butter, one cup white sugar, one egg, 
one cup milk, one pint flour, two tablespoonfuls Magic Bak- 
ing Powder; bake and serve with sauce. 

PLUM PUDDING. 

One pound stoned raisins, one pound currants, one pound 
beef suet, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, two ounces 
lemon peel, two ounces orange peel, two ounces citron peel, 
six ounces of flour, one-quarter pound bread crumbs, little 
nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, and a little salt. Mix all together 
with six or eight eggs and a little milk, dip cloth in boiling 
water, flour, and put in mixture, and tie loosely ; boil fast for 
four hours and a half. 

CAEAMEL PUDDING. 

Four tablespoonfuls white sugar, one-half cup brown 
sugar. Put on stove and stir until Wown. One pint milk. 
Put on stove again to simmer, two tablespoonfuls corn starch, 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 173 

vanilla flavoring. When all are ready mix together, and stir 
until thick. Put in a mould to cool. 

CHEESE PUDDING FOR LUNCHEON. 

This dish is rather nice for a midday luncheon, or it may 
be served as a supper dish. Toast four slices of bread, place 
ir a small baking-dish, cover with thick layer of grated 
cheese, dust lightly with salt and pepper, cover with another 
slice of bread, then a layer of cheese, and so on until you have 
used the four slices of toast, having the top bread ; baste over 
one-half a pint of hot milk, bake in a quick oven twenty 
minutes. 

PLUM PUDDING (Carrot Pudding). 

Equal quantities of suet, flour, raisins, currants, grated 
potato, grated carrots, say one-half pound of each; add a 
small half cup black molasses, one half teaspoonful ground 
allspice, same of cloves, and a dash of black pepper, a small 
teaspoonful of salt. Add, if you wish, citron, lemon, and 
orange peel, and chopped almonds. Steam three and one-half 
or four hours. 

CHOCOLATE SPONGE PUDDING. 

Yolks of four eggs, one cup sugar, beat lightly together; 
add three tablespoonfuls milk, three tablespoonfuls grated 
chocolate, three teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder; sift in 
one cup flour, add egg whites stiffly beaten, butter a mould 
with pipe in centre, fill two-thirds full and steam three- 
quarters of an hour. Turn out and cover with chocolate 
sauce, fill centre with whipped cream and chopped almonds. 

PARADISE PUDDING. 

One pint bread crumbs, four eggs, one pint suet, four 
apples minced fine, one cup currants, one-half cup raisins, 
one cup milk, one and one-half cups sugar; season to taste, 
and thicken with flour; put in a mould and boil three and 
one-half hours. 



174 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

FIG PUDDHsTG. 

One-half pound figs, one teacup minced apples, one tea- 
cup suet, one teacup sugar, one teacup bread crumbs, a little 
flour, two eggs, one nutmeg. Boil or steam four hours. 

CARAMEL PUDDING. 

One pint of milk, two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, one-half 
teaspoonful salt. Let milk boil, then add the cornstarch 
moistened with milk; one cup brown sugar boiled and 
scorched on a tin pie-dish. Then pour into the cornstarch, 
stirring very quickly. Pour into mould. 

MADEIRA PUDDINGS. 

Two eggs, their weight in flour,' butter and sugar, very 
little Magic Baking Powder, about one-quarter of a teaspoon- 
ful, and a little essence of vanilla. Cream the butter. Then 
add the sugar; then the eggs one at a time ; flavor and beat in 
the flour and baking powder. If too stiif add one tablespoonful 
milk. Bake in small moulds, half full, for fifteen or twenty 
minutes. Sauce: One and one-half tablespoonfuls butter, 
four tablespoonfuls sugar, one egg; beat all together until 
light. Then add boiling water just before serving, and flavor. 

CARITA PUDDING. 

Grease a plain-sided oval mould with butter, and line it all 
over the sides and bottom with figs, which are split through 
the centre lengthwise, leaving the seeds on one side and the 
skin on the other. Place the skin side next to the mould ; have 
the mould completely covered with these figs. Make a custard 
by mixing three slightly beaten eggs to two cups of milk and 
two tablespoons of sugar; place the bowl containing this 
custard in a saucepan of boiling water and stir gently until 
it thickens to the consistency of cream (it must on no account 
boil) ; add three drops vanilla and set it aside to cool. When 
cool pour it into the lined mould and steam till it is set, which 
will probably be in twenty minutes. Take care that the top 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 175 

of the mould is covered to prevent the steam settling on the 
top of it. Turn out of the mould to serve. To be eaten with 
cream and sugar. 

ENGLISH BOILED BATTER PtTDDING. 

Two tablespoons flour, two eggs, well beaten, one table- 
spoon white sugar, one-half pint milk. Mix well and pour 
into a mould well greased with dripping. Boil for one hour. 
Serve with wine sauce. The mould should be quite full to 
prevent water from entering. 

JOHN" BULL'S OWN PLUM PUDDING. 

One pound of suet, one pound moist sugar, one pound of 
currants, one pound raisins, one pound sultana raisins, one 
pound mixed candied peel, one-half pound bread crumbs, 
one-half pound flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoon- 
ful of mixed spice, eight eggs, one-quarter pint of brandy. 
Mix all in the following order. Flour, salt, spice, sugar, 
raisins, peel, bread crumbs, sultanas, and currants. Beat 
egg and strain them for ten minutes, add brandy to them 
and pour over the mass, stir until all are thoroughly mixed. 
Butter four small bowls and fill, scald cloth and flour it, tie 
down and boil five and one-half hours (or more), if one 
large pudding boil thirteen hours. I use cinnamon and nut- 
meg for spice and four small bowls. 

PRUNE PUDDING. 

Stew one pound prunes and sweeten with one teacupful of 
sugar. Beat to a very stiff froth the whites ol four eggs and 
stir lightly into the prunes when prunes are quite cold. Bake 
twenty minutes. Serve cold with cream. 

BLUEBERRY PUDDING. 

Beat one egg, two large tablespoons sugar, little salt, one 
cup sour milk, one teaspoon Magic Soda, flour to make stiff 
batter. Stir in a large pint blueberries. Mix and put in 
buttered basin. Steam one hour and fifteen minutes. Serve 
hot with whipped cream. 



176 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

CEACKER PUDDING. 

Ten crackers rolled, piece butter, soaked in one quart milk 
over night. In the morning add five well beaten eggs, one cup 
sugar, two cups stoned raisins, one cup currants, citron, cin- 
namon, nutmeg and very little flour (one tablespoonful flour), 
salt. Steam four or five hours. 

Sauce for cracker pudding. — One cup sugar, one egg 
beaten to a froth; pour one cup hot milk over it, little salt. 
Flavor with wine or brandy. 

SAUCE FOR PUDDING. 

Three eggs (yolks only), two tablespoons castor sugar, 
whip to cream; one cup sherry. Cook in double saucepan 
one minute. Serve immediately. 

SAUCE FOR COTTAGE PUDDING. 

To one cup boiling water add two tablespoonfuls of brown 
sugar, lump of butter size of an egg, and one egg well beaten. 
Then let all come to a boil. Take care not to scorch. 

HOT CHOCOLATE SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS. 

Melt one-quarter cake unsweetened chocolate with three- 
quarters of a cup of powdered sugar and one-half cup of boil- 
ing water, stirring all the time. Cook in a double boiler to 
'he consistency of molasses. Serve hot. 

CREAM SAUCE. 

Put a pint of milk to boil; break into a basin two eggs, 
add one ounce of flour, half an ounce of corn-starch, and three 
ounces of powdered sugar, beating all well together; add 
the boiling milk gradually, stirring well. Put all in the 
sauce-pan and stir till it comes to a boil, then remove and 
add vanilla flavoring. Serve with puddings, etc. 

CHOCOLATE SAUCE. 

Two tablespoonfuls grated chocolate, three tablespoon- 
fuls each of cream and flour, one cup sugar, one-half tea' 
spoonful butter, one teaspoonful vanilla, boil. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 177 

PUDDING SAUCE. 

One cup water, two teaspoonfuls of flour or cornstarch, 
butter the size of an egg, pinch of salt, nutmeg and sugar to 
taste, teaspoonful of vinegar. Bring to boil and serve. 

FOAMY SAUCE (for Puddings). 

The whites of two eggs, one cup sugar well beaten to- 
gether. This may be done an hour or more before serving. 
Add last thing before sending to table one cupful of hot syrup 
of preserved pears, apricots, peaches or anything of that sort, 
or a cupful of hot milk, not boiling. Beat all together and 
serve. 

CUSTAED FOE CAEAMEL PUDDING. 

One egg, one pint milk, a little sugar, a pinch of salt, one 
tablespoonful of corn starch. 

SYEUP FEOM OEANGE PEEL. 

Peel four sweet oranges, being careful not to get any of 
the white skin in, put the yellow skin in three pints of cold 
water and half a pound of loaf sugar, and cook together into 
a syrup. This is nice for flavoring. 

FOAM SAUCE. 

One cup of sugar, half a cup of butter, beaten to a cream, 
then add the yolks of two eggs and a wine-glass of sherry; 
then add the beaten whites, and stand in a bowl of hot water. 
Stir for one minute. 

CARAMEL PUDDING. 

One cup of granulated sugar, melt it to a light brown. 
Line a mould with it by putting some in and turning the 
mould till cool. A pint of cream, sweetened to taste; put in 
the sweetened cream, the grated rind of one-half a lemon, and 
then into a double boiler. When it comes to a boil pour into 
*13 



173 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

a basin and let oool. Add the well-beaten yolks of eight eggs 
and a glass of rye whisky. Stir all together and strain into 
the prepared mould. Tie kitchen paper over mould and steam 
three-quarters of an hour. Care must be taken to steam 
exactly the three-quarters of an hour or the pudding will not 
be firm. Serve with whipped cream. 

FIG PUDDING. 

One cup of chopped figs, over which pour one cup of boil- 
ing milk, two large cups grated bread-crumbs, one large 
cup of brown sugar, two eggs, one pinch of salt, and one cup 
of chopped suet. Either steam or boil for four hours and 
serve Avith sauce. 

PLUM PUDDING. 

Three-quarters pound bread-crumbs, one pound raisins, 
one pound currants, one pound fine chopped suet, three table- 
spoons flour, eight eggs (well beaten), one-quarter pound 
mixed peel, one-half pound brown sugar, one small teaspoon 
salt, one nutmeg, one wine-glass brandy, two apples, chopped 
very fine, a little milk or a little molasses. Boil six hours, 
or, if some days before, four, and when wanted two hours. 

TAPIOCA FRUIT PUDDING. 

One cup tapioca steeped over night in one quart of water ; 
drain off water in the morning, add one cup of sugar and the 
rind and juice of one lemon to tapioca. Put box and a half 
of fresh fruit (red currants delicious) in pudding-dish; put 
in tapioca and mix; bake in a slow oven for one hour. To be 
served cold. 

POLKA PUDDING. 

Mix four tablespoonfuls of arrowroot in a pint of cold 
milk, beat four eggs well, add then three ounces of fresh 
butter, cut into small bits; a dessertspoonful of rose water, 
a few drops of essence of lemon or ratafia, and a teacupful 
of white sugar. Boil two pints of milk in a double boiler. 
"\^Tien boiling stir in the other ingredients, without taking 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 179 

the boiler off the stove. Let it boil till thick, then pour into 
a mould to cool ; turn it out and serve cold. Half this quan- 
tity will be sufficient for a small family. 

CAKE PUDDING. 

One egg, one tablespoonful of butter, three-quarters of a 
cup of sugar, half a cup of milk, one cup of flour, two tea- 
spoonfuls of Magic Baking Powder. Butter the mould, then 
put in a little preserve and then your batter. Steam one hour. 

BAKED SUET PUDDING. 

Half a cupful of sugar, half a cupful of suet, one egg, one 
cup of milk, two heaping cups of flour, three teaspoonfuls 
of Magic Baking Powder, This is very good eaten with 
maple syrup. 

CEEAMY SAUCE. 

One-quarter cup butter, two tablespoonfuls wine, one- 
half cup powdered sugar, two tablespoonfuls cream. Cream 
butter, add sugar slowly, then wine and cream. Beat well 
and just before using, place bowl over hot water and stir till 
creamy, but not enough to melt the butter. When the wine 
and cream are added, the sauce has a curdled appearance. 
This is removed by beating and heating enough to blend 
materials. Sauce should be cold when served. 

GINGEK PUDDING. 

Three cups of flour, one-half cup of sugar, half a cup of 
golden syrup, half a cup of suet, three teaspoonfuls Magic 
Baking Powder, two teaspoonfuls of ginger. Mix with water 
to a thin batter; steam two hours and eat with sweet sauce. 

CHEAP PLUM PUDDING. 

One cup of suet, one cup of molasses, one cup sweet milk, 
one cup of seeded raisins, three cups of flour, a little salt and 
Magic Soda and one egg. Boil three or four hours. 



180 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

SPONGE PUDDING. 

One pint of milk, two ounces of flour, two ounces oi sagar. 
Let this almost boil. Take off the fire and put in two ounces 
of butter, the yolks of six eggs thoroughly beaten, then the 
whites. Bake twenty-five minutes in a pan or mould set in 
hot water. Eat with foam sauce. 

RICE APPLE DUMPLING. 

Boil a half pound of rice and season it with butter and 
salt. After removing it from the fire stir in two well-beaten 
eggs. Have ready squares of white muslin. Dip them one 
by one in hot water, sprinkle with flour and put in each two 
tablespoonfuls of the rice. Spread the rice and in the centre 
place a peeled and cored apple. In the cavity left by the 
core, put some currant jelly and sugar or spice and sugar, 
draw the corners of the cloth together and fasten closely at 
the top with pins. Boil or steam for a half hour. Serve 
with cream or vanilla sauce. 

WHOLE WHEAT FIG PUDDING. 

One and a half cups of grated whole wheat bread-crumbs ; 
rub into it half a cupful of butter ; add half a cupful of sugar, 
one cupful of chopped figs, one egg well beaten, and a good 
half-cup of milk. Steam three hours. 

BROWN PUDDING. 

Three eggs and their weight in sugar, flour and butter, or 
a little less butter, half a teaspoonful Magic Soda, four table- 
spoonfuls of rasberry Jam. Steam two hours. Serve with 
cream sauce. 

PLUM PUDDING. 

One and a half pounds of muscatel raisins, one and three- 
quarter pounds of currants, one pound of sultana raisins, two 
pounds of moist sugar, two pounds of bread-crumbs, two 
pounds of chopped suet, six ounces mixed peel, rind of two 
lemons, one ounce of ground nutmeg, one ounce of ground 
cinnamon, two ounces of chopped almonds, half a pint of 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 181 

braiiu*. ~'.x^'"^■^^ eggs. Mix all the dry ingredients together 
and liioisten with the brandy and well beaten eggs. Boil 
abont ^ix hours. 

^lACAHO^ i PUDDING. 

Break eight or ten long sticks of macaroni into pieces an 
irch long or less. Throw into a saucepan with plenty of 
boiling water and cook for ; wenty minutes. Drain away the 
water and boil again more slowly for another twenty minutes 
in a quart of milk with a cup of sugar and a slice of butter. 
Turn into a pudding dish and allow to cool. Beat in three 
eggs, flavor with vanilla, oil of cloves or oil of cinnamon, 
and bake slowly. Or use four eggs, keeping two whites to 
be beaten stiffly for the top. Brown in the oven for a minute 
or two. 

BEEAD AND BUTTEE PUDDING. 

Cut some slices of home-made bread, about naif an inch 
thick, butter and lay in a pudding-dish, sprinkle with cur- 
rants, put in another layer of buttered bread and currants. 
Beat three eggs light and stir into a pint of milk, sweeten to 
taste; flavor with a little grated lemon-peel or cinnamon, 
pour over the bread and butter and bake in a moderate oven 
until the custard is set. Test with a knife; if the knife comes 
out clean the pudding is done. If baked too long the pud- 
ding Avill be watery. Serve cold in the dish in which it is 
baked, with a simple sauce. 

ICE PUDDING. 

One pint of custard (boiled), three eggs, one pint of niilk; 
sweeten; vanilla or sherry flavoring, Ma'ce this the night 
before, as it is better. One pint of cream, candied fruits, 
ginger, red cherries, white cherries, plum, citron, almonds, 
blanched (pound them), angelica, pineapple, half a wine-glass 
of curacao; sherry (very little), macaroons, crushed with a 
rolling-pin. The fruit must be cut fine, having been soaked 
the night before in curacao. Whip cream a little, mix cold 
custard with it, half freeze in freezer. Do this very slowly, 
then mix in macaroons, then fruit; let freeze a while longer. 
When frozen put in shape. 



182 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

DATE PUDDING (OR FIG). 

Half a pound of dates, quarter of a pound of suet, half a 
teaspoonf ul of Magic Soda dissolved in hot water ; five ounces 
of brown sugar, half a pound of bread-crumbs^ a little salt and 
nutmeg. Mix all the ingredients with two well-beaten eggs. 
Put into buttered mould, and boil two and a half hours. 
Serve with brandy sauce. The pudding is improved by soak- 
ing the dates beforehand in a small cupful of sherry or 
whiskey. 

YORKSHIEE PUDDING. 

Three eggs, four tablespoonfuls of flour twice sifted, one 
pint of milk, one teaspoonf ul of salt. Put flour and salt into 
a bowl, break eggs into it; mix well, and add milk by degrees, 
beating till well mixed. Cook twenty to thirty minutes in 
heat of cake oven. 

BON ACCOED PUDDING. 

Four good-sized cooking apples, pared, cored and minced 
quite fine, half pound of bread-crumbs, four ounces of sugar, 
four ounces of raisins stoned and chopped, a little salt and 
nutmeg to taste. Mix together. Beat up three eggs and add 
to the other ingredients, beating all well. Put into a but- 
tered mould, tie down with a cloth, and boil for an hour and 
a half. Serve with sweet sauce. 

BEEAD AND BUTTEE PUDDING. 

Spread your bread with a little butter and cut into 
slices about half an inch thick, and put into a flat but- 
tered pudding dish, put one layer on the bottom of the dish 
and then put some raisins over it; do this until the dish 
is full and then make a little custard with two eggs to a 
pint and a half of milk, pour the custard over the bread, 
first sprinkling sugar over the bread, then put a piece of but- 
ter, about a dessertspoonful, in the custard, so that it wil! 
float on the top. Bake in a moderate oven. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 183 

PINEAPPLE AND TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

One cup pearl tapioca, soak over night and boil in, the 
morning until clear ; add one cup sugar, one teaspoonf ul van- 
illa, one pint grated or finely chopped pineapple and set away 
to cool. Serve with plain or whipped cream. 

PATTERDALE PUDDING. 

Three eggs, quarter pound butter, quarter pound sifted 
loaf sugar, quarter pound flour. Beat the butter to a cream, 
beat the eggs in one by one, then add the sugar and tlour. 
Put into cups and bake in a moderately heated oven twenty 
minutes. This is a prime recipe. 

CARROT PUDDING. 

One cup grated carrot, one cup grated potato, one cup 
brown sugar, one cup suet, one large cup raisins (stoned), 
one large cup currants, one egg, a little chopped peel; spice 
to suit taste; pinch of salt, one teaspoonful Magic Soda. 
Steam in mould three hours. Brandy sauce. 

ARRAT PUDDING. 

One-half pound macaroons, two and one-half pounds 
ladies' fingers, soaked in wine, one-half dozen eggs, two and 
one-half cups sugar, beaten for one-half an hour, two table- 
spoonfuls of gelatine dissolved and mixed with eggs after they 
are beaten, and whipped quickly for a minute or two. Have 
whipped cream on top. 

CREAM SPONGE. 

One-third box Knox's gelatine, one-quarter cup cold 
water, one cup milk, one pint cream, one cup granulated 
sugar, one egg, one tablespoonful vanilla. Soak gelatine in 
water for one-half hour, then stand it in boiling water to dis- 
solve. Scald the milk, add sugar, beat the egg until light, 
and add hot milk to egg, stirring constantly while adding, 
removing from fire for the purpose ; add gelatine and flavor- 
ing, and set aside to cool, but not to set. Whip the cream, 
add the cooled custard, beat well, and put into moulds. 



184 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

OEANGE PUDDING. 

One cup white sugar, half cup cracker crumbs, two eggs, 
one orange, one tablespoonful butter, one pint milk. Soak 
the crumbs in a little of the milk, butter and sugar, add 
grated rind and eggs beaten together, then orange juice and 
crumbs, bake half an hour in moderate oven. 

LEMON TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

One small cup tapioca, soak over night in two cups of 
water; add another cup of water in the morning. Juice of 
one and a half large lemons, rind of one lemon, one cup sugar, 
yolks of two eggs beaten ; cook till the tapioca is clear — about 
an hour. Whip whites of eggs with a little sugar and put 
on the top. 

DEEBYSHIEE PUDDING. 

One pint milk boiled ; keep a wineglass milk cold and mix 
with heaping tablespoonful flour, pour hot milk on this and 
stir thoroughly until thick; let cool; add grated rind of 
lemon, bit of butter size of a walnut, and one teacupful of 
white sugar, one cup blanched almonds cut in about eight 
pieces, the yolks of four eggs well beaten, and whites of two 
eggs. All these ingredients well mixed and poured into a 
buttered pudding dish, baked until a light gold color, then 
ice with two whites left, juice of a lemon and a little white 
sugar, well beaten ; return to oven until icing is stiff. Allow 
pudding to become quite cold. It is better to stand some 
hours. 

JELLY PUDDING. 

Half an ounce of gelatine, yolks of five eggs, one lemon, 
sherry, six ounces of sugar, half a pint of milk. Dissolve 
half an ounce of gelatine in a little water, beat the yolks of 
five eggs ; rub into them with a spoon six ounces of sugar ; add 
half a pint of milk and the gelatine; stir over fire until thick 
like custard. Take off and add the juice of a lemon and a 
wineglass of sherry and whites of eggs which have been well 
beaten. Mix well together. Put in a mould and let stand 
until next day. Should be eaten with cream. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 185 

COLD ALMOND PUDDING. 

Four eggs, quarter pound of ground almonds, quarter 
pound of powdered sugar ; beat the eggs until very light, then 
add the sugar and almonds gently, then beat till it bubbles, 
and put in a greased dish. Put blanched almonds on top 
and bake in rather a moderate oven. 

HOT ALMOND PUDDING. 

Half a pound of ground almonds, half a pound of sugar, 
half a pound of suet, two eggs, two ounces of currants, two 
ounces of raisins, one ounce of preserved cherries, a little an- 
gelica, a little ground mace, half a pound of flour, a teacup- 
ful of water, half a nutmeg grated, a few drops of essence of 
almonds, half a teaspoonful of ground ginger. The suet 
must be chopped fine. Add all the other ingredients and 
work them together for ten minutes, so that all is well mixed- 
Boil for three hours or more. 

POUDING A LA PAEISIENNE. 

Dissolve one ounce of butter in a sauce-pan, mix in an 
ounce of sugar, one ounce of flour and a gill of milk; stir 
all over the fire until boiling, cover it with a lid, and let it 
stand on a warm part of the stove for five minutes, then re- 
move it to the table and stir in the yolks of three eggs, whip 
the whites to a stiff froth and stir them in lightly and 
thoroughly; now add a few drops of vanilla essence, and about 
four ounces of different sorts of fruit, cut into small pieces, 
such as pears, peaches, glace cherries, angelica, apricots, pine- 
apple, etc. Put the pudding into a plain round mould, which 
must be previously buttered, covered with a greased paper, 
and steam for three-quarters of an hour; turn on to a dish 
and pour wine sauce round. 

LEMON PUDDING. 

Put one quart of water to boil ; when boiling mix in two 
table^poonfuls cornstarch, previously dissolved in a little 
water; the juice and grated rind of two lemons, a large cup- 
ful of white sugar. When quite thick beat in the whites of 



186 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

three eggs, beaten stiff; set aside to cool; serve with a thin 
custard made with the yolks of eggs, flavored with vanilla. 

STEAMED ROLY POLY. 

Three-quarters of a cup of suet, chopped very fine; three 
cups of flour, one cup of water, two teaspoonfuls Magic Bak- 
ing Powder, sifted into the flour, a pinch of salt; roll on a 
board and spread thickly with plum jam. Roll up, place in a 
tin and steam one and a half or two hours. Sauce — Two eggs, 
one cup of sugar, half cup of butter. Mix well together and 
pour into the mixture one cup of boiling wine — sherry is best. 

ENGLISH XMAS PLUM PUDDING. 

Two pounds of raisins, two pounds of currants, half a 
pound of citron or lemon peel, one teacupful of sugar, two 
thick slices of bread crumbled fine, seven eggs, one teaspoon- 
ful of cloves ground, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, one nut- 
meg grated, two pounds of beef suet, a piece of butter the 
size of an orange, two pounds of flour; mix it all with milk 
or water, boil four hours in a bag. This makes two large 
puddings, and may be kept a month steamed when wanted, 
and eaten with a sauce. 

PLUM PUDDING. 

One pound each of suet, bread crumbs, raisins, currants, 
and sugar, one glass brandy, one glass sherry, eight eggs, 
one nutmeg, a little mace or cinnamon, one saltspoonful of 
salt and milk enough to moisten; boil six hours. Fewer cur- 
rants and raisins may be used and the difference made up 
with candied peels, which is an improvement. 

SPONGE PUDDING. 

One pint of milk, half a cup of butter, half a cup of flour, 
half a cup of sugar, two eggs (for eight people). Wet the 
flour with part of the milk, then cook it all in the milk ten 
minutes ; add butter and sugar while hot. When cool add the 
yolks of five eggs well beaten, then add the whisked whites, 
nnd stir thoroughly. Bake in a two-quart basin (first set in 
a pan of hot water), half an hour. Cream for sauce. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 187 

FIG PUDDING. 

One pound of figs, one pound breadcrumbs, one cup melted 
butter, half pound sugar, five eggs, one nutmeg, orange and 
lemon peel. Steam three hours. 

BEOWN PUDDING. 

Weight of two eggs in flour, two in butter, and one in 
sugar, two tablcspoonfuls raspberry jam, two eggs well 
beaten, half teaspoonful Magic Soda. Steam one hour and 
three-quarters. Mix sugar and eggs to a cream, beat jam till 
all butbles, then add flour and half a teaspoonful Magic 
Soda. Sauce. — Yolks of three eggs, two tablcspoonfuls 
castor sugar ; whip to a cream with one cup cooking sherry in 
a double saucepan, just a minute. 

STEAMED SAGO PUDDING. 

Put into a saucepan one pint milk, three ounces sago, two 
ounces fresh butter, three ounces sugar, the grated rind of 
cne lemon. Boil all together for thirteen and a half minutes. 
Work in three eggs. Mix together one-half tablespoon flour, 
one and one-half tcaspoonfuls sugar; butter mould and dust 
flour and sugar into it well. Pour in the mixture and put 
buttered paper on top and steam one hour. 

MARMALADE PUDDING. 

Quarter pound of suet, quarter pound of breadcrumbs, 
quarter pound of sugar, two ounces of flour or ground rice, 
two tablcspoonfuls orange marmalade, one egg, half a tea- 
spoonful Magic Baking Powder, one tablespoonful of milk. 
Finely chop the suet and put it in a bowl with the flour, sugar, 
bread-crumbs and Magic Baking Powder. Mix well together. 
Beat the eggs until light, then beat into it the milk and mai- 
malade. Mix all together, pour into a well-greased mould. 
Twist over a sheet of paper and steam four hours. 

COLD PUDDING. 

Two lemons, juice and grated rind, three eggs (yolks only) 
well beaten, one cup white sugar, one tablespoonful corn- 



188 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

starch, one cup cold water. Boil together until thick; stir 
well, and pour while hot into a pudding dish, lined first with 
thin stale cake. When cooked cover the top with three eggs 
(the whites) well whisked, and brown in the oven. Surve 
cold. 

APPLE MEEINGUE PUDDING. 

One pint of stewed apples, three eggs — whites and yolks 
separate — one-half teacup white sugar, one teaspoonful of 
butter, one-quarter teaspoonful of essence of almond (for the 
meringue) . 

Prepare the apples as for a pie, and stew till almost a 
pulp, sweeten and spice, and while hot stir in the yolks of the 
eggs gradually. Beat very light, pour into a buttered dish, 
and bake for ten minutes. Cover, without drawing it from 
the oven, with a meringue made of the beaten v/hites, two 
tablespoonfuls of white sugar, and the almond flavoring. 
Spread it over with a tablespoon, evenly and quickly, close the 
oven again, and brown very slightly. Serve either hot or cold, 
as preferred. 

In making the meringues see that the eggs are quite fresh, 
whip them in a cool place, and on a cold dish, otherwise they 
will not rise properly. Use them as soon as they are whipped 
to a high snowy heap ; if left to stand they will become flat, 
and it is impossible to well froth them a second time. It 
must also be remembered that the whites will not froth to 
stiffness, if a drop of the yolk is mixed with them. 



BAKED APPLE PUDDING. 

Six large apples (grated), three tablespoonfuls of butter, 
one-quarter pound of sugar, two eggs (whites and yolks beaten 
separately), juice of one lemon, and half the grated rind; 
pastry. 

Beat the butter and sugar into a cream, stir in the yolks, 
the lemon, the grated apple, and lastly the whites of the eggs. 
Line a dish with pastry, pour in the mixture, and bake till 
nicely browned. This is best cold. 

Normandy pippins may be used for this pudding if liked. 



PUDDINGS ANT> SAUCES. 189 

APPLE CHAELOTTE. 

Slices of bread and butter, with the crust trimmed off, 
six apples, the grated rind of a lemon and the juice, sugar to 
taste. 

Butter a pie-dish, and place a laj^er of bread-and-butter 
at the bottom, then a layer of apples, peeled, cored, and cut 
into slices; sprinkle these over with sugar, a little of the lemon 
peel, and a few drops of the juice. Eepeat this until the dish 
is full, then cover it well over with the peel of the apples to 
prevent it burning, and bake in a quick oven about three- 
quarters of an hour. When done, remove the peel, turn it 
out on a dish, sprinkle with white sugar, and serve at once. 

APPLE SOUFFLE PUDDING. 

Six or seven fine juicy apples, one cup fine breadcrumbs, 
four eggs, one cup of sugar, two tablespoonfuls butter, nut- 
meg, and a little grated lemon peel. 

Pare, core, and slice the apples, and stew in a covered 
double saucepan, without a drop of water, until they are 
tender. Mash to a smooth pulp, and while hot, stir in the 
butter and sugar. Let it get quite cold, and whip in, first the 
yolks of the eggs, then the whites — beaten very stiff — alter- 
nately with the breadcrumbs. Flavor, beat quickly three 
minutes, until all the ingredients are reduced to a creamy 
batter, and bake in a buttered dish, in a moderate oven. It 
will take about an hour to cook it properly. Keep it covered 
until ten minutes before you take it out. This will retain 
the juices and prevent the formation of a crust on the top. 

APPLE FEITTEES. 

Apples. For a batter: One-half pound flour, one ounce 
butter, one-half teaspoonful of salt, two eggs — whites and 
yolks beaten separately, milk enough to make it tolerably thin. 

Prepare some apples, as for a pie, or mince them if pre- 
ferred ; add these to the batter, and drop a large tablespoonful 
at a time into a pan of boiling lard or clarified dripping ; fry 
till of a light brown, turning when required. When done, 
lay them on a sheet of blotting-paper before the fire to absorb 



190 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

the grease, then dish them, piled high, one above the other, 
and strewed with sifted sugar. They should be served as hot 
fj;; possible. 

AGRA PUDDING. 

Four eggs, one pint and a half of milk, one tablespoonful 
of sugar, vanilla to taste, bread-and-butter, marmalade, and 
one pint of boiled custard. 

Cut thin slices of bread-and-butter, and spread them with 
the marmalade. Fit them neatly into a buttered pie-dish 
until it is half full; then pour over them gradually a hot 
custard made of the milk heated almost to boiling, then taken 
off the fire, and the beaten eggs and sugar stirred in with the 
flavoring. Place ? small plate on the top to prevent the 
bread from rising, and let it soak for half an hour. Grate a 
little nutmeg on the top, and bake, and when done turn it out 
cJ the dish, and pour over it a pint of boiled custard. This 
j'udding is very good, either hot or cold, especially so if 
French bread can be used. 

A plainer pudding may be made by omitting two of the 
eggs and the boiled custard, but in that case it should be sent 
to table in the dish in which it is baked. Both, are very good. 

ARROWROOT CHARLOTTE. 

Two tablespooiifuls of flour, three tablespoonfuls of arrow- 
root, one quart of milk, flavored with vanilla, three or four 
stale sponge cakes. 

Line a mould with the sponge cakes, cut thin, and sprinkle 
with sherry. Mix the flour and arrowroot with enough cold 
milk to make it smooth. Put the remainder of the milk into 
a saucepan and stir in the mixture just before it boils; boil 
a few minutes, stirring all the time, then pour it boiling into 
the mould. Stand it aside till quite cold, turn it out of the 
mov.ld and spread it vnth. jelly or jam. 

ARROWROOT CREAMS. 

One ounce of arroAvroot, three ounces powdered sugar, the 
yolk of one egg, one quart of milk, a little lemon-peel and 
cinnamon. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 191 

Mix the arrowroot with a little of the milk to a smooth 
paste and add to it the egg. Boil the remainder of the milk 
with the sugar and flavoring, and pour it boiling hot on the 
arrowroot, keeping it well stirred till nearly cold, when it may 
bo set aside in custard glasses. 

BKEAD FEITTERS. 

One pint milk, one egg, one-quarter pound flour, bread, 
jrim. Make a batter with the milk, egg, and flour. Cut some 
-lices of bread rather thin, in squares or three-cornered pieces, 
spread half of them with jam and cover v;ith the other slices ; 
dip them into the batter, and fry in boiling lard till of a light 
brown color. Serve very hot, piled on a dish, and sprinkled 
with white sugar. 

BEEAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING (Boiled). 

Four eggs well beaten, one ounce of lump sugar, one- 
quarter pound of currants, one quarter of a teaspoonful of 
salt. 

Butter a basin well, put in a sprinlde of currants all round, 
then a layer of bread-and-butter, and so on, until the basin 
or mould be nearly full, then add to the eggs a quart of milk 
with the sugar. Boil for an hour and a half gently. 

BETSY PUDDING. 

One pint of milk, three ounces breadcrumbs, one egg, one 
tsblespoonful of white sugar, jam. 

Spread a good layer of jam in the bottom of a pie-dish. 
Pour the milk nearly boiling on to the breadcrumbs; when 
cool stir in the egg, which should be beaten ; pour this gently 
on the preserve; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake 
for half an hour. 

BACHELOR'S PUDDING. 

One egg, with its weight in minced apple, flour, sugar, 
currants, breadcrumbs, suet. 

Mix these with the egg and add a little milk. Boil in a 
mould from one and a half to two hours. 



192 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

CAEEOT PUDDING. 

One-quarter pound grated currants, one-quarter pound 
bieadcrumbs, one-quarter pound suet, one-quarter pound 
flcur, one-quarter pound currants or sultanaa, one large table- 
spoonful of treacle, one-quarter of the rind of a lemon grated. 

Mix well together with a little milk, and boil in a basin, 
or mould, for an hour and a half. 

SPONGE PUDDING. 

One ounce of butter, one ounce of sugar, one ounce of 
flour, half pint of milk, three eggs. Scald the milk, and put 
the butter, sugar, flour, and j^olks of eggs into it. Beat the 
whites stiff and stir in. Bake in a pan set in another pan of 
water, for about half an hour. Sauce. — One cup of sugar, 
one-half cup of butter, one-half cup boiling water, one-half 
cup wine and a little nutmeg. 

PEUIT PUDDING. 

One cup molasses, one cup milk, one cup shred suet, one 
cup raisins, half cup currants, two and a half cups flour, 
Magic Baking Powder, salt, and any spice or flavoring pre- 
ferred. Steam two hours in buttered mould. Serve with 
hard sauce (butter and sugar creamed together and hot water 
sparingly added to thin to desired consistency), flavored 
with vanilla or lemon. This is a good, easy pudding to make. 
—Ed. 

SUET PUDDING. 

Three-quarters of a pound of fine shred suet, one-half 
pound chopped and stoned raisins (weigh after stoning), 
three tablespoons moist sugar, three tablespoons flour, a little 
nutmeg and salt, three yolks and two whites of eggs, well 
beaten, a teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder. Boil for four 
hours or steam in basin. 

YORKSHIEE PUDDING. 

Pint new milk, two eggs, five tablespoons flour, pinch of 
salt. Stir milk and flour to batter, put in salt, add well 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 193 

beaten eggs. Have a shallow tin pan with lots of meltedJ 
dripping boiling hot. Pour in batter, bake half an hour in 
hot oven. English cooks set the cooked pudding under the 
roast and allow it to catch some of the dripping just before 
serving. 

CHEAP PLUM PUDDING. 

Two cups of flour, one teaspoon of Magic Baking Powder, 
one-half teaspoon of cinnamon, one-half cup of suet, one-half 
cup raisins, one egg, one-half cup molasses, one-half cup of 
milk. Steam three hours. 

CAEAMEL PUDDING CUSTAED. 

Six yolks of eggs, two ounces sugar, half pint of cream. 
Two ounces castor sugar, and enough water to moisten 
sugar. Put sugar and water into a mould and cook until 
sugar is of a dark color; allow it to run all over the mould; 
dip in cold water to set it; then pour in your custard; put 
into a saucepan with boiling water half way up the mould; 
cook about twenty minutes; cover mould with a buttered 
paper, and put cover on saucepan while the custard is 
steaming. 

SMOTHEEED FIG PUDDING. 

Three cups rich milk, one cup sugar, two eggs well 
beaten, a bit of butter size of an egg, two tablespoons corn- 
starch dissolved in a little cold milk. Cook in a double 
boiler, stirring constantly. Flavor, vanilla. Place a layer of 
finely cut up figs, then a layer of custard, and so on till dish 
is full. Set away till cool. Put whipped cream on top and 
serve. Preserved ginger used instead of the figs is also good. 

PEUNE PUDDING. 

One pound prupes, stew and remove the pits; whites of 
four eggs beaten very stiff, and three tablespoons white sugar. 
Put sugar and whites of eggs together; add prunes. Bakp 
cne-half hour. Serve with cream. 
♦13 



194 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

ADA FOKD'S PUDDING. 

Half a cup of melted butter, three-quarters of a cup of 
sugar, a good half cup of milk, two eggs, a teacup and three- 
quarters full of flour, a teaspoon and a half of Magic Baking 
Powder. Butter a mould, cover the bottom with jam, fill 
with batter, and steam one hour and a quarter. Serve with 
sauce. 

GEAHAM FLOUE PUDDING. 

Two cups Graham flour, one cup sweet milk, one cup of 
molasses, one cup of currants or raisins, one teaspoonful 
Magic Baking Powder, one teaspoonful of salt. Put in a 
shape and boil or steam for three hours. Serve with foam 
sauce. 

FOAM SAUCE. 

Half cup butter, one cup white sugar, one egg, six table- 
spoonfuls of milk, one wineglass of brandy. Beat the butter 
and sugar to a froth; add yolk of egg and milk. Set on a 
slow fire; add brandy and white of egg well beaten just before 
serving. 

PLAIN GINGEE PUDDING. 

Three-quarters cup suet, two cups flour, one-half tea- 
spoonful salt, three large tablespoons brown sugar, three 
large tablespoons molasses, two teaspoons Magic Baking 
Powder, one large teaspoon ground ginger, a small grating 
of nutmeg, one-half cup of sweet milk, one-half cup cold 
water. Line a melon mould with raisins, pour in the batter, 
and steam for two and one-half hours. 

''GLENEDYTH" 'XMAS PUDDING (Most Excellent). 

One and one-half pounds bread crumbs, one-half pound 
of flour, two pounds well clarified and finely shredded suet, 
two pounds of raisins, stoned, washed and dried, two pounds 
of currants similarly prepared, two pounds of sugar, two 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 196 

ounces of candied peel, two ounces of citron, two ounces of 
preserved ginger, finely chopped; two small nutmegs finely 
grated, two limes, the juice of good sized ones, the rind 
very finely minced ; one teaspoonf ul of salt, two ounces sweet 
blanched almonds sliced, eighteen eggs, one claret glass of 
brandy, one sherry glass of maraschino. Mix all to a stiff 
paste, moistening with a little milk if necessary, but be care- 
ful, for milk will make the pudding heavy. The eggs and 
milk should be stirred int© the ingredients after they have 
been throroughly mixed together, and last of all the brandy 
and liqueur. This pudding will take ten hours to boil, and is 
large enough for a party of sixteen. 

Sauce. — Put ten yolks of eggs in a stew-pan, four ounces 
of sugar, one pint of milk. Stir over the fire in a "bain 
marie" (double boiler) till a rich custard has been formed; 
add a claret glass of Noyeau ; strain the sauce and serve hot.* 
Instead of Noyeau three-quarters of a pint of Madeira may 
be used. 

SPONGE PUDDING. 

One and one-half tablespoon butter, four tablespoons 
flour, five tablespoons white sugar, six eggs, one pint sweet 
milk. The whites and yolks beaten separately. Boil the 
sugar, flour and one pint of sweet milk together, then take 
off the fire and stir in butter. When cool add the eggs well 
beaten. Bake one hour in a pan of water. 

Sauce for above. — Half pint wine and water, one cup 
sugar, one-half cup butter, one teaspoon flour, one egg, flavor 
with nutmeg. 

BRENTWOOD PUDDING. 

Three ounces of bread-crumbs, three ounces of butter, 
three ounces of sugar, yolks of three eggs, juice of two lemons 
and grated rind of one lemon. Line the dish with pastry, 
put a layer of jam at the bottom, over which pour the above 
mixture. Bake forty minutes. When it has been in the oven 
thirty minutes pour over it the whites of the eggs beaten to 
a stiff froth. 



196 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

MAY'S PUDDING. 

One quart of boiling water, juice of one large lemon, four 
tablespoonfuls of cornstarch, two eggs, two cups of sugar. 
Mix the cornstarch with a little cold water, add the lemon- 
juice. Have the water boiling on the fire; put in the sugar 
and stir in the cornstarch. When it has well thickened add 
the whites of the eggs beaten very stiff. Stir well and pour 
into a mould. The yolks of the eggs can be used to make a 
custard, with one pint of milk and one small tablespoonful 
of cornstarch; sugar to taste. Serve cold. 

EAISIN PUFF. 

Two eggs, one-third cup of butter, two cups of flour, in 
.which sift three teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder; two 
tablespoons of white sugar, one cup of raisins chopped very 
fine, one teacup of sweet milk. Steam one hour in an ordin- 
ary brown bread steamer. Serve with whipped cream or cold 
sauce. 

BANANA PUDDING. 

One-half box of Knox's gelatine, six small bananas, one 
cup of granulated sugar, a small cupful of preserved ginger 
chopped fine, a cupful of walnuts, also chopped fine, one pint 
of milk and half a pint of whipped cream. Soak the gela- 
tine for fifteen minutes in a cupful of cold milk. Mash the 
bananas till smooth. Mix in the chopped ginger and wal- 
nuts, add the sugar. Pour the milk (boiling) on the gela- 
tine, stir till dissolved, to which add the bananas, ginger, and 
walnuts. Set in a bowl in a can of crushed ice or cold water. 
Stir occasionally till the mixture begins to grow firm, then 
very gently fold in the whipped cream and pour into a mould 
which has been rubbed inside with sweet oil. When firm turn 
out and serve with whipped cream, 

CUSTARD PUDDING. 

Take five tablespoonfuls out of a quart of cream or rich 
milk, and mix them with two large spoonfuls of fine flour. 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 197 

Set the rest of the milk to boil, flavoring it with bitter almonds 
broken up. When it has boiled hard, take it off, strain it, 
and stir it in the cold milk and flour. Set it away to cool, 
and beat well eight yolks and four whites of eggs; add them 
to the milk, and stir in, at the last, a glass of brandy or white 
wine, a teaspoonful of powdered nutmeg, and half a cupful 
of sugar. Butter a large bowl or mould ; pour in the mixture ; 
tie a cloth tightly over it ; put it into a pot of boiling water, 
and boil it two hours, replenishing the pot with hot water 
from a tea-kettle. When the pudding is done, let it get cool 
before you turn it out. Eat it with butter and sugar stirred 
together to a cream and flavored with lemon-juice or orange 

EICE PUDDING (Fine). 

Wash a teacupful of rice, and boil it in two teacupfuls of 
water; then add, while the rice is hot, three tablespoonfuls 
of butter, five tablespoonfuls of sugar, five eggs well-beaten, 
one tablespoonful of powdered nutmeg, a little salt, one glass 
of wine, a quarter of a pound of raisins, stoned and cut in 
lialves, a quarter of a pound of Zante currants, a quarter of a 
pound of citron cut in slips, and one quart of cream; mix 
well, pour into buttered dish and bake an hour in a moderate 
oven. 

EHUBAEB, OK PIE-PLANT PUDDING. 

Chop rhubarb pretty fine, put in a pudding-dish, and 
sprinkle sugar over it; make a batter of one cupful of sour 
milk, two eggs, a piece of butter the size of an egg, half a tea • 
spoonful of Magic Soda and enough flour to make batter about 
as thick as for cake. Spread it over the rhubarb, and bake 
till done. Turn out on a platter upside down, so that the 
rhubarb will be on top. Serve with sugar and cream. 

PRESEEVE DUMPLINGS. 

Preserved peaches, plums, quinces, cherries or any other 
sweetmeat; make a light crust, and roll a small piece of 
moderate thickness and fill with the fruit in quantity to make 
the size of a peach dumpling; tie each one in a dumpling 



198 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

cloth, well floured inside, drop them into hot water, and boil 
for half an hour; when done, remove the cloth, send to table 
liof, and eat with cream. 

FEOZEN PUDDING. 

One large pint of milk, scant half-cupful of flour, two 
cupfuls of sugar, two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of gelatine 
(soaked in water two hours), one quart cream, one pound 
of preserved fruit, four tablespoonfuls of sherry wine; soak 
fruit in brandy. Cook milk, flour, eggs, gelatine and one 
cupful of sugar. When cool add cream, wine, and the other 
cup of sugar, and freeze, then add fruit, and pack in bricks. 

CHOCOLATE SPONGE. 

Yolks two eggs, whites two eggs, one-half cup sugar, one 
and one-half tablespoons milk, one and one-half tablespoons 
grated chocolate (unsweetened), one teaspoon baking powder, 
one-half cup flour. Beat the yolks of the eggs with the sugar, 
add the grated chocolate and milk by turns; put the baking 
powder into the flour and add them to the mixture, and 
lastly the beaten whites of the eggs. Steam an hour and a 
quarter. Serve with whipped cream. 

SNOW PUDDING. 

One pint boiling water to half box gelatine ; add juice of 
one lemon and two cups sugar; strain the gelatine. When 
nearly cold add the whites of three eggs (well beaten) and 
beat the whole together. Place in a glass dish and serve the 
custard with it. 

Custard — The beaten yolks of the eggs, one pint milk, 
one teaspoonful cornstarch; flavor with vanilla. Cook in 
double boiler, 

BANANA PUDDING. 

Take one dozen bananas, split lengthways, and lay in a 
dish with bits of butter over them ; a pot of red currant jelly 
and the juice of one and a half lemons. Baste until they are 
cooked enough to look clear, and serve. (This is very good.) 



PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 199 

PUDIN D'lTALIE. 

One and a half ounces of butter, three ounces of sugar, 
two ounces of candied peel, cut fine; one ounce Sultana 
raisins, six ounces of ground macaroons, two ounces of fine 
dried bread crumbs, one ounce pistachio nuts, blanched 
and chopped, a half wine-glass of rum, a quarter 
pint of cream, two whites and five yolks of eggs. 
Beat butter and sugar to cream, beat yolks of eggs five min- 
utes and add. Add rum and cream, next macaroons and 
breadcrumbs, last whites well beaten. Put one-third of the 
mixture into buttered mould, stew with one-half of the 
pistachio nuts, add more of the mixture, then add raisins, 
then more mixture, then cut peel. Finish with layer of 
mixture and steam one hour. Turn out and sprinkle with 
remaining pistachios. Serve with following sauce : Eind and 
juice of one lemon, quarter pound ground sugar, one-half 
teaspoonful of vanilla, one glass of rum. 

PEUNE PUDDING. 

One pound of prunes, whites of four eggs beaten to a 
stiff froth, half a cup of sugar, beaten in lightly with half a 
teaspoonful of salt; stew the prunes in sufficient water to 
cover them ; take out the stones and chop fine, add the whites 
and bake twenty minutes; cover with a meringue of white of 
egg, slightly browned 

ICE PUDDING. 

One packet of gelatine dissolved in a cup of cold water; 
when soft add one quart boiling water, three lemons, cup and 
a half of sugar. When stiff beat in whites of four eggs, and 
set in mould to jelly. 

CHOCOLATE PUDDING. 

Boil one pint of milk, add half a cup of butter, one cup of 
sugar, three ounces of grated chocolate. Pour this over two 
slices of sponge cake soaked in sheiTy. When cool spread 
over the whites of three eggs beaten with sugar, and lightly 
brown in oven. Serve hot or cold with thin custard. 



( 

200 PUDDINGS AND SAUCES. 

AMBER PUDDING. 

Dissolve three-quarters package of gelatine in a pint of 
milk for one-half hour or more. Put one pint of cream in a 
saucepan and let it get very hot^ but not boiled; beat the 
yolks of four or five eggs very well, and put five tablespoons 
of white sugar; vanilla to taste. Sauce. — One pint of water 
and one teacup of loaf sugar; let boil and add rind and juice 
of two lemons; cut rind in thin slices. 

LADY T.'S APPLE PUDDING. 

Eight ounces of apples, eight ounces of sugar, eight ounces 
butter, six eggs, two lemons. Grate apples, add sugar and 
butter; beat eggs and add with juice and grated rind of 
lemons. Line a deep pan with puff paste; fill with mixture 
and bake till done. 

CARAMEL PUDDING. 

One cup of sugar, part or all maple; two cups of milk, 
two dessertspoonfuls corn-starch. Put sugar on with one 
tablespoonful of water, and let it boil until it starts to burn. 
Put milk on the stove and when boiling add corn-starch dis- 
solved in cold milk. When both are done and boiling hot 
stir together until well mixed. Turn in a mould and serve 
with whipped cream. 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND 
CREAMS. 



The usual rule for custards is, eight eggs to a quart of 
milk ; but a very good custard can be made of six, or even less, 
especially with the addition of a level tablespoonful of sifted 
flour, thoroughly blended in the sugar first, before adding 
the other ingredients. They may be baked, boiled or steam- 
ed, either in cups or one large dish. It improves custards 
to first boil the milk and then cool it before being used; also 
a little salt adds to the flavor. A very small lump of butter 
may also be added, if one wants something especially rich. 

To make custards look and taste better, ducks' eggs 
should be used when obtainable; they add very much to the 
flavor and richness, and so many are not required as of ordin- 
ary eggs, four ducks' eggs to a pint of milk making a delici- 
ous custard. When desired extremely rich and good, cream 
should be substituted for the milk, and double the quantity of 
eggs used to those mentioned, omitting the whites. 

When making boiled custard, set the dish containing the 
custard into another and larger dish, partly filled with boil- 
ing water, placed over the fire. Let the cream or milk come 
almost to a boil before adding the eggs or thickening, then 
stir it briskly one way every moment until smooth and well 
cooked ; it must not boil or it will curdle. 

To bake a custard, the fire should be moderate, and the 
dish well buttered. 

Everything in baked custard depends upon the regularly 
heated slow oven. If made with nicety, it is the most deli- 
cate of all sweets ; if cooked till it wheys, it is hardly eatable. 

Frozen eggs can be made quite as good as fresh ones 
if used as soon as thawed soft. Drop them into boil- 
ing water, letting them remain until the water is cold. 



203 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

They will be soft all through and beat up equal to those that 
have not been touched with the frost. 

Eggs should always be thoroughly well-beaten, separately, 
the yolks first, then the sugar added ; beat again, then add the 
beaten whites with the flavoring, then the cooled scalded milk. 
The lighter the eggs are beaten, the thicker and richer the 
custard. 

Eggs should always be broken into a cup, the whites and 
yolks separated, and they should always be strained. Break- 
ing the eggs thus, the bad ones may be easily rejected without 
spoiling the others, and so cause no waste. 

A meringue, or frosting for the top, requires about a 
tablespoonful of fine sugar to the beaten white of one egg; 
to be placed on the top after the custard or pudding is baked ; 
smoothed over with a broad-bladed knife dipped in cold water, 
and replaced in the oven to brown slightly. 

SOFT CAKAMEL CUSTAED. 

One quart of milk, half a cupful of sugar, six eggs, half 
a teaspoonful of salt. Put the milk on to boil, reserving a 
cupful. Beat the eggs and add the cold milk to them. Stir 
the sugar in a small frying-pan until it becomes liquid and 
just begins to smoke. Stir it into the boiling millc; then 
add the beaten eggs and cold milk, and stir constantly until 
the mixture begins to thicken. Set away to cool. Serve 
in glasses. 

EASPBEEEY CEEAM. 

One-quarter pound white sugar, one-quarter pound rasp- 
berry jam, and the whites of four eggs beaten together for an 
hour. 

A DAINTY DESSEET. 

Line a glass bowl with slices of sponge cake or ladies' 
fingers, fill the bowl with sliced bananas; squeeze the juice 
and pulp from a quart of blackberries, sweeten it well, then 
pour it over the bananas; stand on ice until ice-cold, then 
cover with a deep layer of whipped cream and serve. 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 203 

PRUNE SHAPE. 

One and one-half pounds of best prunes (or figs), stew 
with a little sugar till quite tender. Strain the liquid from 
them and take out the stones; one six-ounce packet of gela- 
tine, dissolved in one pint of cold water. Then add a small 
half -pint of boiling water mixed with juice of prunes ; add one 
cup sugar and a few drops of ratafia. Place the prunes round 
the mould and pour liquid over. Let it stand till quite cold. 
Blanched almonds are an improvement. 

AMBROSIA. 

One pineapple chopped quite fine, one-half box straw- 
berries, six bananas sliced and the slices quartered, six 
oranges sliced and the slices quartered; one lemon cut fine; 
sweeten to taste. Add one wineglassful sherry and set away 
until cold. 

SALTED ALMONDS. 

Two pounds almonds, three tablespoonfuls best olive oil, 
one tablespoonful fine salt. Blanch almonds, pour oil over 
them, adding salt. Let them stand for an hour or two, stir- 
ring frequently. Then place in a pan large enough for the 
almonds to rest on the surface, not being crowded one on 
another. Place in an oven sufficiently slow to allow twenty 
minutes for the nuts to brown nicely, and shake the pan fre- 
quently that they may color evenly. 

APPLE CHARLOTTE. 

Mix one pint stewed apples with one cup sugar ; the grated 
rind and juice of one lemon; soak one-third of a box of gela- 
tine in one-third of a cup of cold water twenty minutes ; add 
one-third of a cup of boiling water to dissolve the gelatine; 
when cool add it to the apples. When beginning to stiffen, 
add the beaten whites of three eggs; pour into moulds lined 
with lady fingers. Serve with soft custard poured round the 
base of the charlotte. 



204 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

STEAWBEREY MOULD. 

Line a mould with nicely flavored lemon jelly. Then put 
in a layer of strawberries, freed from their stalks and cut 
in halves. Setting this layer with a little more jelly, have a 
smaller mould the same shape as the first; stand it in the 
centre of the larger mould (failing a mould use a small, round 
tin or jam pot), and fill up the outer circumference with 
alternate layers of the strawberries and lemon jelly. Place 
the mould on ice to set, and meanwhile whip half a pint of 
cream to a stiff froth, adding about one-quarter of an ounce 
of best leaf gelatine, dissolved in a very little water or milk, 
and very gradually add to this a cupful of strawberry pulp 
(obtained by mashing fruit through sieve) , sweetened to taste. 
When the jelly is set, remove the inner mould by pouring a 
little warm water into it and lifting out as quickly as pos- 
sible. Then fill up the space thus left with the whipped 
cream and strawberry pulp, and put the mould back on the ice 
for an hour or two, when it can be turned out and served 
with cream. 

CHOCOLATE CEEAM. 

Grate finely six ounces Cadbury's chocolate; put it into a 
saucepan with one pint cream, six ounces castor sugar, and 
yolks of six eggs. Stir over fire until it thickens, run through 
hair sieve; add two ounces dissolved gelatine. Mix and fill 
mould and place on ice. 

ITALIAN CEEAM. 

For two moulds: Three cups of cream and one cup of 
milk whipped stiff; one box of gelatine sweetened to taste. 
Put the sugar with the gelatine when it is melted in hot water. 
Flavor with vanilla; stir till it thickens, then mould. 

APPLE POECUPINE. 

Pare and core the apples. Make a syrup by boiling 
sugar and water in equal proportions. As soon as the fruit 
is pared, before it is discolored by standing, immerse it in 
the syrup and cook until it is easily pierced with a straw. 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 205 

Then draw the apples from the liquid and ornament the 
sides of each by piercing them with blanched almonds. Fill 
the cavities with jelly, preserved fruit or marmalade and 
serve hot or cold with cream. With the remaining syrup 
and the skins and cores, apple jelly may be made. 

PINEAPPLE CEEAM. 

Four eggs, one-half pint milk, one-half pint double 
cream, three-quarters ounce of gelatine, three ounces sugar. 
Take the pineapple and trim well, cut in half, cut one-half in 
dice, the other half pound in a mortar and pass through a 
hair sieve. Whip the cream, add the juice of pine, also the 
dice of pine; dissolve the gelatine in a gill of the pineapple 
syrup, add sugar; when cold add cream, and pour it into a 
decorated mould and set on ice. 

GATEAUX AUX PETJNES. 

One pound prunes, three ounces sugar, three-quarters ounce 
gelatine, juice and rind of a lemon, one glass brandy, one pint 
of water, a few drops cochineal. Boil the prunes in the water 
and sugar until quite soft; then take them out and take the 
stones out, crack the kernels, add them with the brandy, 
lemon juice and peel, a little cochineal and the gelatine dis- 
solved in a little water. Boil all for twenty minutes. Pour 
into a border mould. When set, turn out, and serve with 
whipped cream in the centre. 

CEEME A LA DUCHESSE. 

A very rich custard, stiffened with one ounce gelatine and 
flavored with two ounces of powdered baked almonds and a 
gill of whipped cream. Stir into this some crystallized apri- 
cots and ginger cut up small ; pour the mixture into a mould 
and pack in ice. Prepare some syrup, flavored with wine 
colored Avith a little carmine; set in the ice till cold, then 
turn out. 

SHEREY FLIP. 

One pint cream, two dozen almonds, three glasses of 
sherry, juice of two lemons, sugar to taste. Blanch and chop 



206 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

the almonds and put them into a jug with the cream. In an- 
other jug put the sherry, lemon juice and enough sugar to 
sweeten the whole nicely. Pour rapidly from one jug to the 
other till the mixture is well frothed; then pour it into in- 
dividual glasses. This is sufficient to fill twelve ordinary 
custar.l glasses. 

CHOCOLATE CEEAM. 

One-eighth pound of Cowan's chocolate (made in To- 
ronto), melted in just sufficient water, one pint of heated 
milk ; yolks of four eggs, four large tablespoons sugar, stirred 
until creamy; turn into boiling milk and add the chocolate. 
It must not boil. Strong coffee, vanilla, may be used in the 
same way, as flavoring to the cream. 

APPLES A LA PRINCESS MAUDE. 

Peel one and a half pounds of good cooking apples, cut 
them up and cook them in three-quarters of a pint of water 
with four to six ounces of loaf sugar, according to the sweet- 
ness of the apples, and bay-leaves, and the finely cut peel of 
one lemon. t\nien the apples are perfectly soft, dissolve with 
them three-quarters of an ounce of leaf gelatine and pass the 
whole through a sieve; divide the puree into two parts, 
and redden one of them with liquid carmine, and whiten the 
other with a little thick cream, and put them in separate sauce- 
pans to about a quarter of an inch thick, and let them set. 
Put the pans on broken ice if you have any. When the puree 
is set cut out in rounds with a plain cutter about the size of 
a shilling for ornamenting round the mould, and in leaf 
shapes for the bottom and in the centre of each of the 
rounds set a little round of angelica with a little liquid jelly. 
Line a plain round mould with lemon jelly to about one-eighth 
of an inch thick ; set the cut leaves of apple puree regularly 
on the bottom of the mould with the stock ends at the centre 
and the rounds regularly round the sides in alternate 
colors; fix these in their places with a little more of 
the lemon jelly and fill up the centre with the following 
cream, viz. : Separately dissolve the odds and ends of the 
cuttings of the puree with two tablespoonfuls of lemon jelly, 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 207 

and let them stand till somewhat cool; then add to each a 
quarter of a pint of thickly whipped cream and pour them 
into the mould in alternate layers and put to set on broken ice ; 
when required turn out on a dish ; place on the top a ball of 
stififly whipped cream sweetened and flavored with vanilla 
essence, and lightly sprinkle with a little chopped pistachio 
nuts. 

SPANISH CEEAM. 

One pint of new milk, one box of gelatine, half a pound 
of white sugar, four eggs, yolks and whites beaten separately; 
two feaspoonfuls of vanilla, scant half teaspoonful of rata- 
fia. Soak gelatine in a little water till very soft. Boil 
the milk, stir in gelatine, then sugar, then the well beaten 
yolks; stir well, and let the mixture thicken; put in flavor- 
ing and boil till the mixture separates, then take from the 
fire, beat in the whites (previously beaten stiff) ; stir lightly 
together and pour into a mould. This quantity is sufficient 
for one quart. 

MAPLE PAEFAIT. 

Beat the yolks of ten eggs very light, and add a large cup- 
ful of maple syrup. Put it over the fire, stir till it thickens, 
then take off and beat till cold. Add quickly a quart of cream 
beaten till it is perfectly stiff, and pour into a two-quart 
melon mould. Pack in ice and salt for five or six hours. 

STEAWBERRY SHERBET. 

One pint of berries, one pint of granulated sugar, one pint 
of water, juice of two lemons, one tablespoonful gelatine. 
Dissolve the gelatine in the water ; add berries and sugar, and 
last of all the lemon juice. Stir lightly and freeze. 

LEMON SHERBET. 

One quart of fresh milk,three cups of sugar, three lemons. 
Grate a very little of the rind of one of the lemons, add the 
strained juice of all the lemons and the sugar to the milk 
and freeze at once. 



208 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

CRAKBEEEY FRAPPE. 

One quart of cranberries, one quart of water, boiled five or 
six minutes, strain through a coarse cheese cloth, add one 
pint of sugar and stir and boil until sugar is dissolved; 
when cold add juice of two lemons strained. Freeze to a 
mush, using equal parts of ice and salt. Serve in glass cups. 
To be eaten with turkey. 

MUSCAT SHERBET. 

Dissolve one cupful of sugar in one pint of boiling water, 
take from the fire and add one tablespoonful of gelatine 
which has been soaked until soft in half a cupful of water; 
add the juice of four lemons and the grated rind of one; let 
stand for half an hour, then strain. Add one cupful of sherry 
and three cupfuls of cold water and color green, remember- 
ing that freezing lessens all colors, and it is to be a pretty 
pale green when served. Turn into the freezer, when half 
frozen, add a meringue made by beating together the whites 
of two eggs and two teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar until 
stiff and glassy. Finish the freezing, pack and set away un- 
til serving time. 

CAFE MOUSSE. 

Mix well together one pint of thick cream, three table- 
spoonfuls of powdered sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla and 
one-third of a cup of very strong coffee, chill thoroughly, 
then whip, setting the bowl in a pan of ice water. Take off 
the froth as it rises and lay on a sieve. When no more froth 
will rise turn the drowned whip carefully into a mould, cover 
lightly, binding the edges with a strip of muslin dipped in 
melted butter; bury in ice and salt as for freezing, let stand 
for two or three hours ; wipe off the mould and turn out on a 
serving dish. 

CHARLOTTE EUSSE. 

One pint cream whipped light, one-half ounce gelatine 
dissolved in one-quarter pint of hot milk, whites of two eggs 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 209 

beaten stiff, one teacupful of icing sugar, flavor to taste. 
Fasten lady fingers with icing and line mould with them, mix 
cream, whites of eggs and sugar together, add gelatine last, a 
little at a time. Beat quickly with a spoon and pour in 
mould. 

TEIFLE. 

Any kind of stale cake sponge or pound cake preferred, 
four tabiespoonfuls of wine (sherry), four tablespoonfuls of 
brandy, strawberry or raspberry jam, one quart of cream, one 
teaspoon of vanilla for cream, one-half teacupful of stoned 
raisins, one-half cup of chopped blanched almonds. In a 
dish put first a layer of cake, then a little brandy, then jam, 
then cake, wine, raisins and nuts, also a little cream 
whipped; begin again as before, then add a few macaroons 
and make a wall of lady fingers. After all the cake, wine 
and raisins are used, over the top put plenty of whipped 
cream (stiff). It takes almost two ten-cent sponge cakes and 
one dozen lady fingers spilt in halves and a few macaroons, 
about half a pound. This recipe makes enough trifle for 
about twenty people. 

PINEAPPLE CEEAM. 

Whip one pint of cream to a stiff froth, add a large cup of 
sugar (sop), one-half box gelatine soaked in a cup of milk 
for one hour ; a tiny pinch of salt is an improvement. Scrape 
one pineapple with a silver fork until it is in fine shreds, and 
add it to the cteam (or one can of pineapple). Set mould on 
ice to stiffen. 

ICE CREAM. 

Put one quart milk on to boil, dissolve two tablespoons 

cornstarch in two tablespoons of cold milk, stir into boiling 

milk; cook five minutes, strain, add two cups sugar, flavor 

to taste. When perfectly cold, freeze. An excellent recipe 

that never fails. 
♦14 



210 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

LEMON WATER ICE, OR ORANGE. 

Four large juicy lemons, one quart water, one orange, 
one and one-quarter pounds sugar. Put sugar and water on 
to boil; chip yellow rind from three lemons and the orange, 
add to the syrup ; boil five minutes and stand to cool ; squeeze 
Juice from lemons and orange; add to cold sjrrup, strain and 
freeze. Just before removing dash, add white of one egg 
beaten very stiff with one tablespoon sugar, to make white 
and frothy. Have used this a dozen times. 

CUSTARD SOUFFLE. 

Rub two scant tablespoonfuls of butter to a cream, add 
two tablespoonfuls flour, and pour on gradually one cup ,of 
hot milk. Cook eight minutes in double boiler, stirring 
often. Separate yolks and whites of four eggs, and put whites 
on ice. Beat yolks, add two tablespoonfuls sugar, and add 
to the milk, and set away to cool. Half an hour before serv- 
ing beat the whites stiff, and cut them in lightly. Bake in 
buttered pudding dish in moderate oven thirty minutes, and 
serve at once with creamy sauce. 

CARAMEL CUSTARD. 

One-half cup sugar, two tablespoonfuls water, one quart 
milk, six eggs, one-half teaspoonful salt, one teaspoonful 
vanilla. Put sugar in pan, and stir until it melts and is 
light brown; add the water, and stir into the warm milk. 
Beat eggs lightly, add salt and vanilla and part of the milk. 
Strain into the remainder of the milk, and pour into a but- 
tered two-quart mould. Set the mould in a pan of warm 
water, and bake from thirty to forty minutes, or till firm. 
Serve with cream and fruit sugar. 

STONE CREAM. 

Put some preserve, strawberry, raspberry or peach, into a 
glass dish with three large tablespoonfuls of lemon juice on 
the top, then boil a pint of cream with three-quarters of an 
ounce of isinglass dissolved in a very little warm milk; add 
wine and loaf sugar; when new milk warm, keep moving it 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 211 

round on the sweetmeats on the dish ; it is best made the day 
before it is wanted. When quite cold cut some blanched 
almonds lengthwise and stick them all over it. 

LEMOK TEIFLE. 

Two lemons, juice of both, and grated rind of one. One 
cup sherry, one large cup sugar, one pint cream, well sweet- 
ened and whipped stiff, a little nutmeg. Strain the lemon 
juice over the sugar and grated peel, and let them lie to- 
gether two hours before adding the wine and nutmeg. Strain 
again and whip gradually into the frothed cream. Serve in 
jelly glasses. It should be eaten soon after it is made. 

FIG TEIFLE. 

Six figs, three ounces shelled walnuts, one-quarter pint of 
cream, one glass of liqueur and one dessertspoonful of sugar, 
Cut the figs with a sharp knife into fine dice, chop the walnuts 
• coarsely, whip the cream, sweeten with sugar to taste, then 
lightly stir in the figs and walnuts; flavor with the liqueur 
and serve in custard glasses. 

WATEE ICE (LEMON). 

One quart of water boiled with pared rind of two lemons 
(avoiding white part), two and one-half cups sugar or more 
(very sweet), one tablespoon (not heaping) of cornstarch, 
juice of five lemons. Strain and freeze ; should stand one hour 
before using. 

APPLE SITOW. 

Pare, core and slice six or eight tart, juicy apples; stew 
them in a little water until soft enough to press through a 
colander ; sweeten to suit the taste and turn into a deep glass 
dish; let the apples get cold and then cover with a soft cus- 
tard made with a pint of milk, the yolks of three eggs and 
sugar to sweeten. Flavor with lemon or orange, and when 
cold pour over the apples. Whip the whites to a stiff froth 
with three heaping tablespoons of powdered sugar and heap 
lightly over the custard. 



212 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

MAPLE MOUND. 

une cup of maple syrup, one pint of cream, yolks of four 
eggs. Boil syrup five minutes; remove from stove and add 
beaten yolks of eggs ; when cold stir in cream, which has been 
whipped. Pour into mould and pack in ice and salt for three 
hours. 

TEIFLE. 

Sponge cake, soaked in sherry wine; chopped figs and a 
pint of almond custard, large cup of strawberry jam, one 
pint of cream, whipped, for top, 

GINGER CREAM. 

Cut four ounces of prepared ginger in dice ; put one 
ounce of gelatine into a saucepan with a pint of milk and 
four tablespoonfuls of sugar. Let it boil slowly, stirring all 
the time till the gelatine is dissolved, then add ginger. When 
cool add one pint of whipped cream. Pour in dampened 
mould to form. 

PINEAPPLE CREAM. 

One can of pineapple (grated), three ounces of loaf sugar, 
half a pint of water, three-quarters of an ounce of gelatine, 
one and a half pints of cream. Drain syrup from pineapple 
and put in half a pint of water and sugar in sauce-pan. When 
dissolved add fruit, boiling ten minutes, then add gelatine 
and boil ten minutes longer. When entirely cold add the 
cream, well whipped, and pour in moulds. 

RUSSIAN CREAM. 

One box of gelatine put in cup of milk to dissolve, one 
and a half pints of milk, three-quarters of a cup of sugar; 
add yolks of four eggs, and cook. Remove from stove and 
add whites of eggs. Pour in mould to cool. 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 213 

SOUFFLE. 

Two ounces butter, two and a half ounces flour, four yolks 
of eggs, six whites of eggs, one teaspoon vanilla essence, two 
ounces grated chocolate, two ounces sugar, one gill of cream. 
Melt butter and flour, then add cream; cook two minutes; 
add chocolate and stir till melted. Remove from fire and let 
cool, then add yolks and, just before steaming, add whites 
stiflfly beaten; fold them in gently; steam one hour and a 
half. Steam in mould placed in saucepan of hot water; let 
water come half way up mould; put mould in bottom of 
saucepan and cover with a greased paper, and then cover 
saucepan. Do not let water boil. 

SAUCE. 

Three eggs, three ounces sugar, half pint of whipped 
cream measured after being whipped, half glass of chartreuse ; 
whip eggs and sugar over boiling water for ten minutes ; then 
remove and whip until cold, then add cream and chartreuse. 

LEMON SHEEBET. 

Six lemons, four eggs (the whites), two pints sugar. 
Make a thick syrup of one pint sugar and about one pint 
water; when cold, thin with the juice of six lemons, and 
water enough to make it a rich lemonade. When it is half 
frozen add boiled icing, made as follows: One pint sugar 
moistened with water, and boiled until it is a soft candy; 
whilst hot add the stiff beaten whites of four eggs. Flavor 
with vanilla and a little citric acid or cream tartar, and beat 
hard until thick and smooth, and add to the half frozen 
lemonade. 

APPLE SPONGE. 

One pound apples, one-half ounce gelatine, one pound 
white sugar, one-half pint boiling water, juice of two lemons, 
rind of one. Boil the water and sugar in a saucepan until 
dissolved. Peel and slice the apples thinly, and add to the 
syrup, and stew until tender. Add gelatine, and strain all 



214 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

through a sieve; add lemon juice and rind and beat until 
cool. Beat the whites of three eggs stiffly and add to the 
mixture, and beat all until cold. Put into a mould; serve 
with custard. 

COMPOTE OP CHESTNUTS (FEANCATELLI), 

Fifty chestnuts, one quart milk and water, twelve ounces 
sugar, three oranges quartered and soaked in maraschino, 
one-half pint whipped cream, Eemove husks and skin 
from the chestnuts, and boil gently in the milk and water 
until like floury potatoes, and strain them. Boil the sugar 
until it purls on the surface and flavor with vanilla bean; 
add the chestnuts and work all together vigorously, and rub 
through a potato masher on to a dish. Pile up whipped 
cream in the centre of a dish, and gently strew the chestnuts 
on top of the cream in a conical form; garnish with orange 
quarters at the base of the cream and nuts. 

PKINCE OF WALES DESSEET. 

Take sponge cakes, stale preferred ; dip in sherry or syrup 
and line a mould with them. Take three-quarters pound 
cornflour, one ounce arrowroot, and mix together; add 
one pint boiling milk and cook a few minutes; add one tea- 
spoon vanilla and pour this into the lined basin. When cold 
turn out. Put a large spoonful of red currant jelly on the 
top, and sprinkle well with chopped pistachio nuts. This 
may be varied by putting the cakes soaked in raspberry juice 
or wine in a glass dish; fill as above over the top of this. 
When cold spread whipped cream; decorate with cherries 
and chopped citron peel. Serve very cold and in the glass 
dish in which it was made. The latter looks very pretty 
when complete. 

CAEAMEL CUSTAED. 

One quart milk, yolks two eggs, one cup white sugar, two 
tablespoons cornstarch, one-half large cup of caramel. Stir 
all together carefully, cooking in a double boiler. Serve cold, 
with whipped cream. 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 215 

To Make the Caramel. — Two cups white sugar, one-half 
cup water. Put on a hot fire in a frying-pan, and stir con- 
stantly until it burns a dark brown color and becomes liquid. 
Eemove from the fire and add one-half large cup of boiling 
water. Set away when cool in a jar for use. Will keep for 
weeks. 

, PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM. 

One quart of cream, one small cup of sugar, one table- 
spoonful of vanilla. Mix sugar and flavoring with cream. 
When the sugar is dissolved strain into the freezer. 

BURNT CREAM. 

Boil one quart of milk, stir in four tablespoonfuls of corn- 
starch, add a few broken walnuts. Put in a saucepan one 
pound of brown sugar, let it brown as dark as possible, then 
add the milk; after the milk is thick beat well together and 
turn into a mould. Decorate with half walnuts around, or 
solitaire moulds with a half walnut on top, whipped cream 
around dish. 

APPLE CHARLOTTE. 

Half a pound of bread-crumbs, one pound apples, two 
ounces of chopped suet, quarter of a pound of brown sugar, 
one grated rind of lemon. Butter a pie dish and sprinkle it 
with sugar. Mix suet and bread-crumbs together, put a 
layer of apple in small pieces, sugar and rind of lemon, then 
suet and crumbs; repeat until dish is full. Bake thirty or 
forty minutes. Turn out. 

GINGER CREAM. 

Make a custard of a gill of milk, one ounce of sugar, the 
beaten yolks of three eggs. Stir in a double boiler until thick, 
let it cool, then add one gill of the syrup from the jar of 
preserved ginger, and two ounces of the ginger cut up; add 
three-quarters ounce, full weight, of gelatine melted in as 
little water as possible. Last of all add one-half pint of 



216 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

whipped cream. Mix gently until well blended, pour into a 
mould and set on ice. 

TE^ACLE SPONGE. 

Six ounces bread crumbs, four ounces suet (a little salt), 
one egg, one tablespoonful Magic Baking Powder, two table- 
epoonfuls golden syrup; when steamed, pour syrup over as 
sauce. 

BAKED APPLES. 

Peel and core as many as will fit your dish. Fill cavities 
in apples vrith sugar, one clove each, a pinch of cinnamon and 
a bit of butter ; put a syrup of hot water and honey or sugar 
around the apples and bake carefully. Never bake apples with 
peel on. 

SALTED ALMONDS. 

Blanch almonds by pouring boiling water over and allow- 
ing them to stand till the skins slip off easily. Lay on tins 
with small lumps of butter and place in a hot oven, stirring 
occasionally. When almonds are a golden brown take from 
oven, sprinkle with fine salt and a pinch of cayenne pepper, 
cover with another tin and shake thoroughly. 

POACHED APEICQTS. 

Upon some slices of sponge cake place halves of apricots 
(the round sides uppermost), and whip the whites of two or 
three eggs to a snow frost with sugar. Place this around 
the apricot halves so as to make them resemble poached eggs. 
Whipped cream, if obtainable, is even better than the merin- 
gue. A little of the apricot juice should be added as 
flavoring. 

MAPLE MOUSSE. 

The yolks of four eggs, one pnt of cream, one cup of 
maple syrup. Whip the cream very stiff, beat the eggs and 
place them in a double boiler; pour in the maple syrup and 



DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 217 

stir constantly until the mixture gathers on the spoon. Then 
take off the stove and beat till cold. Stir into the whipped 
cream; put in a freezer that has been previously packed in 
ice and salt. Let stand four hours. 

PEACH MELBA. 

Ingredients. — ^One pint of custard for ice. Peaches or pears, 
raspberry syrup. Make the custard with one pint of milk and 
five yolks of eggs, vanilla essence to taste; make this custard 
into an ice. When ready for the melba, take the ice out of 
the freezing machine and place in rather a deep dish; then 
put peaches or pears on the top of the ice, then pour raspberry 
syrup over the whole and serve. To make the raspberry 
syrup, take a small jar of raspberry Jam and pass through a 
fine sieve. Then take a very small bottle of raspberry syrup 
and well mix with the Jam as the syrup alone is not thick 
enough. We always use raspberry and red currant mixed, 
which can be obtained at the grocers, also tinned peaches and 
pears would do nicely. 

SPANISH CREAM. 

Three pints of milk, one box of gelatine soaked in half of 
the milk for an hour. Scald the rest of the milk, then stir 
in the gelatine. The yolks of six beaten eggs and eight table- 
spoons of sugar. Take from the fire and allow to cool, when 
put in the beaten whites and turn into a mould. 

BANANAS. 

Slice and pour over them a little white wine, leave them 
to soak for two hours. Cover with custard made as for choco- 
late cream, without flavoring. 

MELBA PEACHES. 

Take a block of ice large enough to hold the dessert for 
the required number; hollow out the inside with a hot iron 
in the shape of a bowl ; set this on a silver platter and decorate 
the base with flowers and leaves. Fill the bowl half full 
with vanilla ice-cream and cover this with stewed or brandied 
peaches cut in half, and over this pour a cold raspberry syrup. 



218 DESSERTS, CUSTARDS AND CREAMS. 

GINGEE CREAM. 

Make a custard of a gill of milk, one ounce of sugar, and 
the beaten yolks of three eggs; stir until thick, let it cool, 
then add one gill of the syrup from a jar of preserved ginger; 
then cut up two ounces of the ginger; add three-quarters of 
an ounce of gelatine melted in as little cold water as possible. 
Add half a pint of well whipped cream until well blended. 
Pour into a mould and set on ice. 

CHOCOLATE SHAPE. 

Soak half a box of gelatine in half a cup of warm water 
for one hour ; add to the same half a cup of grated chocolate, 
half a pound of white sugar, one pint of milk; stir all to- 
gether and boil five minutes by placing vessel in another of 
boiling water, then add half a pint of cream ; boil one minute. 
Flavor with vanilla and pour into mould. 

VELVET CREAM. 

Put three-quarters cup gelatine in a bowl and pour over 
it one and a half cups of wine. Add rind and juice of one 
lemon. Let it stand an hour and then put it on the fire until 
the gelatine is dissolved. One quart of cream sweetened and 
whipped a little. Eun the hot gelatine into the cream, beat- 
ing hard all the time. When about the thickness of boiled 
custard pour into mould. 

CHOCOLATE MANGE. 

One box Cox's gelatine dissolved in a pint of cold water. 
Three pints milk ; put to boil with one cup of grated chocolate. 
When the milk is just scalded pour in the gelatine, sweeten 
to taste, boil five minutes, then take from the fire, flavor 
with vanilla, and pour into moulds. Serve with powdered 
sugar and cream. 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 



GENEEAL EEMAEKS. 

Use the very best materials in making pastry ; the shorten- 
ing should be fresh, sweet, and hard; the water cold (ice water 
is best), the paste rolled on a cold board, and all handled as 
little as possible. 

When the crust is made, it makes it much more flaky 
and puff much more to put it in a dish covered with a cloth, 
and set in a very cold place for half an hour, or even an 
hour ; in summer, it could be placed in the ice box. 

A great improvement is made in pie-crust by the addition 
of about a heaping teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder to 
a quart of flour, also brushing the paste as often as rolled 
out, and the pieces of butter placed thereon, with the white 
of an egg, assist it to rise in leaves or flakes. As this is the 
great beauty of puff-paste, it is as well to try this method. 

If currants are to be used in pies, they should be carefully 
picked over, and washed in several waters, dried in a towel, 
and dredged with flour before they are suitable for use. 

Eaisins, and all dried fruits for pies and cakes, should be 
seeded, stoned, and dredged with flour, before using. 

Almonds should be blanched by pouring boiling water 
upon them, and then slipping the skin off with the fingers. 
In pounding them, always add a little rose or orange water, 
with fine sugar, to prevent %eir becoming oily. 

Great care is requisite in heating an oven for baking pas- 
try. If you can hold your hand in the heated oven while you 
count twenty, the oven has just the proper temperature, and it 
should be kept at this temperature as long as the pastry is in ; 
this heat will bake to a light brown, and will give the pastry 
a fresh and flaky appearance. If you suffer the heat to abate, 
the under crust will become heavy and clammy, and the upper 
crust will fall in. 

Another good way to ascertain when the oven is heated 
to the proper degree for puff-paste : put a small piece of the 



220 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

paste in previous to baking the whole, and then the heat can 
thus be judged of. 

Pie-crust can be kept a week, and the last be better than 
the first, if put in a tightly covered dish, and set in the ice- 
chest in summer, and in a cool place in winter, and thus you 
can make a fresh pie every day with little trouble. 

In baking custard, pumpkin or squash pies, it is well, in 
order that the mixture may not be absorbed by the paste, to 
first partly bake the paste before adding it, and when stewed 
fruit is used the filling should be perfectly cool when put in, 
or it will make the bottom crust sodden. 

PLAIN PASTKY FOR PIES. 

One quart of flour, one cupful of butter, one cupful of 
cold water, one teaspoonful of salt, or use one-half butter and 
one-half lard or cottolene. This quantity gives enough for 
three or four pies. Cottolene makes good pastry. The short- 
ening may be mixed, but the flavor is better where butter 
alone is used. The richness of pastry depends upon the 
amount of shortening used. 

Sift the salt and flour together, reserving a little flour for 
the board. With a knife, cut the butter into the flour. Add 
the water a little at a time, and mix it in lightly with the 
knife; turn it on to the board, and roll it twice — that is, after 
it is rolled out once, fold it together and roll it again. If 
the paste is wanted richer for the top crust, put bits of butter 
over the paste when rolled; fold and roll it again several 
times. Fold the paste, and put it in the ice-box for an hour 
before using, keeping it covered. In making pastry every- 
thing should be cold, the handling light, and the hands used 
at- little as possible. Paste will keep several days in a cool 
place, but should be rolled in a napkin, so it will not dry and 
form a crust. 

To Put a Pie Together. — ^RoU the paste one-eighth inch 
thick, and a little larger than the tin. Dust the pan with 
flour; place the paste on it, letting it shrink all it will. Lift 
it from the sides to fit into place, and press it as little as pos- 
sible. Cut a narrow strip of paste, and lay around the edge; 
moisten it so it will stick. Brush the top of the bottom crust 
with white of egg, so the fiUing will not soak in and make it 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 221 

heavy. Put in the filling, and cover with another sheet of 
pastry. Moisten the top of the strip of pastry so the top crust 
will adhere to it; this gives three layers around the edge. 
Trim and press them lightly together. Cut several slits in 
the top crust to let the steam escape in cooking. 

A thin piece of paste cut into fancy shape can be placed 
in the centre for ornament if desired. 

PASTEY FOE TAETS OE OPEN PIES. 

Two cupfuls of flour, three-quarters cupful of butter, 
one-half teaspoonful salt, one tablespoonful of sugar, yolks 
of two eggs, water. Sift the flour, salt, and sugar together. 
Cut in the butter as directed above. Mix in the beaten yolks, 
then enough water to make a paste which is not very stiff; 
roll it two or three times, then wrap it in a cloth, or cover it 
closely, and put it in the ice-box for an hour. This gives 
enough paste for four small tarts. 

FOE ICING PASTEY. 

To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit 
tarts and sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a 
plate, and with the blade of a knife beat to a stiff froth. 
When the pastry is nearly baked, brush it over with this, and 
sift over some pounded sugar ; put it back into the oven to set 
the glaze, and in a few minutes it will be done. Great care 
should be taken that the paste does not catch or burn in the 
oven, which it is very liable to do after the icing is laid on. 

Or make a meringue by adding a tablespoonful of white 
sugar to the beaten white of one egg. Spread over the top, 
and slightly brown in the oven. 

LEMON PIE AND TAETS. 

Two lemons, two eggs, two tablespoonfuls cornstarch, 
two cups sugar (not too full), one and one-quarter cups of 
water, butter the size of an egg. Grate the rind and squeeze 
the Juice of the lemons; beat eggs light and melt the butter. 
Mix all together. Make a puff paste and line the tins with the 
pastry. Brush over with the white of an egg and fill with the 
lemon mixture and bake. 



222 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

MINCE MEAT FOE PIES. 

Five pounds of beef, three pounds of suet, three pounds 
of raisins, three pounds of currants, one-half peck apples, 
one pint brandy, one tablespoon salt, two pounds sugar, one 
dessertspoon of cinnamon, one dessertspoon of allspice, one 
dessertspoon of ginger, one dessertspoon of cloves, four nut- 
megs grated, one cup of molasses, one cup of beef liquor. 

SWEET POTATO CUSTAED PIE. 

One pint of mashed sweet potato, one teacup of sweet milk, 
j^olks of four eggs. Cream a teacup of sugar aud butter 
together, mix with potatoes, flavor with nutmeg or cinna- 
mon. Beat the whites to a stiff froth and stir in, pour in pie- 
pan lined with crust and bake quickly. 

LEMON FILLING FOE TAETS, CAKES, ETC. 

One cup granulated sugar, one egg, grated rind and juice 
of one lemon, one cup boiling water, one dessertspoonful corn- 
starch. Beat sugar and egg to a cream, add rind and juice 
of lemon, previously prepared, also cornstarch, and blen<3 
thoroughly. Then pour in slowly cup of water, which must 
be boiling. Put on the fire in a double saucepan and allow 
it to simmer for ten minutes. The filling is then ready for 
use. Orange may be used instead of lemon, 

LEMON PIE. 

One lemon grated, one and one-half tablespoons corn- 
starch, three-quarters cup of white sugar, butter the size of 
walnut, one cup of hot water, yolks of two eggs. Cook in 
double boiler, let it cool a little, then put in yolks last, after 
the other ingredients are well cooked. To prepare the lemon, 
grate off the outside, taking care to get only the yellow (the 
white is bitter), then squeeze out the juice. Bake your pie 
crust first, then add lemon filling; keep the whites for the 
meringue. Whip up the whites stiff, add a little pulverized 
sugar, then spread on top of pie, and put in the oven for a 
few minutes. 



PASTRY^ PIES AND TARTS. 223 

PIE CKUST. 

Three cups flour sifted with two teaspoonfuls Magic 
Baking Powder, one teaspoonful of salt, two cups of lard, 
one cup water. 

CEEAM PIE. 

One cup sweet milk, one small cup of sugar, yolks of three 
eggs, butter size of an egg, one tablespoon flour. Boil until 
it thickens, stirring constantly. Then fill the shell (which 
has previously been baked) with the mixture, and ice with the 
whites of eggs. Place in oven a few minutes until icing be- 
gins to brown. 

OLD COUNTRY MINCE MEAT. 

Two pounds raisins, three pounds currants, one and one- 
half pounds lean chopped beef, three pounds chopped beef 
suet, two pounds moist, brown sugar, six ounces mixed can- 
died peel, one small nutmeg, two pounds apples, the rind of 
two lemons, and juice of one, one-half pint of brandy. Stone 
the raisins and chop ; wash the currants and dry ; slice the 
peel thinly, grate the nutmeg, pare, core, and mince the 
apples, peel lemon and strain the juice. Get all your dry 
ingredients, including of course the beef (uncooked) and suet, 
well mixed; add the lemon juice and brandy last, and press 
the mixture into a jar that will exclude the air. Set away 
for a fortnight before using. 

MARTHA WASHINGTON PIE. 

Pour ounces of blanched almonds, pounded in a mortar 
with two ounces of powdered sugar, adding gradually one raw 
egg. When well pounded add two ounces more of sugar, two 
ounces of melted butter, half a gill of rum, half a saltspoon 
of ground cinnamon, six drops of orange flower water and 
break in another egg. Pound for five minutes and add two 
ounces of well pounded macaroons. Line a pie plate with 
good paste, pour in the preparation and bake; decorate with 
candied fruits. 



224 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

TAETS. 

(Apricot, Plum, Apple, Berry.) 

EoU the paste one-eighth of an inch thick, lay it on a deep 
pie-dish; let it shrink all it will, and use as little pressure as 
possible in fitting it to the tin. Cut the paste an inch larger 
than the dish, and fold it under, giving a high twisted edge. 
Prick the paste on the bottom in several places with a fork. 
Lay over it a thin paper, and fill the tart with rice, dried 
peas, beans, cornmeal, or any dry material convenient. Brush 
the edge with egg, and bake it in a moderate oven. When 
done remove the rice, or other filling, and the paper. Brush 
the bottom with white of egg. This will insure a dry under 
crust. If apricots or peaches are to be used, peel and cut 
them in halves, lay them evenly over the tart with the centre 
side up. 

Place the half of a blanched almond in each one to re- 
present the pit. Put the juice of the fruit into a saucepan 
on the fire ; if there is no juice use a cupful of water. Sweeten 
to taste, and when it boils add to each cupful of juice one 
teaspoonful of arrowroot dissolved in a little cold water, and 
let it cook until clear ; then pour it around the fruit, but not 
over it, as the fruit should lie on top and show its form. 
Place in the oven only long enough to cook the fruit tender. 
If canned fruit is used, cook the juice and arrowroot until a 
little thickened and clear ; then pour it around the fruit, and 
let cool. It will not need to be put in the oven. 

When plums or cherries are used, remove the pits care- 
ixillj, and place the fruit close together, with the whole side 
up. For apple tarts, cut the apples in even quarters or 
eighths; stew them in sweetened water, with a little lemon 
juice added, until tender. Lay them overlapping in even 
rows or circles in the tart. To a cupful of water in which the 
apples were stewed add a teaspoonful of arrowroot, and cook 
until clear ; pour it over the apples, sprinkle with sugar, nut- 
meg, and cinnamon. With berries, the fruit may be stewed 
or not before being placed in the tart; then strips of paste 
nre laid across it, like lattice-work, and the paste brushed with 
egg. Bake long enough to cook the fruit and the strips of 
paste. When cold place a fresh berry on each piece of crust 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 225 

vhere it crosses; or place a drop of meringue on the crusts, 
and the berries in the openings. 

The California canned fruits make very good pies. One 
can of fruit will make two pies. Tart-rings are better to use 
than pie-tins, as the sides are straight. Place them on a 
baking-sheet, or tin, before lining them with pastry. 

OEANGE PIE. 

Juice and grated yellow rind of one orange, two-thirds 
cupful of milk, three eggs, one cupful of granulated sugar, 
one tablespoonful of flour, one-half saltspoonful of salt. 
Beat the yolks and the sugar together; add the flour, the 
milk, and the grated rind and juice of the orange. Place it 
on the fire iij a double boiler, and stir until it is a little thick- 
ened; then pour it into an open or tart pie, and bake thirty 
minutes. The crust of the pie should be brushed with white 
of egg before adding the thickened mixture. The tart crust 
may be first baked, as directed above, if preferred. Cover the 
top with meringue made with the whites of the eggs and 
sweetened with three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pile it on 
irregularly, or press it through a pastry-bag into fancy 
shapes. Place it in the oven a moment to brown. A little 
more flour may be used if the pie is wanted more solid. 

A PLAIN APPLE PIE. 

Fill a pie with apples sliced thin, using enough to make 
the pie at least an inch thick when done. Add a little water 
to the apples, and cover with a top crust, which is a little 
richer than the under one. This is done by rolling out a part 
01 the same paste, covering it with bits of butter, folding it 
together, and rolling it again, repeating the operation two or 
three times. Cut a few slits in the paste to let out the steam 
while cooking. Brush the top with beaten yolk of egg. 
"When the pie is baked, and while it is still hot, lift off care- 
fully the top crust; add sugar, nutmeg, and a little butter, 
and mix them well with the apples. Replace the top crust, 
and dust it with powdered sugar. Apple pies seasoned in 
this way are better than when seasoned before being baked. 
*15 



226 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

PUMPKIN PIE. 

Cut a pumpkin into small pieces; remove the soft part 
and seeds. Cover and cook it slowly in its own steam until 
tender; then remove the cover and reduce it almost to dry- 
ness, using care that it does not burn. Press it through a 
colander. To two and one-half cupfuls of pulp add two cup- 
fuls of milk, one teaspoonful each of salt, butter, cinnamon, 
and ginger, one tablespoonful of molasses, two eggs, and 
sugar to taste. Add the beaten eggs last and after the mix- 
ture is cold. Pour it into an open crust and bake slowly 
forty to fifty minutes. Squash pies are made in the same 
way, but are not the same in flavor, although they are often' 
given the name of pumpkin pies. 

CEEAM PIE. 

Three eggs, one cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of Magic 
Baking Powder, one cupful of flour. Sift the flour and 
Magic Baking Powder together; beat the yolks and sugar to- 
gether; add the flour and lastly the whipped whites of the 
eggs. Bake this cake mixture in two layers, and place be- 
tween them when cold, and just before serving, a thick layer 
of whipped cream. Have the top piece covered with a boiled 
icing, or use between the cakes a cream filling made as fol- 
lows: 

Cream for Filling. — Two and one-half cupfuls of milk, 
two tablespoonfuls of flour, three-quarters cupful of sugar, 
one egg, one teaspoonful of vanilla. Scald the milk ; turn it 
on to the beaten egg ; return it to the fire ; add the flour moist- 
ened with a little milk, and the sugar, and stir until thick- 
ened. Let it cool before adding it to the cake. Serve with 
whipped cream if desired. 

COCOANUT PIE. 

Line a tin basin which is two inches deep with pie paste, 
and bake it. Make a custard of one pint of milk, three egg- 
yolks, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and two tablespoonfuls 
of cornstarch. Scald the milk and turn it on to the yolks 
and sugar beaten together; return it to the fire; add the 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 237 

cornstarch moistened wjth cold milk, and stir until well 
thickened ; add one-half teaspoonful of vanilla, and the whites 
of two eggs whipped to a froth ; cook one minute to set the 
esg, then remove, and when nearly cold and stiffened stir in 
the half of a grated cocoanut. Brush the hottom of the 
baked pie-cust with white of egg ; cover it with a thin layer 
of grated cocoanut and turn in the thickened custard. Cover 
the top with meringue made with the white of one egg. Re- 
turn it to the oven one minute to color the meringue. Let 
the pie stand long enough to get firm and cold before serving. 
If the grated cocoanut is not added until the custard has 
stiffened, it will not sink to the bottom. 

CRANBERRY PIE. 

Chop one cupful of cranberries and a half cupful of 
seeded raisins together into small pieces ; add to them a cup- 
ful of sugar, a half cupful of water, a tablespoonful of flour. 
and a teaspoonful of vanilla. Bake with an upper and under 
crust. This resembles cherry pie. 

LENT PIES. 

Two tablespoons of ground rice to one pint of new milk, 
add fi^ve eggs and sweeten to taste, flavoring with two bay 
leaves. Cover pie plates with a good crust, pour in mixture 

and bake. s^t-* -;:?•-'■ 

MINCE MEAT (WITH BEEF). 

Two pounds of boiled lean fresh beef, chopped when cold. 
Two poimds beef suet, chopped fine. Four pounds of apples, 
chopped. Two pounds raisins, stoned and chopped. Two 
pounds currants, picked, washed and dried. Two pounds of 
powdered sugar, one quart of whisky, one wineglass rose- 
water, two grated nutmegs, half an ounce of cinnamon, a 
quarter of an ounce of cloves, a quarter of an ounce of mace. 
fThese last tbroe. powdered. 1 A teaspoonful of salt, two 
large oranges, half a pound nf citron, cut in ?lips. Keep in 
jars tightly covered and set in a dry, cool place. 



228 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

MINCE MEAT IN 1812. 

One poTind chopped suet, one pound chopped beef, ono 
quart apple cider, one-half peck apples, one pint molasses, 
one pint preserved grapes (Clinton preferred), one pound 
brown sugar, one teacup best brandy, two pounds stoned 
raisins, two pounds sultana raisins, two pounds currants, 
one-half pound citron or lemon peel, allspice, cinnamon, and 
cloves to taste. Simmer for half a day on the back of the 
stove till thoroughly cooked. Put in a cool place in an 
earthen jar. If a very moist mince meat is preferred, add 
cider to each pie when baking; have crust very short. 

MINCE MEAT (WITHOUT BEEF). 

One pound fresh chopped suet, two pounds of best stoned 
raisins, two pounds currants, two pounds Juicy apples, two 
and one-half pounds powdered sugar, four lemons boiled 
(with pips removed) and the grated outer rind of two lemons 
unboiled, half pound of citron peel, half pound of orange, 
two nutmegs grated, a teaspoon of salt, one of powdered 
mace and ginger. Mix all together, then stir in well half 
pint of sherry and half pint brandy. 

LEMON FILLING FOR PIE. 

One lemon, juice and rind grated; yolks of two eggs, one 
cup of water, one cup of sugar, one heaping teaspoonful of 
cornstarch. i~ tit in a double boiler and boil thick. Save the 
whites for top. 

PUMPKIN PIE. 

Three-quarters cupful of boiled or steamed pumpkin (well 
mashed), one and a half cupfuls of milk, half cupful of sugar, 
one egg, and a teaspoonful of ginger, nutmeg, cinnamon and 
cloves. 

MINCE MEAT. 

Four pounds of soli3 raw beef, six pounds of chopped suet, 
one peck of sour apples, six pounds of brown sugar, four 



PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 329 

pounds of stoned raisins, two pounds of currants, three- 
quarters of a pound of citron, not cut too fine; one table- 
spoonful of salt, six lemons, juice of all, pulp and peel of 
two chopped fine; spice to taste. Can be kept a year. 

PIE CEUST. 

One-half pound flour, one-half pound butter, one-quarter 
pint cold water, yolk of one egg, juice of one-half lemon. 
Sift the flour thoroughly, then add a pinch of salt and two 
ounces of butter. Mix the yolk of egg and lemon juice with 
the water and mix the flour into a paste with this, stirring 
with a silver fork, turn it on a board, roll it out one-half 
inch thick, put three ounces of butter on, fold it over and 
roll out three times. Line the patty tins thinly with this 
and put in a cool place till wanted; roll out the remainder 
of the paste, put the last three ounces of butter on it, and 
roll out five times, let it stand one-half an hour. Fill the 
patty tins with mincemeat, roll the paste out as thin as pos- 
sible, wet the edges of the paste in pans and cover each pie 
with three folds of paste. Bake in a quick oven for about 
twenty minutes. 

CEEAM PUFFS. 

Half a cup of butter melted in one cup of hot water, put 
on the stove to boil ; while boiling add one cup of flour. Take 
off and let cool; when cold stir in three eggs one after the 
other without beating; drop on buttered tins and bake thirty 
minutes. 

Filling for the above — One cup of milk, one egg, half a 
cup of sugar. Thicken with two small tablespoonfuls of 
cornstarch, and flavor with vanilla; add a small lump of 
butter. 

CHEESE TAETLETS. 

Make a paste of one ounce butter, two ounces flour, one 
yolk of an egg, a little water and salt; line some patty pans, 
beat up two ounces grated cheese in a basin with yolks of two 
eggs, add pepper, salt, etc.; work in a little cream or milk; 
fill each patty with mixture and bake in moderate oven. 



280 PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS. 

CHEESE PIE. 

Prepare crust for custard pie, then fill crust half full of 
cheese shaven very fine, pour over this a custard made as 
follows: — One large cup milk, two eggs, one tablespoon 
melted butter. Bake in a very hot oven. 

WALDOEP PUMPKIN PIE. 

Boil and strain pumpkins, allowing for three pints of 
pulp two tablespoons of flour, four eggs, one poimd sugar, one 
tablespoon ground ginger, one teaspoon salt, two quarts milk. 
Cook all together until well thickened ; meanwhile make crust 
and line pie dish. Bake in a moderate oven one hour. 

GINGEE APPLES. 

Four pounds apples, four pounds (preserving) sugar, one- 
half pound white ginger. Infuse the ginger in boiling water 
for several hours to extract all the substance. Pare the ap- 
ples neatly and quarter them, removing the cores. Throw 
them into a basin of cold water. Put into a preserving pan 
the sugar and two pints water, using the ginger water as part 
of it. Bring this to a boil and boil for five minutes. Now 
lift the apples from the water into the pan and boil for three- 
quarters of an hour or till they become transparent. Put in 
jars and cover. Firm apples, such as Newton Pippins or 
Scotch apples, are the best. 

FILLING FOE " CALIFOENIA PIE." 

One cup of sugar, one lemon (half rind grated), one cup 
Valencia raisins (stoned), one cup water. Chop lemon and 
raisins fine ; cook in the water three-quarters of an hour, add 
the yolk of an egg while on the stove; cook until thickens. 
Have ready a shell of paste nicely baked; put the filling in 
shell; beat white of egg for meringue and bake for a few 
minutes until brown. 



CAKES. 



SUGGESTIONS IN REGAED TO CAKE MAKING. 

Use none but the best materials^ and all the ingredients 
should be properly prepared before commencing to mix any 
of them. Eggs beat up much lighter and sooner by being 
placed in a cold place some time before using them; a small 
pinch of Magic Soda sometimes has the same effect. Flour 
should always be sifted before using it. Gillett's Cream 
Tartar or Magic Baking Powder should be thoroughly mixed 
with the flour; butter be placed where it will become moder- 
ately soft, but not melted in the least, or the cake will be 
sodden and heavy. Sugar should be rolled and sifted; spices 
ground or pounded; raisins or any other fruit looked over 
and prepared; currants, especially, should be nicely washed, 
picked, dried in a cloth, and then carefully examined, that 
no pieces of grit or stone may be left amongst them. They 
should then be laid on a dish before the fire to become 
thoroughly dry; as, if added damp to the other ingredients, 
cakes wiU be liable to be heavy. 

Eggs should be well-beaten, the whites and yolks sepa- 
rately, the yolks to a thick cream, the whites until they are a 
stiff froth. Always stir the butter and sugar to a cream, then 
add the beaten yolks, then the milk, the flavoring, then the 
beaten whites, and lastly the flour. If fruit is to be used, 
measure and dredge with a little sifted flour, stir in gradu- 
ally and thoroughly. 

Pour all in well-buttered cake-pans. While the cake is 
baking, care should be taken that no cold air enters the oven, 
only when necessary to see that the cake is baking properly; 
the oven should be an even, moderate heat, not too cold or too 
hot; much depends on this for success. 

Cake is often spoiled by being looked at too often when 
first put into the oven. The heat should be tested before the 
cake is put in, which can be done by throwing on the floor of 



232 CAKES. 

the oven a tablespoonful of new flour. If the flour takes fire, 
or assumes a dark-brown color, the temperature is too high, 
and the oven must be allowed to cool; if the flour remains 
white after the lapse of a few seconds, the temperature is too 
low. When the oven is of the proper temperature, the flour 
will slightly brown and look slightly scorched. 

Another good way to test the heat, is to drop a few spoon- 
fuls of the cake batter on a small piece of buttered letter- 
paper, and place it in the oven during the finishing of the 
cake, so that the piece will be baked before putting in the 
whole cake; if the little drop of cake-batter bakes evenly with- 
out burning around the edge, if will be safe to put the whole 
cake in the oven. Then again if the oven seems too hot, fold 
a thick brown paper double, and lay on the bottom of the 
oven ; then after the cake has risen, put a thick brown paper 
over the top, or butter well a thick white paper and lay care- 
fully over the top. 

If, after the cake is put in, it seems to bake too fast, put a 
brown paper loosely over the top of the pan, care being taken 
that it does not touch the cake, and do not open the door for 
five minutes at least; the cake should then be quickly ex- 
amined, and the door shut carefully, or the rush of cold air 
will cause it to fall. Setting a small dish of hot water in 
the oven, will also prevent the cake from scorching. 

To ascertain when the cake is done, run a broom straw 
into the middle of it; if it comes out clean and smooth, the 
cake will do to take out. 

Where the recipe calls for Magic Baking Powder, and you 
have none, you can use Gillett's Cream Tartar and Magic Soda 
in proportion to one level teaspoonful of Magic Soda, two 
heaping teaspoonfuls of Gillett's Cream Tartar. 

When sour milk is called for in the recipe, use only Magic 
Soda. Cakes made with molasses burn much more easily 
than those made with sugar. 

Never stir cake after the butter and sugar is creamed, but 
beat it down from the bottom, up, and over ; this laps air into 
the cake-batter, and produces little air cells, which causes 
the dough to puff and swell when it comes in contact with the 
heat while cooking. 



CAKES. 333 

When making most cakes, especially sponge cake, the flour 
should be added by degrees, stirred very slowly and lightly, 
for if stirred hard and fast it will make it porous and tough. 

Cakes should be kept in tight tin cake-pans, or earthen 
jars, in a cool, dry place. 

Cookies, jumbles, ginger-snaps, etc., require a quick oven; 
if they become moist or soft by keeping, put again into the 
oven a few minutes. 

To remove a cake from a tin after it is baked, so that it 
will not crack, break or fall, first butter the tin well all around 
the sides and bottom; then cut a piece of letter-paper to ex- 
actly fit the tin, butter that on both sides, placing it smoothly 
on the bottom and sides of the tin. When done, lot it stand 
a few minutes, and then it will come out easily. 

If a cake-pan is too shallow for holding the quantity of 
cake to be baked, for fear of its being so light as to rise above 
the pan, that can be remedied by thoroughly greasing a piece 
of thick glazed letter-paper with soft butter. Place or fit it 
around the sides of the buttered tin, allowing it to reach an 
inch or more above the top. If the oven heat is moderate, 
the butter will preserve the paper from burning. 

FEOSTING OR ICING. 

In the first place, the eggs should be cold, and the platter 
on which they are to be beaten also cold. Allow, for the white 
of one egg, one small teacupful of powdered sugar. Break 
the eggs and throw a small handful of the sugar on them as 
soon as you begin beating; keep adding it at intervals until 
it is all used up. The eggs must not be beaten until the sugar 
has been added in this way, which gives a smooth, tender 
frosting, and one that will dry much sooner than the old way. 

Spread with a broad knife evenly over the cake, and if it 
seems too thin, beat in a little more sugar. Cover the cake 
with two coats, the second after the first has become dry, or 
nearly so. If the icing gets too dry or stiff before the last 
coat is needed, it can be thinned sufficiently with a little 
water, enough to make it work smoothly. 

A little lemon-juice, or half a teaspoonful of tartaric acid, 
added to the frosting while being beaten, makes it white and 
more frothy. 



»84 CAKES. 

The flavors mostly used are lemon, vanilla, almond, rose, 
chocolate, and orange. If you wish to ornament with figures 
or flowers, make up rather more icing, keep about one-third 
out until that on the cake is dried; then, with a clean, gjlass 
syringe, apply it in such forms as you desire and dry as be- 
fore ; what you keep out to ornament with may be tinted pink 
with cochineal, blue with indigo, yellow with saffron or the 
grated rind of an orange strained through a cloth, green with 
spinach juice, and brown with chocolate, purple with cochi- 
neal and indigo. Strawberry, or currant and cranberry juices 
color a delicate pink. 

Set the cake in a cool oven with the door open, to dry, 
or in a draught in an open window. 

PLUM CAKE. 

One pound flour, one pound butter, one pound sugar, one 
pound raisins, two pounds currants, six eggs, candied peel 
and spice, cup of sour milk, one teaspoonful of Magic Soda, 
tablespoonful molasses. 

KISSES. 

Whites of three eggs beaten stiff, one cup of sugar, one 
tablespoonful of cornstarch. Eemove the lid of the kettle, 
set the bowl in the kettle and stir fifteen minutes. Add two 
cups of cocoanut; drop on buttered paper. Slow oven. 

EASPBEREY CAKE. 

Three-quarters of a cup of sugar, one-half cup butter, one 
cup preserved raspberries, three eggs, one teaspoonful Magic 
Soda, two cups flour or a little more. 

PLUM CAKE. 

Two pounds raisins, two pounds currants, one pound 
brown sugar, one-half pound blanched almonds, cut up one- 
quarter pound citron, one-quarter pound lemon peel, one tea- 
cup of molasses, one-half pound butter, six eggs, cloves, cin- 
namon, nutmeg to taste, one-half cup sweet milk; one-half 
teaspoonful Magic Soda, put in the last thing. Plour to 
make it stiff enough not to run. Brown the flour on the 



CAKES. 235 

stove; it must be sifted before using. Bake in a very slow 
oven. 

COCOANUT PUFFS. 

The whites of three eggs beaten very light and stiff, one 
cup of white sugar, one tablespoonful cornstarch dissolved 
in a very little water and stirred into the eggs and sugar. 
Put in a double boiler and cook over water (boiling) for 
about twenty or twenty-five minutes. Stir occasionally to 
prevent sticking. Then add cocoanut enough to stand up 
well when dropped on buttered tins. It takes one-half a 
pound or a little more for this recipe. Flavor with vanilla 
and drop on tins, and bake eight or ten minutes in a moderate 
oven. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Twelve eggs, fourteen ounces of sugar, ten ounces of sifted 
flour. Beat the eggs and sugar over a kettle of boiling water 
for some time (do not let it scald) ; then take off and beat in 
all twenty minutes. Then stir in the sifted flour, a very little 
at a time, and add a tablespoonful of vinegar, a pinch of salt, 
and a tcaspoonful of lemon essence. Have ready a tin, well 
buttered and sprinkled with sugar. Pour in the mixture, 
sprinkle sugar over the top and bake in a moderate oven 
forty minutes. 

LEMON JELLY FILLING FOE CAKES. 

One cup sugar, two eggs, two tablespoons butter, the juice 
of two lemons. Beat all together and boil until of the con- 
sistency of jelly. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Four eggs, one cup flour, one cup sugar, one teaspoon 
Magic Baking Powder, pinch salt, one teaspoon of vanilla. 

SOFT GINGERBEEAD. 

One cup butter, two cups sugar, one cup sour milk, one 
cup molasses, four eggs, three cups flour, pinch salt, one 
tablespoon ginger, one teaspoon Magic Soda 



236 CAKES. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Four eggs, one cup flour, one cup sugar, one and one-half 
teaspoons Magic Baking Powder. Beat whites and yolks 
separate, add sugar to whites, then yolks, flour, and Magic 
Baking Powder. Mix quickly. 

CHOCOLATE GLACE. 

Beat to a cream a generous one-half cup butter, and gradu- 
ally work into this one cup sugar. Add one square Baker's 
chocolate, melted, and two unbeaten eggs. Beat vigorously 
five minutes, then stir in one-half cup of milk, and, lastly, 
one cup and a half of flour, with which has been mixed two 
teaspoons of Magic Baking Powder. Bake in a buttered, 
shallow cake-pan for half an hour in a moderate oven. Ice 
first with white icing, flavored with orange juice, and when 
this is set, with thick chocolate icing. 

LEMON CHEESE CAKES. 

One pound of lump sugar, six yolks and two whites of 
eggs, juice of three lemons and the rinds of two grated, one- 
quarter pound of butter; mix all together in double boiler 
and stir gently over a fire until the mixture becomes thick; 
put away in a bowl or crock and it will keep for weeks. 
Make a nice light paste and line little patty pans with it, 
and put a teaspoonful of the mixture into each; bake in a 
hot oven. 

POTATO CAKES. 

Boil and mash one dozen potatoes, add two cups of sweet 
milk, a little salt, small one-half cup of melted butter; when 
cool enough add one-half cake Eoyal Yeast; flour to make 
stiff enough to roll out and cut in squares. If wanted for tea 
■make up in the morning and leave to rise. They bake about 
like biscuits. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Four eggs, keep out.white of one ; one cup sugar, one cup 
sifted flour, two teaspoons Magic Baking Powder, two table- 
spoons cold water, one teaspoon vinegar. Mix eggs and sugar 



CAKES. 237 

togetiier, put Magic Baking Powder in flour, beat well, make 
icing with white of one egg; one cup icing sugar, juice of 
lemon or essence. 

NICE PEEL AND EAISIN CAKE. 

Three cups sugar, one and one-half cups butter, five cups 
flour, one cup sweet milk, four eggs, two teaspoons Magic 
Baking Powder, one small basin raisins and a cup of citron 
peel. 

ALMOND CAKE. 

Two cups sugar, two cups butter, four cups flour, eight 
eggs, one cup chopped almonds, two teaspoons ratafia, two 
teaspoons vanilla, two teaspoons Magic Baking Powder, two 
cups of raisins. This makes two cakes. Add the flour and 
Magic Baking Powder mixed last of all. 

APPLE SHOET CAKE. 

Apple sauce seasoned with a little butter, and pinch of 
salt. Short Cake: — One pint of flour sifted with two tea- 
spoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, add a little salt. Bub butter 
half size of an egg into the flour, and mix into a soft dough 
with one coffee-cup sweet milk. Divide dough into two parts, 
roll out one-half, put in pan; brush surface with melted 
butter. EoU out the rest and put on top. Bake in very hot 
oven. Divide, butter, and spread with sauce. Serve with 
cream. 

MALAGA FEOSTING FOE CAKE. 
Put one cup of seeded and chopped raisins into boiled 
frosting. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

(Premium World's Fair.) 

Three eggs, one slice of butter (off pound roll), one inch 
thick, one cup sugar, one cup milk, two cups flour, two heap- 
ing teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder ; one teaspoonf ul van- 
illa. (Five heaping tablespoonfuls of chocolate, three table- 
spoonfuls sugar, two tablespoonfuls milk, melted together in 



238 CAKES. 

a saucepan before starting cake.) Cream butter and sugar 
together, add the beaten yolks of eggs; then add the above 
melted mixture; then the flour, which must be sifted five 
times, with the Magic Baking Powder in it. Add alternately 
with the milk until both are used up. Then the vanilla, and 
lastly the beaten whites of the eggs. This can be baked in 
one good- sized tin as a loaf, or made into three layers, when 
the following filling is used: One pint cream whipped very 
stiff, sugar to taste and flavor with one teaspoonful coffee 
extract. N'o other flavoring goes with this cake. Bake in 
medium oven. Put a layer of chopped walnuts, then the 
cream, between the layers, and on top. The kind of choco- 
late used is Thirardelli's. It is grated and comes in cans. 

RICE GRIDDLE CAKES. 

Boil one cup of rice. Beat together three eggs, adding 
three cups of milk with the rice, and sift into this half a cup 
of flour to which a pinch of salt and Ma^ic Baking Powder 
has been added. Fry and serve immediately. 

CLOVE CAKE. 

Two eggs, one cup brown sugar, half cup butter, three- 
quarter cup chopped raisins, quarter cup sweet milk, one and 
a half cups flour, half teaspoonful Magic Soda, one teaspoon- 
ful of ground cloves. Cream butter and sugar ; drop the eggs 
in (not beaten), add soda to the milk, then part of the flour, 
then the fruit and the rest of the flour. 

SHORTBREAD. 

One pound butter, two pounds flour, two teaspoonfuls 
Magic Baking Powder, quarter pound of sugar (brown). 

Beat butter to cream and dredge in flour and sugar gradu- 
ally. Must be well beaten. Roll out an inch thick. Pinch 
edge all around ; prick with a fork ; cut in small pieces and 
bake in slow oven. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

Beat to a cream a generous half cupful of butter, and 
gradually beat into this one cupful of sugar, add an ounce 
0^ Walter Baker's chocolate melted, also two unbeaten eggs. 



CAKES. 239 

Beat vigorously for five minutes, then stir in half a cup- 
ful of milk, one and a half cups of flour, with a generous tea- 
spoonful of Magic Baking Powder, flavor with vanilla; pour 
into a buttered shallow cake-pan and bake for half an hour 
in a moderate oven. Any frosting can be used. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Four eggs, one cupful of fine white sugar, one cupful of 
flour, lemon flavoring. Beat yolks and whites separately, add 
half the sugar to yolks and half to whites and beat well, then 
beat both together, stir in flour, bake in slow oven. 

JAM JAMS. 

One cup of butter, one egg, half a cup of brown sugar, 
half a cup black molasses, three teaspoons of Magic Soda dis- 
solved in three tablespoons of boiling water, flour to make a 
soft dough. Roll thin; cut with cookie-cutter; when cooked 
and while hot spread with any kind of jelly and stick two to- 
gether. 

COOKIES. 

One cup of butter and lard mixed, one cup brown sugar, 
two eggs, one and a half teaspoons Magic Baking Powder, 
flour enough to roll. Bake in quick oven. 

DATE CAKE. 

Two cups rolled oats, two and a half cups flour, one cup 
brown sugar, half cup butter, half cup lard, half cup sour 
milk, half teaspoon Magic Soda (in the milk). 

Filling. — One pound dates, one cup brown sugar, one cup 
bot water. Roll paste out quite thin, spread date filling be- 
tween two layers and cook together, and let cool. 

BEAUTIFUL LAYER CAKE. 

Small cup of sugar. Butter the size of an egg. Beat to- 
gether into a cream ; add three tablespoons milk ; three eggs 
(the yolks and whites beaten separately) ; two teaspoons 
Magic Baking Powder; full cup flour; flavoring to taste; 
medium oven. 



240 CAKES. 

OATMEAL COOKIES. 

Three cups oatmeal, three cups flour, one cup boiling 
water, one cup melted lard, one scant teaspoon Magic Soda, 
one cup sugar. Eoll very thin. These are a general favorite. 

DEOP COOKIES. 

One cupful of sugar, one-half cupful butter, one cupful 
milk, whites of two eggs, two spoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, 
one-half nutmeg, and flour enough to stir very stiff. Drop 
in small spoonfuls on a buttered tin, sprinkle the top with 
English currants and sugar, and bake quickly. These are 
very fine. 

COCOANTJT COOKIES. 

One cup of white sugar, one cup of butter, three eggs, 
three teaspoons of Magic Baking Powder, one cup cocoanut, 
flour enough to roll nicely. Delicious. 

CHOCOLATE LOAF CAKE. 

Dissolve two ounces chocolate in five tablespoonf uls boiling 
water, beat one-half cup butter to a cream, add gradually one 
and one-half cups sugar, beating all while; add yolks of four 
eggs, beat again, then add one-half cup milk, then the melted 
chocolate, one and three-quarters cups flour; beat the whites 
of the eggs to a stiff froth and add to the mixture one teaspoon 
vanilla, two teaspoons Magic Baking Powder sifted with flour. 

SPICE CAKE. 

Two tablespoonfuls butter, one cupful dark sugar, one 
large cupful flour, two eggs, one teaspoonful each of cloves, 
allspice and cinnamon, two tablespoonfuls molasses, one-half 
cupful sour milk and one teaspoonful Magic Soda sifted. 
Bake in two layers, ice and flU with icing. 

PUMPKIN PIE. 

Put six cupfuls sifted pumpkin (after being steamed) in 
a pan with three eggs, two cupfuls sugar, one-half cupful 
molasses (maple preferred), two finely rolled crackers, large 
teaspoonful ginger, one-half nutmeg, cinnamon to taste, one 



CAKES. 241 

ealtspoonful salt; stir well, add enough rich milk to thin. 
Bake in pastry shape. 

MACAEOONS. 

Two eggs, one cup sugar, two cupfuls rolled oats, two 
teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, ratafia flavoring. Drop 
in a pan with spoon and bake. 

CORNSTARCH CAKE. 

One-quarter cup butter, two eggs, one cup sugar, one-half 
cup cornstarch, one cup flour, two teaspoonfuls Magic Baking 
Powder. Beat yolks of eggs, butter and sugar to a cream, 
then add whites, starch, flour. Magic Baking Powder and milk 
last. This amount makes one dozen small cakes. 

WHITE ROCK CAKE. 

Whites of three eggs, one-half cup melted butter, one cup 
of granulated sugar, one-half cup of flour, one-half cup of 
sweet milk, one cup cornstarch. Beat the eggs to a stiff 
fioth; sugar and butter to a cream; mix flour and cornstarch 
with two and one-half teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder; 
then mix all together. 

GINGER CAKE. 

Three cups of flour, one cup of sour milk, one cup of 
sugar, one cup of molasses, two-thirds cup of butter, two eggs 
not beaten, a little Magic Soda. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Twelve eggs, the weight of ten in sugar, the weight of 
nine in flour, the juice and grated rind of one lemon, a pinch 
of salt and a heaping teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder. 
It needs two people to make successfully, one to beat yolks 
while the other is beating whites, sifting flour with baldng 
powder and salt, and preparing lemon. After beating yolks 
until very light add sugar, grated rind and juice of lemon and 
well beaten whites, beating all together fully five minutes. 
Then add flour as quickly as possible and- pour into large 
•16 



242 CAKES. 

dripping pan lined with buttered paper about two inches in 
depth, putting in well heated oven at once. Don't open oven 
door for fifteen minutes at least. After that try cake with 
a straw, and when it conies out clean cake is done. Turn out 
on a pillow, and when cold frost and mark in squares so it 
will break evenly. Fever cut sponge cake. 

ORANGE FILLING FOR CAKE. 

Put half a pint of milk in a double boiler, moisten two 
tablespoons of cornstarch with a little cold water, add it to 
the scalded milk, stir constantly until smooth and thick ; beat 
the yolks of four eggs with four tablespoons of sugar, until 
light, add it to the cornstarch, take from the fire, and when 
cool add the grated yellow rind of one orange and two table- 
spoons of orange juice. Flavor with vanilla if you choose. 

PLAIN CAKE. 

Two eggs, one cup sugar, half cup milk, one-third cup 
butter, two cups flour, two teaspoons of Magic Baking Powder. 
Beat eggs well, then add sugar and afterwards the softened 
butter, stir in part of milk, and then half of the flour, through 
which bakins: powder has been sifted, then remainder of milk 
and flour. Bake in square tin; cover with chocolate icing if 
desired or sifted sugar. 

FRUIT CAKE. 

One pound sugar, one pound of flour, three-quarter pounds 
of butter, two pounds seeded raisins, two pounds currants, 
one pound citron, quarter pound almonds, ten eggs, half 
ounce mace, one teaspoonful rose water, half cup molasses, 
one tablespoon cloves, one tablespoon cinnamon, one nutmeg. 
Beat siigar and butter together; scorch the flour. Mix all 
together. Cook till done; try with a straw. 

CHEESE STRAWS. 

Mix three ounces of flour with four ounces of grated 
cheese (Parmesan is the best), add one-half a tablespoon of 
salt, dash of cayenne, and one-quarter pound of butter. Work 
this to a smooth paste sufficiently stiff to roll ; add a very 



CAKES. 243 

little water, if necessary. Roll out in ver^ thin strips and cut 
into straws, place on a greased tin and bake ten minutes in a 
moderate oven. They must be straw color and very crisp. 

CHEESE STRAWS. 

Two ounces each of butter, flour, bread crumbs and 
grated cheese, salt and pepper to taste. Mix these ingredi- 
ents into a paste, roll it a quarter of an inch thick, cut into 
narrow strips. Bake until a light brown color. Serve cold. 

RICH PLUM CAKE, OR WEDDING CAKE. 

Four pounds flour, three and one-half pounds butter, 
three and one-half pounds sugar, thirty-six eggs, leaving out 
twelve whites, citron, orange, and lemon, of each two pounds. 
Four pounds of almonds powdered fme, and mixed with as 
much sugar; put in an iron pot and stir constantly over the 
fire until quite dry. Four pounds raisins (stoned), and half 
of them minced fine, three pounds currants and three ounces 
mixed spice. Brandy, white wine and rose water, of each one 
pint. Bake four hours in a well buttered and papered pan. 
Sift plenty of flour on top before putting the cake in the 
oven. 

OATMEAL MACAROONS. 

One cup white sugar, one tablespoonful butter, two eggs, 
two heaping cups rolled oats, one-half teaspoonful salt, two 
teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder. Grease your pan well, 
and drop in half teaspoonfuls of dough in the pan, leaving 
room to spread. Bake in hot oven fifteen minutes. 

SHORTBREAD. 

One pound butter, two pounds flour, one-half pound sifted 
damp brown sugar, some sweet almonds, and a few caraway 
comfits. Put butter into a basin, squeeze till quite soft^ 
squeeze into it flour and sugar and almonds, chopped fine. 
Mix all well together, cut info rakes one-half an inch thick. 
Bake in a slow oven. 



244 CAKES. 

PEEL CAKE. 

Twelve eggs, yolks and whites to be beaten separately, 
l.'alf a pound each of lemon, orange, and citron peel cut into 
small pieces, one pound of butter beaten to a cream, one 
pound of white sugar, half a pound of almonds chopped very 
fine, one pound of flour, a gill of brandy. This cake will 
keep for months in a cool dry place. 

ICE CEEAM CAKE. 

One cup of white sugar, half a cup of butter, half a cup 
of milk, one teaspoon of flavoring, one cup of flour, half a 
cup of cornstarch, three teaspoons Magic Baking Powder, 
whites of four eggs. Cream butter and sugar together, add 
milk and flavoring, sift in flour, cornstarch, and Magic Bak- 
ing Powder mixed together, lastly add the whites of eggs 
beaten to a stiff froth. Bake in a square pan and ice with 
white icing. 

DEWEY ICING (FOE CAKES). 

One cup icing sugar, butter the size of a walnut, white 
of an egg, one teaspoonful of vanilla, one teaspoonful of 
lemon. Mix butter and sugar, and add the egg and beat 
well ; then the other ingredients, and spread on the cake when 
cold. 

BEIDESMAID'S CAKE. 

Half pound butter, quarter pound sugar beaten to a cream, 
the whites of fourteen eggs beaten to a stiff froth. One and 
one-quarter pounds almonds pounded fine, with rose water 
and a glass of sherry, and a little mace, are made into a paste ; 
rub this into three-quarter pounds of flour, and add lightly 
and quickly to the other ingredients already mixed. The 
almonds, paste, and flour should be prepared first. Bake in 
moderate oven. 

SCOTCH SHOETBEEAD. 

One pound flour, one-half pound butter, one-quarter 
pound sugar, fine granulated. Put flour on board, add butter 
and sugar, and knead with the hand until a nice dough is 



CAKES. 945 

formed. EoU into a round cake any thickness desired and 
bake in a moderate oven about half an hour, or until it is 
nicely browned. Cut into shapes while hot, 

ORANGE CAKE (Eevised Edition). 

Whites of three eggfi, half cup butter, one cup sugar, one 
cup milk, one and one-half cups flour, two teaspoons Magic 
Baking Powder. Use yolks for icing with one cup sugar and 
a teaspoon lemon powdered extract. Flavor the cake with the 
rind of an orange grated. Bake in shallow long pan, pour 
icing over cake without removing from the oven; when the 
cake is quite done let it harden. Leave cake in pan until cut. 

SHREWSBURY COOKIES. 

One-half pound flour, same of butter and sugar, well 
mixed together, two eggs and a teaspoon mace, roll out thin 
and cut any size you like ; bake in a slow oven. 

CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

Take three eggs, beat whites and yolks separately first, and 
then together; beat into this one cup white sugar, and then 
one-half teacup melted butter. Sift two teacups flour into 
which you have stirred two teaspoons Magic Baking Powder 
and a pinch of salt. Beat it gradually into the eggs, etc., 
and then add enough milk to make a moderately stifi: batter. 
Bake in two layer cake tins in quick oven. Chocolate Filling. 
— Melt one-half cake Baker's unsweetened chocolate in tea- 
cup boiling water on stove ; add icing sugar enough to stiffen 
it into a thick paste; put this between layers while they are 
hot and ice top of cake. 

RAISIN LAYER CAKE. 

One cup brown sugar, one-third cup butter, two eggs, one 
cup sifted flour, one cup chopped raisins, one-half cup sour 
milk, one-half teaspoon Magic Soda, one-third teaspoon cin- 
namon, one-third teaspoon nutmeg, one-third teaspoon all- 
spice. Bake in layers in a moderate oven. 



246 CAKES. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

One cup flour, one cup sugar, one teaspoon Gillett's Cream 
Tartar, little salt. Mix together. Break in three eggs and 
beat thoroughly; one-half teaspoon Magic Soda dissolved in 
one and one-half tablespoons cold water, juice half lemon. 
Bake in moderate oven. 

POP OVEES. 

One cup milk, one cup flour, one egg, little salt. Bake 
in muffin tins twenty minutes. 

CORN CAKE. 

Large one-half cup meal and full cup flour, two table- 
spoons sugar. Little salt, one egg, one cup sweet milk, one 
teaspoon Grillett's Cream Tartar, one-half teaspoon Magic 
Soda. Sift Magic Soda and Gillett's Cream Tartar into 
flour. Bake twenty minutes. 

IMPERIAL CAKE. 

One pound of sugar, one pound of butter stirred to a 
cream, then beaten yolks of ten eggs, grated rind and juice 
of one lemon, then one pound of flour and stiff whites of the 
eggs; have prepared beforehand one pound of almonds 
blanched and split (or, if you prefer, pounded), one-half 
pound raisins stoned and halved and one-hali' pound of citron 
cut in thin slips; have these well dredged with two table- 
spoonfuls of extra flour, one teaspoonful of extract of nec- 
tarine in one teaspoonful of water, two tablespoonfuls of rose 
water, and one tablespoonful of brandy. 

LAFAYETTE GINGERBREAD. 

Cut up in a deep pan half a pound of the best fresh butter, 
with a half a pound of excellent brown sugar; stir it to cream 
with a spaddle. Add a pint of West Indian molasses mixed 
with half a pint of warm milk ; four tablespoonfuls of ginger ; 
a heaped tablespoonful of mixed powdered cinnamon and 
powdered mace and nutmeg, and a glass of brandy. Sift in 
a pound and a half of fine flour. Beat six eggs till very light, 
then mix them alternately with the flour into the pan of but- 



CAKES. 247 

ter, sugar^ molasses, etc. At the last mix in the yellow rind 
(grated fine) of two large oranges and the Juice. Stir the 
whole very hard. Melt in one cup a very small level teaspoon- 
ful of Magic Soda, and in another a small level saltspoonful 
of tartaric acid. Dissolve them both in lukewarm water and 
see that both are quite melted. First stir the Magic Soda 
into the mixture and then put in the tartaric acid. On no 
account exceed the quantity of the two alkalies, as if too much 
is used they will destroy entirely the flavoring and communi- 
cate a very disagreeable taste instead. Few cakes are the 
better for any of the alkaline powders and many sorts are en- 
tirely spoilt by them. Even in gingerbread they should be 
used very sparingly, rather less than more of the prescribed 
quantity. Having buttered (with best butter) a large round 
or oblong pan, put in the mixture and bake it in a moderate 
oven till thoroughly done, keeping up a steady heat, but 
watching that it does not bum. There is no gingerbread 
superior to this, if well made. Instead of lemon or orange 
you may cut in half a pound of seedless raisins, dredge them 
well with flour and stir them gradually into the mixture. 

SEED CAKE. 

One cup of butter, two cups granulated sugar (scant), 
one cup of milk, three cups of flour, three teaspoonfuls of 
Magic Baking Powder (heaping), whites of six eggs, heaping 
teaspoonful of caraway seeds. Cream the butter and sugar, 
add milk, half the stifily beaten whites and half the flour 
and Magic Baking Powder, then the rest of the whites and 
flour and the seeds. Beat well and bake in two small loaves 
or one large one. Ice while warm. 

EASY CAKE. 

Three-quarters cup granulated sugar, piece of butter size 
of an egg, and two eggs. Beat all together until light; add 
half a cup of milk, two cups of flour and one heaping tea- 
spoonful of Magic Baking Powder, beat again. Bake in two 
lasers. 

WHOLE WHEAT GINGER SNAPS. 

One cup Orleans molasses, one-half cup shortening, one- 
half cup brown sugar. Place on stove and let come to a boil, 



MS CAKES. 

then take off immediately and add a half teaspoon Magic Soda 
and a teaspoon ginger ; then add whole wheat flour until thick 
enough to roll. 

MOCHA CAKES. 

One cup white sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half cup 
milk, one and one-half cups flour, two teaspoons Magic Bak- 
ing Powder. Whites of four eggs. Cream butter and sugar, 
beating all the time, slowly add the milk, then the flour and 
baking powder sifted together, gently fold in well beaten 
whites. Bake in a long pan or in two square layer-cake tins. 
Icing. — Two cups pulverized sugar, two tablespoons butter, 
one tablespoon water with vanilla to taste. Beat well ; if not 
soft enough add more water. When cake is cold cut in pieces 
about an inch square, which hold on a two-pronged fork, ice 
on five sides and dip in a bowl of finely roiled peanuts or 
chopped parched almonds, previously prepared. One pound 
blanched almonds, or fifteen cents peanuts. 

WALNUT WAFERS. 

One cup brown sugar, one cup walnut meats, one well- 
beaten egg, six teaspoons flour, one teaspoon Magic Baking 
Powder. Drop small drops in well buttered pans and bake 
in a moderate oven. 

DAYTON CAKE. 

One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, 
five eggs. Scant teaspoonful of Gilletf s Cream Tartar, scant 
half teaspoonful of Magic Soda, two-thirds of a cup of milk. 
This recipe was used before Magic Baking Powder was known. 
Think one heaping teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder will 
answer. 

MOLASSES CAKE. 

Only New Orleans molasses can be used; it is expensive 
compared with the common kind, but use no other. One 
scant cup of butter, one full cup brown sugar, one full cup 
New Orleans molasses, one cup sour or sweet milk, four cups 
sifted flour (measured after sifting), one tablespoonful of 



CAKES. 349 

ginger, two tablespoonfuls of Magic Soda, best quality, thor- 
oughly dissolved in a little cold water. 

LIGHT SPONGE CAKE. 

Three eggs, beat one minute; one and one-half cups white 
sugar, beat five minutes ; add one cup flour, beat one minute 
more; then add one-half cup water, one cup flour, two tea- 
spoons Magic Baking Powder; flavored to taste with lemon 
or vanilla. Bake in a moderate oven twenty-five or thirty 
minutes. 

OATMEAL MACAEOONS. 

One tablespoon butter, one cup sugar, two eggs, two cups 
rolled oats, one-half teaspoonful salt, two teaspoons Magic 
Baking Powder, one teaspoon vanilla. Put tiny drops on 
buttered pans and remove as soon as taken from oven. 

I 

ECCLES CAKES. 

Make a very short paste and roll lightly (always in one 
direction, never back and forth), and cut into squares about 
five inches. Place on each square currants which have been 
heated in a syrup of brown sugar and fold over the sides so 
as to make a square cake with round opening; put a little 
syrup in each cake before baking in a very hot oven. 

SPICE CAKE. 

One-half cup brown sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half 
cup molasses, one-half cup sweet milk, two eggs, one tea- 
spoonful cinnamon, one-half teaspoonful cloves, two tea- 
spoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, two cups flour. This is 
nice for either a loaf or a layer cake. 

GINGER COOKIES. 

One cup of sugar, one cup of black molasses, one cup of 
lard (scant), three eggs, two teaspoonfuls ginger, one heap- 
ing teaspoonful Magic Soda dissolved in two teaspoonfuls of 
hot water : flour to roll. 



S50 CAKES. 

CUP CAKE. 

One cup of butter washed in warm water, two cups of 
sugar, one cup of milk, five eggs mixed in one by one, four 
cups of flour sifted in and four teaspoons of Magic Baking 
Powder. 

LEMON CAKE. 

Quarter pound butter, half pound sugar, three eggb, 
grated rind of a fresh lemon, half pound flour, one teaspoon 
Magic Baking Powder, half cup milk. 

CHOCOLATE ICING. 

Beat white of one egg stiff, add one teaspoon of vanilla 
and one tablespoon of water, and enough icing sugar to make 
stiff. Melt one-sixth of a package of Baker's chocolate, then 
beat into egg and sugar and spread it on the cake. 

COENMEAL CAKES. 

Three-quarters cup sugar, two tablespoonfuls butter, two 
eggs, one cup flour, one cup cornmeal, two teaspoonfuls Magic 
Baking Powder, one-half cup milk. 

MAPLE SUGAE CAKE. 

One and one-half cups sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half 
cup milk, four eggs, two cups flour, two teaspoonfuls Magic 
Baking Powder. Bake in layers. Filling. — One cup maple 
syrup boiled to a soft wax and poured over the white of one 
egg beaten to a stiff froth. Beat thoroughly. 

EXCELLENT LUNCH CAKE. 

One coffee-cup butter melted, one cup sweet milk, one and 
one-half cups of sugar, three and one-half cups flour, three 
eggs (reserving one of the whites for icing), three teaspoons 
Magic Baking Powder. Bake in a shallow meat tin. 

COCOANUT PUFFS. 

Beat whites of three eggs to a stiff froth; add slowly one 
small cup sugar and one tablespoon cornstarch. Place mix- 



CAKES. 251 

tm'e in double boiler and cook fifteen minutes, stirring con- 
stantly. Then add two cups cocoanut and one teaspoon van- 
illa and drop on buttered tins in teaspoonfuls and bake a de- 
licate brown. 

PLAIN FEUIT CAKE. 

Two pounds flour, one pound butter, one and one-half 
pounds brown sugar, eight eggs (yolks and whites separately), 
two teacups milk, one and one-half pounds raisins, one and 
one-half pounds currants, one-quarter pound mixed peel, two 
heaping teaspoons ground cinnamon, four teaspoons essence 
lemon, three-quarters of a nutmeg, two heaping teaspoons of 
Magic Baking Powder. Bake between three and four hours. 

EOCK CAKE. 

One cup sugar, two tablespoons butter, two eggs, two cups 
flour, two teaspoons Magic Baking Powder, two cups currants. 
Drop from a spoon in small cakes. 

DROP CAKES. 

One cup of butter, one cup of sugar, four eggs, one table- 
spoonful of whisky, flour enough to make a thick batter. 
With or without caraway seeds on top of each cake. Directions 
— Beat butter to a cream, then add yolks well beaten, then 
part of the flour; whites beaten stiff; whisky; rest of flour. 
Bake in a quick oven, on a buttered paper. 

NEAPOLITAN CAKE. 

Two cupful s of sugar, two-thirds of a cupful of milk (a 
little warm), half a cupful of butter, two cupfuls of flour, 
two spoonfuls Magic Baking Powder. The whites of five 
eggs, cochineal for half; ice with nuts. Directions — Cream 
butter, sugar and milk together, then part of flour, whites of 
eggs with the rest of flour. Divide and color one portion. 
Fill bake-pan with alternate layers of white and pink. Must 
not be moved in the oven until cooked. 



253 CAKES. 

A GOOD SPONGE CAKE. 

Twelve eggs; the weight of ten in sugar, the weight of 
six in flour, flavor with essence of lemon. Directions — Beat 
the yolks stijff, then add the sugar; beat with the yolks until 
very light; now essence; now gently stir in whites which 
have been beaten stiff, and last put in flour. Stir it in, do 
not beat it in ; have buttered pans ready. It should only take 
one minute after the whites go in to get it into the pans. It 
takes two people to make this cake, and the eggs must be new 
laid, and the kitchen not too hot. 

EIBBON CAKE. 

Two cups of white sugar, three eggs, two-thirds of a cup 
of butter, one cup of sweet milk, three cups of flour, a pinch 
of salt, one teaspoonful of Magic Soda dissolved in the milk 
(if preferred, instead of Magic Soda, three teaspoons of Magic 
Baking Powder). Flavor with a few drops of essence of 
lemon or almond. Put half the above in two oblong pans. To 
the remainder add one tablespoon of molasses, one large cup 
of raisins stoned and chopped, one teaspoon of cinnamon, half 
a teaspoon each of cloves and allspice, grate in a little nut- 
meg, then add one spoonful of flour. Put into two pans of 
the same size and shape as those above. Put the sheets 
together while warm, alternately, with a little jelly or rasp- 
berry jam between. Cut in thin slices for the table. It will 
cut most easily the day after it is baked. It may be baked in 
one large pan without the fruit, pouring in the dark and light 
in alternate layers. When baked thus it is a handsome 
marble cake. 

JELLY OE LAYEE CAKE. 

Whites of four eggs, one cup of white sugar, two table- 
spoonfuls of butter, two cups of milk, two teaspoonfuls of 
Magic Baking Powder, two cups of sifted flour. Beat the 
whites stiff and add last (after the flour) ; flavor with a few 
drops of lemon or vanilla. 

Layer Cake, in which the four yolks may be used — ^One 
and a quarter cups of sugar, half cup of butter, four yolks of 
three-quarters of a cup of milk, two and a half cups 



CAKES. 253 

of flour, two teaspoonfuls of Magic Baking Powder. (By 
adding fruit will make a very good fruit cake.) 

OAT MEAL WAFEES. 

Two cups standard oat meal, one cup flour, one cup brown, 
sugar, one-half cup butter, one teaspoonful ground spice, 
one-half teaspoonful salt, and a scant quarter teaspoonful 
Magic Soda. Mix the meal and flour and rub butter and 
sugar well in, add the other ingredients. Moisten slightly 
with a little cold water. Add more flour as required, and 
roll out a very small piece at a time as thin as possible. To 
get them thin the mixture must not be too soft. Cut with a 
sharp fluted tin cutter. Bake in a hot oven. 

WAFFLES. 

Small cup and a half of milk, one cup of flour, one e^g\ 
mix in flour one teaspoon of Magic Baking Powder, one-half 
teaspoon of salt. Grease iron (special iron for waffles) well 
and have hot. 

ANGEL CAKE. 

Whites of twelve eggs, one and a half cupfuls of sugar 
(castor), one cupful of flour, one teaspoonful of Gillett's 
Cream Tartar and flavor. Sift sugar, flour, and cream tartar 
well together and beat in the whites of eggs — already well 
beaten. Bake in slow oven sixty minutes, in a pan not 
greased. 

SILVEE CAKE. 

Take one cup of sugar, half a cup of milk, one and a 
half cupfuls of flour, half a cup of butter, whites of four 
eggs, one teaspoonful of Gillett's Cream Tartar, half tea- 
spoonful of Magic Soda. 

FIG PASTE FILLING. 

One pound of figs, two cups of sugar, one cup of cold 
water. Put figs into a bowl and pour boiling water over 



254 CAKES. 

them, letting stand till soft, then cutting into small pieces 
with scissors; first cut off all the small hard pieces, and then 
chop figs until they become a thick paste; add sugar and 
water, and cook till thick and clear. 

VANILLA WAFERS. 

One cup of white sugar, one cup of butter, one egg, four 
tablespoonfuls of milk, four tablespoonfuls of vanilla, one 
and a half teaspoonfuls of Gillett's Cream Tartar, iwo-thirds 
of a teaspoonful of Magic Soda, flour enough to roll out well 
and thin. Cut in pieces three inches by one inch. 

SCOTCH CAKE. 

Half a pound of butter, three-quarters of a pound of flour, 
two ounces of sugar, a pinch of Magic Soda. Put the butter 
in a large bowl, rubbing a few times with the hand ; then put 
the flour, sugar and Magic Soda in a sifter, and as these are 
sifted into the butter mix with the hand, the warmth being 
suflicient to make all into a dough. Have a pan ready with 
buttered paper, and put the ball of dough on this, pressing to 
the desired thinness with the hands Prick with fork on top, 
and bake twenty minutes or so in a moderate oven. Cut in 
squares while in the pan and hot, directly upon being taken 
cut of the oven. 

WALNUT CREAM PILLING FOR LAYER CAKES. 

Quarter pound of butter, quarter pound icing sugar, half 
pound walnuts. Beat butter with sugar to a cream ; chop the 
walnuts fine and beat them well into the sugar and butter; 
flavor with vanilla and a little sherry. 

TEA CAKE. 

One pint flour, two teaspoons Magic Baking Powder, one 
cup milk, one egg, three tablespoons sugar, one largo table- 
spoon butter. Bake in flat tins in quick oven. 

COCOANUT MACAROONS. 

Two whites eggs beaten very stiff, one-half (generous 
size) cup white sugar, into which stir one dessertspoon corn- 



CAKES. 255 

starch. Set over steam of kettle and stir till sugary around 
edges, about twenty minutes. Take off and stir in one heap- 
ing cup shredded cocoanut. Flavor, vanilla. Drop on but- 
tered paper. Bake in rather quick oven. 

WALNUT CAKE. 

Four whites eggs, beaten stiff, two cups sugar, one-half 
cup butter, one cup milk, three cups flour, one cup chopped 
walnuts, one teaspoon Magic Soda, two teaspoons Gillett's 
Cream Tartar, vanilla. Beat butter in sugar, add milk, flour, 
nuts, eggs last ; then bake slowly. Frost with chocolate frost- 
ing, with half walnuts on top. 

LEMON CHEESE CAKES. 

One pound lump sugar, juice of two lemons, the rind 
grated of both, five eggs, one-quarter pound butter. Place 
over a slow fire, stirring until dissolved; add one rolled bis- 
cuit; place in a jar for use. Make small shells of puff paste 
and fill with the lemon filling. 

EOCK CAKES. • 

One-half pound of butter beaten to a cream, one-half 
pound sugar, one pound flour, three eggs, salt, one-half tea- 
spoon of Magic Soda, one of Gillett's Cream Tartar, cup of 
currants, flavoring ; drop on buttered tins. Bake in moderate 
oven. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Four eggs beaten separately; when whites are very stiff 
beat into them one-half a cup of white sugar; beat the yolks 
and add the other half cup of sugar; beat for five minutes by 
the clock; add to yolks rind and Juice of one lemon; now 
beat yolks and whites together and scant cup of flour stirred 
in quickly. Sprinkle top of cake with sugar when in cake-tin 
before putting in the oven. Bake one-half an hour. 

SALLY LUNNS. 

One quart of flour, small piece butter size of an egg, 
three tablespoons sugar, one teaspoon of Magic Baking 



256 CAKES. 

Powder, little salt. Stir well together; add two eggs not 
beaten, two cups milk. Mix all. Bake in muffin rings. 

TEA CAKES. 

One pint flour, one-half teaspoon salt, two teaspoons 
Magic Baking Powder, one generous tablespoon shortening, 
one generous tablespoon mashed potato salted to taste, one 
small cup currants Sift flour. Magic Baking Powder and 
salt twice; cut in shortening; moisten with milk, adding 
potato and currants Poll gently to thickness of one inch; 
cut in round cakes the size of small tea-plate. Bake twenty- 
minutes in hot oven; cut open, butter and replace, cutting, 
each cake in four. Serve hot. 

BREAD STICKS. 

(Very good and most digestible for dyspeptics.) 

Use the bread sponge once raised only, form into 
sticks four inches long and one-half inch thick and bake till 
hard. A bundle of these tied in white tissue paper with nar- 
row white ribbon and given to a friend who is to take a jour- 
ney, will be found most acceptable. 

CRULLERS. 

One and a quarter pounds of white sugar, one-half pound 
of butter, eight eggs, well beaten, one nutmeg, flour enough 
to roll out. Fry in very hot lard. 

SPONGE ROLL. 

One cup boiling water, two cups of sugar, three cups of 
flour, four eggs, two teaspoonf uls of Magic Baking Powder ; 
beat the yolks and sugar together ; slowly pour over them the 
boiling water; stir in the grated flour and lastly the beaten 
whites of the eggs, retaining a little of the flour mixed with 
the Magic Baking Powder until the very last. Bake in thin 
layers and while hot spread with jelly or jam and roll. This 
is excellent. 



CAKES. 267 

LUNCH CAKES. 

Into one quart of flour rub two heaping tablespoonfuls of 
butter. Add one-half of a cupful of sugar, two tea- 
spoonfuls of Magic Baking Powder, one quarter of a cupful 
of cleaned currants. Beat two eggs, add to them one cupful 
of milk and stir into the dry mixture, adding more milk, if it 
is necessary, to mix to a soft dough. Roll out as for biscuits; 
cut into three-inch squares, rub the top of each with a mix- 
ture of milk and sugar and bake in a hot oven. Split, butter 
and serve while hot. 

SHORTBREAD. 

One and one-quarter pounds flour, three-quarters pound 
of butter, one-half pound sugar. Cream the butter and 
sugar, beating until light, then add the flour. Mould and 
roll into cakes about an inch thick. Pinch them neatly round 
the edges, and prick them on the top with a fork. Bake 
slowly till a light golden brown. Some add cut citron can- 
died peel and sprinkle caraway comfits on top of each square. 

S'b. 

One pound flour, one-half pound butter, one-quarter 
pound sugar, the yolks of five eggs. Mix well together and 
put on ice to cool ; then form into S's ; put on ice again till 
quite hard, then dip into egg and sugar, or almonds. Bake 
till brown. 

PANCAKES. 

Nine eggs beaten very light, flour enough to make very 
stiff and two tablespoonfuls of ginger; a little salt. Milk 
enough to make a nice thin batter. 

PANCAKES. 

Two cups sour milk, two teaspoonfuls Magic Soda, one 
teaspoonful salt, two eggs. Mix all together and beat; therj 
♦17 



368 CAKES. 

take out a cupful and mix 3'our flour in. Mix them thicker 
than you want them, then thin the mixture with the cupful 
taken out. Make batter quite thin. 

BUTTBEMILK PANCAKES. 

One quart flour, one egg, half cup of brown sugar, a little 
t^alt, one teaspoonful Magic Baking Powder, four cups butter- 
milk. Mix well and drop with a spoon on a hot greased pan 
or griddle. 

PLAIN RICE CAKE. 

Beat two eggs, add sugar to taste, about two large table- 
spoonfuls; two tablespoonfuls melted butter or cream; two 
large cups of milk. Mix into a stiff batter with ground rice 
and flour in proportion of three cups of rice to one of flour; 
add baking powder last, about three teaspoonfuls, according 
to the quantity made; the sugar may be melted if desired. 



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 



BEEAD. 

Among all civilized people bread has become an article of 
food of the first necessity ; and properly so, for it constitutes 
of itself a complete life sustainer, the gluten, starch and 
sugar which it contains representing ozotized and hydro- 
carbonated nutrients, and combining the sustaining powers 
of the animal and vegetable kingdoms in one product. As 
there is no one article of food that enters so largely into our 
daily fare as bread, so no degree of skill in preparing other 
articles can compensate for lack of knowledge in the art of 
making good, palatable and nutritious bread. A little earnest 
attention to the subject will enable any one to comprehend 
the theory, and then ordinary care in practice will make one 
familiar with the process. 

GENEEAL DIEECTIONS. 

The first thing required for making wholesome bread is 
the utmost cleanliness; the next is the soundness and sweet- 
ness of all the ingredients used for it; and, in addition to 
these, there must be attention and care through the whole 
process. 

Salt is always used in bread-making, not only on account 
of its flavor, which destroys the insipid raw state of the flour, 
but because it makes the dough rise better. 

In mixing with milk, the milk should be boiled — not 
simply scalded, but heated to boiling over hot water — then 
set aside to cool before mixing. Simple heating will not pro- 
vent bread from turning sour in the rising, while boiling will 
act as a preventative. So the milk should be thoroughly 
scalded, and should be used when it is just blood warm. 

Too small a proportion of yeast, or insufficient time al- 
lowed for the dough to rise, will cause the bread to be heavy. 



260 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

The yeast must always be fresh if the bread is to be digest- 
ible and nice. Stale yeast produces, instead of vinous fer- 
mentation, an acetous fermentation, which flavors the bread 
and makes it indigestible. A poor, thin yeast produces an 
imperfect fermentation, the result being a heavy unwhole- 
some loaf. 

If either the sponge or the dough be permitted to over- 
work itself — that is to say, if the mixing and kneading be 
neglected when it has reached the proper point for either — 
sour bread will probably be the consequence in warm weather, 
and bad bread in any. The goodness will also be endangered 
by placing it so near a fire as to make any part of it hot, in- 
stead of maintaining the gentle and equal degree of heat re- 
quired for its due fermentation. 

Heavy bread will also most likely be the result of making 
the dough very hard, and letting it become quite cold, particu- 
larly in winter. 

An almost certain way of spoiling dough is to leave it half- 
made, and to allow it to become cold before it is finished. The 
other most common causes of failure are using yeast which 
is no longer sweet, or which has been frozen, or has had hot 
liquid poured over it. 

As a general rule, the oven for baking bread should be 
rather quick, and the heat so regulated as to penetrate the 
dough ■mthout hardening the outside. The oven-door should 
not be opened after the bread is put in until the dough is set 
or has become firm, as the cool air admitted will have an un- 
favorable effect on it. 

The dough should rise and the bread begin to brown after 
about fifteen minutes, but only slightly. Bake from fifty to 
sixty minutes, and have it brown, not black or whitey brown, 
but brown all over when well baked. 

When the bread is baked, remove the loaves immediately 
from the pans, and place them where the air will circulate 
freely around them and thus carry off the gas which has been 
formed, but is no longed needed. 

Never leave the bread in the pan or on a pine table to ab- 
sorb the odor of the wood. If you like crusts that are crisp 
do not cover the loaves; but to give the soft, tender, wafer- 
like consistency which many prefer, wrap them, while still 



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 361 

hot, in several thicknesses of bread-cloth. When cold put 
them in a stone jar, removing the cloth, as that absorbs the 
moisture and gives the bread an unpleasant taste and odor. 
Keep the jar well covered, and carefully cleansed from crumbs 
and stale pieces. Scald and dry it thoroughly every two or 
three days. A yard and a half square of coarse table linen 
makes the best bread-cloth. Keep in good supply; use them 
for no other purpose. 

Some people use scalding water in making wheat bread; 
in that case the flour must be scalded and allowed to cool be- 
fore the yeast is added, — -then proceed as above. Bread made 
in this manner keeps moist in summer, much longer than 
when made in the usual mode. 

Home-made yeast is often preferred to any other. Royal 
Yeast, as now sold in most grocery stores, makes fine, light, 
sweet bread, and is a much quicker process and can always 
be had fresh. 

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS. 

In making batter-cakes, the ingredients should be put 
together over night to rise, and the eggs and butter added in 
the morning ; the butter melted and eggs well-beaten. If the 
batter appears sour in the least, dissolve a little soda and stir 
into it; this should be done early enough to rise some time 
before baking. 

Water can be used in place of milk in all raised dough, 
and the dough should be thoroughly light before making into 
loaves or biscuits; then, when moulding them, use as little 
flour as possible; the kneading to be done when first made 
from the sponge, and should be done well and for some length 
of time, as this makes the pores fine, the bread cut smooth 
and tender. Care should be taken not to get the dough too 
stiff. 

When any recipe calls for Magic Baking Powder, and you 
do not have it, you can use Gillett^s Cream Tartar and Magic 
Soda, in the proportion of one level teaspoonful of Magic 
Soda to two of Gillett's Cream Tartar. 

When the recipe calls for sweet milk or cream, and you 
do not have it, you may use in place of it sour milk or cream, 
and. in that case, Magic Baking Powder or Gillett's Cream 



262 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, 'ETC. 

Tartar must not be used, but Magic Soda, using a level tea- 
spoonful to a quart of sour milk ; the milk is always best when 
just turned, so that it is solid, and not sour enough to whey 
or to be watery. 

When making biscuits or bread with baking-powder or 
Magic Soda and GiUett's Cream Tartar, the oven should be 
prepared first; the dough handled quickly and put into the 
oven immediately, as soon as it becomes the proper lightness, 
to ensure good success. If the oven is too slow, the article 
baked will be heavy and hard. 

As in beating cake, never stir ingredients into batter, but 
beat them in, by beating down from the bottom, and up, and 
over again. This laps the air into the batter, which produces 
little air-cells and causes the dough to puff and swell as it 
comes in contact with the heat while cooking. 

TO EENEW STALE EOLLS. 

To freshen stale biscuits or rolls, put them into a steamer 
for ten minutes, then dry them off in a hot oven ; or dip each 
roll for an instant in cold water and heat them crisp in the 
oven. 

MUFFINS. 

One cup scalded milk, one cup boiling water, two table- 
spoons butter, one-quarter cup granulated sugar, three- 
quarters of a spoon salt, one-quarter cake Eoyal Yeast, one 
egg, four cups flour. Add butter, sugar and salt to the scalded 
milk and water. When lukewarm add the Eoyal Yeast, and 
when that is dissolved add the egg and flour and beat all well 
together. Place the crock of this mixture in a warm room for 
over night. The next day you fill buttered rings two-thirds 
full of this batter, and set them aside till risen to the top of 
the rings. Bake half an hour. They should be ready for 
baking in time for an early lunch if mixed at ten o'clock or 
later the night before. 

OLD-FASHIONED YEAST. 

Six large potatoes, two quarts of water, half a cup of 
granulated sugar, half a cup of salt, one Eoyal Yeast cake, a 



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 263 

handful of hops. Tie the hops in a piece of cheesecloth and 
cook in with potatoes. When done put through the colander; 
add salt an J sugar; when lukewarm add the dissolved Eoyal 
Yeast cake; let stand in a warm place, when it will be ready 
for use; after keep in a cool place. This is excellent and 
never fails. 

SPICED EAISIN LOAF. 

Two cups of warm milk, tiour to make a soft dough, a 
quarter of a cup of old fashioned yeast ; let it stand in a warm 
place till light. Then add half a cup of butter, half a cup of 
brown sugar, a teaspoon of cinnamon, cloves and allspice, 
three eggs, one pound of seeded raisins, bread flour enough 
to make it smooth and soft. Dough kneaded well; put in a 
warm place to rise; when light mould in a loaf; let rise 
again; when it has risen to the top of the pan bake in a 
moderate oven for one hour. This makes a large loaf. 

MUFFINS. 

For one dozen muffins use one pint of flour, one-half pint 
of milk, two teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, one-half 
teaspoonful salt, two tablespoonfuls sugar, two tablespoonfuls 
melted butter, two eggs. Mix the dry ingredients and sift 
them well. Beat the eggs light and add the milk to them. 
Add this to the dry ingredients and add the melted butter. 
Beat the batter vigorously for a few seconds. Put on butter- 
ed muffin pans and bake in a hot oven about twent}' minutes. 

VIENNA BREAD. 

One cup milk (boiled to simmer), one cup hot water, one 
cake of Royal Yeast, one teaspoon salt, flour to knead. (If 
to be set over night, use only half the Royal Yeast.) In 
three tablespoons milk and water dissolve the Royal Yeast 
thoroughly and add to remaining milk and water. Add salt 
and sufficient flour (warmed) to make a slight dough (about 
four cups). Turn out and knead until thoroughly smooth 
and does not stick to the hands. Put in a greased basin, 
cover, and stand in a warm place to rise, for three hours. 



*64 BREAD^ BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

When risen, turn out, and cut into small rolls, knead each 
roll a little and put in a greased tin. Grease over tops with 
melted butter, cover and stand in a warm place till twice their 
original size. Grease again and bake in a hot oven. 

PARKEE HOUSE ROLLS. 

One egg well beaten, one tablespoon sugar, one-half cup 
milk, one cake Royal Yeast. Salt and enough flour to make 
a light dough. Beat egg and salt, add sugar, dissolve yeast in 
a little milk, and add to egg and salt and sugar. Add flour 
and set to rise for an hour or an hour and one-half. JTurn 
out and knead. Roll out with a rolling pin about one-half 
inch thick. Cut with a ring, brush over with water, fold in 
two and brush over with egg. Set to rise to twice original 
size and bake. Use same amount of Royal Yeast for twice the 
quantity. 

MUFFINS. 

One and one-half cups flour, a little salt, two teaspoons 
Magic Baking Powder, sifted together. Yolks of two eggs 
well beaten, one cup milk, butter half size egg. Then stir in 
flour; beat up whites of eggs and stir in, have tins well 
buttered. Bake in quick oven twenty minutes to one-half 
hour. 

SODA SCONES. 

One pound sifted flour, two cups sour or buttermilk, one 
teaspoon Magic Soda, well rubbed through the flour, a little 
salt in the milk. If sweet milk is used, to one teaspoonful of 
Magic Soda put two of Gillett's Cream Tartar. 

SPOON BREAD. 

Stir into a pint of milk enough white cornmeal to make a 
thin batter ; add a teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder, salt 
and two eggs, the whites and yolks of which have been beaten 
separately. Pour the mixture into a baking dish, smooth the 
top with a broad, flat knife, and dot with pieces of butter. 
Bake and serve in the dish with a spoon. This is excellent 
with gravy for the nursery table. 



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 365 

SCONES. 

Three cups sifted flour, add three teaspoons Magic Baking 
Powder, and half a teaspoon salt; then sift again. Mix one 
teaspoon granulated sugar with three teaspoons cold butter 
(cut in dice) J and one cup milk, add the flour to the mix- 
ture, handling as little as possible. Cut into three portions, 
make with a silver knife a + and bake twenty minutes. On 
removing from oven rub over with a little butter. 

MAEYLAND BISCUIT. 

Two sifters of flour, two tablespoons of lard, one salt- 
spoon of salt. Mix to as stiff a dough as possible. Beat with 
sadiron or rolling pin until soft and blistering. Cut out and 
press the knuckles into each biscuit. Bake in a quick oven. 

HOT BAKING POWDEK BISCUITS. 

Two cups fl^ur sifted well, four teaspoons Magic Baking 
Powder, one scant teaspoon salt, one tablespoon lard, one 
tablespoon butter, three-quarters cup milk (or water, or both) 
to a soft dough ; drop on pan, or roll out. 

COEN MUFFINS. 

Beat two eggs very light, add one teaspoonful of melted 
butter, one tablespoonful of brown sugar, two teacupfuls 
corn meal, one heaping tablespoonful of flour, to which add 
one teaspoonful of Magic Baking Powder and a cupful of 
milk. Mix thoroughly, pour into greased muffin tins and 
bake in a quick oven. 

SPANISH BUN. 

Two eggs, small cup sugar, butter size of a large egg, one- 
half cup milk, one-quarter teaspoonful cloves, three small 
teaspoonfuls cinnamon, two teaspoonfuls Magic Baking 
Powder, one large cup of flour. 



266 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

MUFFINS. 

Two eggs, one teaspoonful butter, a little salt, one cake 
Royal Yeast, one-half pint milk, a little brown sugar. Warm 
the milk and butter, dissolve the yeast in a little milk, beat 
the eggs well, enough flour to make a thick batter. Leave 
it to rise some hours. Put into well-buttered rings. Else 
another hour. Bake twenty minutes in a good oven. Guar- 
anteed for tea at seven; set at two. 

SPANISH BUN. 

Three-quarters cup of butter, one cup of sugar, four 
eggs, one cup of 'sweet milk, three cups of flour, and three 
teaspoons of Magic Baking Powder. Flavor as desired. Bake 
in a moderate oven. Ice with the following : — The whites of 
three eggs well beaten with one and one-half cups of sugar. 

SPICE GEMS. 

A full half cup of butter, one cup of brown sugar, one 
teaspoonful of ginger, half a teaspoonful each of other spices 
to taste, one egg, half a cupful of molasses, half a cupful of 
milk. Enough flour to make a paste thick enough to cling 
to the spoon. Put in ingredients in order mentioned. Dis- 
solve small teaspoonful of Magic Soda in a very little boiling 
water ; add to the batter a pinch of salt. Mix thoroughly, and 
bake in buttered gem-pans in moderate oven. 

POPOVEES. 

One pint of flour, one pint of sweet milk, butter size of 
an egg, two eggs and pinch of salt. Bake in gem-irons, well 
heated, in hot oven. 

ADIEONDACK COENBEEAD. 

Five eggs beaten separately, add to one pint milk, one-half 
pint flour, one-half pint cornmeal well mixed, the beaten 
yolks and two ounces melted butter ; let it stand ten minutes. 
Then add whites, one tablespoon each salt and sugar, and two 
teaspoons Magic Baking Powder. Mix thoroughly and bake 
in long biscuit tins. 



BREAD^ BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 267 

MILK MUFFINS. 

One and one-half cups of flour, one and one-half spoon- 
fuls of Magic Baking Powder, one pinch salt, and enough 
milk to make a very light batter ; beat till it becomes a cream. 
Butter the tins well and drop the mixture into pans. Fill 
half full and bake fifteen minutes in a very hot oven. 

. SPANISH BUNS. 

Four eggs, white of one left out for icing; three-quarters 
of a cup of butter, two cups of brown sugar, one cup of sweet 
milk, tAvo and a half cups of flour, three teaspoonfuls of 
Magic Baking Powder, one dessertspoonful of cloves and 
cinnamon. 

SCOTCH CUEEANT BUN (GLENOECHY). 

One pound flour, one pound sugar, one-quarter pound 
orange peel, one-quarter pound almonds, two pounds currants, 
two pounds large raisins, two teaspoons ginger, two teaspoons 
cinnamon, two teaspoons Jamaica pepper, one teaspoon Magic 
Soda, one teaspoon Gillett's Cream Tartar, one-third teaspoon 
black pepper, one large cup of buttermilk. This is all for 
cake proper. 

(Take one and one-half pounds of flour, one-quarter pound 
butter, one-half teaspoon Magic Baking Powder for the sheet 
of paste which encloses the bun.) The fruit must be care- 
fully prepared. Stone raisins, clean currants, blanch al- 
monds; cut up orange-peel fine. Put all fruit, flour, sugar, 
and spices into a big basin; set aside and make paste, using 
the quantities given above. Eub butter into flour with Magic 
Baking Powder, making into a stiif dough with water. Eoll 
out thin. Grease tin, line it with paste; keep piece for top 
of bun. Now pour milk into flour and mix also fruit all well 
together with the hand. It must be just moist, not too thin ; 
pour all into the tin and lay on top sheet. Dot with fork; 
bake for three hours in moderate oven. 

BAKED BEOWN BEEAD. 

Two cups of Indian meal, two cups rye-flour or Graham, 
three-quarters cup of molasses, one teaspoonful Magic Soda. 



268 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

one-hialf teaspoonful salt ; sour milk enough to make a batter 
about like cake. Have moderate oven; bake slowly four or 
five hours. Sweet milk or water can be used in making the 
batter, and two teaspoonfuls of Magic Baking Powder sifted 
with the flour, instead of the Magic Soda. 

GEAHAM BEEAD. 

Two cups of wheat flour, four cups of Graham flour, two 
cups of warm milk, one cake of Eoyal Yeast, half cup of 
molasses, two teaspoons of salt, a teaspoon of Magic Soda, dis- 
solved in the water. Make as stiff as can be stirred with a 
spoon. Let it rise over night. In the morning beat it a 
little, form in one or two loaves, put in pans, and when it 
rises again, bake one hour in a moderate oven. 

QUICK GEAHAM BEEAD. 

One pint sour milk, one teaspoonful of Magic Soda, half 
a cup of molasses, half teaspoon salt. Stir in Graham flour 
to make a stiff dough, and bake in a quick oven. A little 
shortening makes it more tender. 

INDIAN BEEAD. 

Scald one pint of Indian meal with one quart of milk or 
water; boiling milk and water can be used, half and half. 
When cool add : One pint of Graham flour, one cup of wheat 
flour, two tablespoonfuls of butter (melted), one teaspoonful 
of salt, half cupful of yeast. If Eoyal Yeast is used, one 
will answer. Dissolve it in a cup half full of warm water. 
Do this at night. In the morning stir down ; put in a well- 
buttered pan, letting it rise first for half an hour, and bake 
slowly. 

NEW OELEANS COEN BEEAD. 

One and one-half pints corn-meal, half pint flour, one 
tablespoonful sugar, one teaspoonful salt, two teaspoonfuls 
Magic Baking Powder, one and a quarter pints milk, one 
tablespoonful lard, two eggs. Sift together corn-meal, flour. 



3READ, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 269 

sugar, salt and powder; rub in lard, cold; add eggs (beaten), 
and the milk; mix into a moderately stiff batter; pour from 
bowl into a shallow cake-pan. Bake in rather hot oven thirty 
minutes. 

EYE BEEAD. 

Dissolve one fcake Eoyal Yeast, one pint of warm water to 
two pints of rye flour, and one pint of wheat flour ; two table ■ 
spoonfuls lard or butter; two tablespoonfuls brown sugar. 
Beat together, and let rise over night. In the morning mix 
with this : One quart of warm milk, one cup of Indian meal, 
enough rye flour to make into dough. Knead; cover, set in 
a warm place to rise two or three hours. Knead again, and 
make into loaves. If there is the least tendency to sourness, 
add a teaspoonful of Magic Soda, dissolved in warm water. It 
is best to always add this in warm weather. Eub Magic Soda 
smooth with a knife blade before measuring. 

OATMEAL BEEAD. 

Half pint of oatmeal, two and a half pints flour, half tea- 
spoonful of salt, three teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, 
three-quarters of a pint of milk, one and a half pints salted 
water. Boil the oatmeal in water for one hour ; add milk ; set 
aside until cold. Then place in bowl, sift together flour, salt, 
and powder, and add. Mix together smoothly and deftly; 
bake in greased tin forty-five minutes, protected with paper 
twenty minutes. 

CEEAM OF TAETAE AND SODA BISCUIT WITHOUT 

MILK. 

One quart of flour, two heaping teaspoonfuls of butter 
chopped in the flour, two cups cold water, two teaspoonfuls 
Gillett's Cream Tartar, sifted with the flour, one teaspoonful 
Magic Soda dissolved in hot water, one-half teaspoonful salt. 
Stir the dissolved Magic Soda in the cold water. Mix the 
dough very quickly, having it just stiff enough to handle and 
roll. Bake in a quick oven. 



270 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

BUTTERMILK BISCUIT. 

For four persons take one pint moderately sour butter- 
milk and stir in it a rounding teaspoonful of Magic Soda. 
Pour into the flour bowl where there has been made a hole in 
the irMdle of the flour. Add a half -teaspoonful of salt and 
half a cup of soft lard. Mix with the fingers into a soft 
dough. . Do not get in too much flour — it must be quite soft. 
EoU out one inch thick and cut ; place not too close together 
on a tin and bake in a very hot oven. This is a thoroughly 
tested recipe. Maple syrup, honey or preserves make an ex- 
cellent accompaniment. 

EAISED GRAHAM BISCUIT. 

One pint of milk or water, one tablespoonful butter, two 
tablespoonfuls sugar, half cup of yeast, or half cake Royal 
Yeast dissolved in half cupful warm water. Use enough of 
wheat flour to make a thin batter ; add the remainder of the 
ingredients and so much Graham flour as can be stirred in 
with a spoon. Set away until morning. In the morning 
butter a pan, and with floured hands tear off bits of dough the 
size of an egg, roll lightly between the palms, put in the pan, 
let rise twenty minutes and bake in a hot oven. 

EGG ROLLS. 

Two eggs, well beaten, one small cup of milk, one table- 
spoonful of lard or melted butter, two teaspoonfuls of Magic 
Baking Powder, and enough flour to make a stiff biscuit. 
Roll out, cut desired size, bake in a hot oven. "Nice biscuit 
for tea. If liked, add two tablespoonfuls of white sugar. 

PARKER HOUSE ROLLS. WITH BAKma 
POWDER. 

These are not the old original Parker House Rolls, but 
are quicker m.ade: Sift three tablespoonfuls of Made Baking 
Powder with one quart of flour ; put in one tablespoonful of 
cold butter; add one well-beaten egg, one tablespoonful of 
sugar, and one teaspoonful salt; rub well together, ancl make 



i;read, biscuits, rolls, muffins, etc. 271 

into a dough, with a pint of cold milk. Eoll out less than 
half-inch thick. Cnt with a large biscuit-cutter. Spread soft 
butter over the top of each, fold them together, and lay a 
little apart on greased tins. Brush over the tops with sweet 
milk and set immediately in a hot oven. 

VIENNA ROLLS. 

Two pounds of sifted flour hanked around pan, one-half 
pint of milk, one-half pint of water; mix to a thin hatter, 
quickly add one-half pint of milk in which has been dissolved 
one teaspoonful of salt and one cake Royal Yeast; leave re- 
mainder of flour against side of pan; cover and keep free 
from air fifty minutes ; then mix in rest of flour until dough 
leaves side and bottom of pan; let stand for two and a half 
hours. Divide into one-pound pieces ; sub-divide into twelve 
pieces. Flatten these small pieces of dough in squares three- 
quarters of an inch thick, fold their corners to the centre, 
pinch them down to hold them, and turn the little rolls thus 
made over on a board covered with cloth ; let them stand for 
about ten minutes, turn them up again on a baking-pan and 
put into a hot oven to bake quickly, for about fifteen minutes ; 
when half done brush them with milk, return them to the 
oven and finish baking. Some trouble, but the result is de- 
licious. 

BREAD TWIST ROLLS. 

Take enough bread dough in the morning for a tin of 
rolls. Work in one tablespoonful butter or lard. Divide the 
dough into parts the size of an egg, svib-dividing each of these 
into two unequal pieces. The largest piece form into a taper 
roll. Lay in a buttered pan. Do not let touch. Divide the 
smaller pieces into three pieces each. Roll these longer than 
the others and braid. Place a braid on the top of each large 
roll, pinch the ends of the two together, wash over with milk 
"nd bake. 

FRENCH ROLLS RAISED. 

Two cups of sweet milk, three-quarters of a cup of butter 
and lard mixed, one-half cup of yeast, or one-half cake of 



272 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

Eoyal Yeast dissolved in one-half cup of water, one teaspoon- 
ful of salt. Flour to make a stiff dough. Let rise over night. 
In the morning add two well-beaten eggs, knead and let rise 
again. Make into balls the size of an egg. Then roll each 
one between the hands to make a long roll (about three inches 
long). Place close together in even rows on well-buttered 
pans. Cover and let rise again. Bake in a quick oven to a 
delicate brown. Glaze with sweet milk before baking. 

HOT CROSS BUNS. 

Three cupfuls of milk, one cup of soft yeast, or one cake 
of Eoyal Yeast, dissolved in one cup of warm water. Flour 
to make a thick batter. Set as a sponge over night. In 
the morning add half a cup of melted butter, one cup- 
ful of sugar, half nutmeg, grated, one saltspoonful of salt. 
Add sufficient flour to make a soft dough. Form into balls, 
flatten out with the hand, and mark deeply in the form of 
a cross with the back of a knife. Lay on buttered tins, and 
set to rise, and bake when light. Some cooks add a teaspoon- 
ful of coriander seeds. 

OATMEAL PUFFS. 

Sift together one-half pint oatmeal, one-half pint Graham 
flour, one-half pint wheat flour, one teaspoonful sugar, one- 
half teaspoonful salt, two teaspoonfuls Magic Baking Powder ; 
add three well-beaten eggs, one pint sweet milk. Mix into a 
thin batter, then half fill well-greased gem-pans, and bake in 
hot oven ten to fifteen minutes. Serve hot. 

YEAST RUSKS. 

One-half pint sweet milk, one teacupful yeast, or one cake 
Royal Yeast, two eggs; mix with flour to stiff batter and 
raise; then add one cup of butter, one-half cup of sugar, one 
teaspoonful of Magic Soda, little nutmeg ; let rise again ; then 
knead and mould into shape; let rise and bake; when done 
wet top with eggs, sprinkle with sugar, and return to oven 
again for a moment. Serve hot. 



BREAD;, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 273 



DRIED RUSKS. 

Make as above with yeast. When ready to bake, roll out 
one inch thick. Cut in round cakes with a biscuit cutter, 
and arrange in a buttered baking-pan in two layers, one laid 
carefully upon, another. Butter slightly between them. Let 
rise half an hour, and bake. When done, lift apart and throw 
loosely in the pan. Put in the oven when the fire is low, 
and leave all night ; when sufficiently dried and browned, put 
in a clean muslin bag and hang up in the kitchen. It will 
be at least three days before they are ready to use. To serve, 
put as many as desired in a deep dish, and pour cold milk 
over them. When soft, drain and eat with butter or cream. 
Good with coffee, served dry; nice for invalids. Will keep 
for weeks. Rusks baked in the ordinary form can be sliced 
lengthAvise in two or three slices, after they have cooled, and 
dried in the same way. 

GRAHAM GEMS. 

Mix Graham flour with milk to form a stiff batter ; add a 
pinch of salt and one egg. Bake in gems, hot and well 
greased. To make strictly hygienic, mix the batter with 
water instead of milk; omit the egg, and add one tablespoon- 
ful of sugar or molasses to aid in browning the gems. A 
very quick oven must be used in this last way. 

Butter the gem-pans carefully, first heating them on the 
stove. Put a little butter in the bottom of each one. It will 
melt and rise up on the sides as the batter is dropped in. 
Fill the pans two-thirds full, leaving room to rise. Bake 
about twenty minutes. 

APPLE GEMS. 

Chop four sour apples very fine; stir into them one 
beaten egg, one-quarter cup molasses and one and a half cups 
each of cornmeal and sifted flour ; dissolve a half teaspoon ful 
Magic Soda in warm water and add it, using enough water to 
thin batter. Bake in buttered gem-pans in a moderate oven. 
♦18 



274 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

GEAHAM GEMS (WITH BAKING POWDER). 

One tablespoonful of butter, one beaten egg, one cup of 
milk, two tablespoons of sugar, two teaspoons of Magic Bak- 
ing Powder, in Graham flour enough for a good batter. Bake 
as above. A change in this may be made by taking one cup 
of sour milk instead of sweet, and half a teaspoonf ul of Magic 
Soda. (Take a level teaspoonf ul of Magic Soda, flatten it 
over with a knife, and cut it smoothly in half.) Bake as 
before. Tear gems open with a fork, and butter. 

OATMEAL GEMS. 

One cupful of oatmeal soaked over night in one cupful 
of water. In the morning, add one cupful sour milk, one 
cupful flour, three-quarters of tablespoonful of Magic Soda, 
one-half tablespoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of butter, 
two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Mix, and bake in hot, well- 
buttered gem-pans. If too moist, add a little more flour. 
One cupful of sweet milk, and one teaspoonf ul of baking 
powder can be used instead of sour milk and Magic Soda. 

WHEAT GEMS. 

One quart of flour, one quart of milk, four eggs, one 
teaspoonful of salt, two teaspoonfuls (small) of butter. Sift 
the flour with the salt ; stir the milk in smoothly. Beat the 
yolks and whites well and separately; stir first tbe yolks in 
the milk and flour, then the whites, then the melted butter. 
Half fill the gem-pans and bake in a deep pan or on a baking- 
sheet in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes; if baked 
in earthen cups, forty-five minutes. Let them be thoroughly 
baked, or they will fall on being taken from the oven. 

POTATO SCONES. 

Half a dozen large boiled potatoes, mash carefully and 
salt; knead potato with a little flour, form into scones an inch 
thick. Bake in moderate oven and prick to prevent blister- 
ing. Split and butter plentifully, and serve at once, piping 
hot. 



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 275 

EICE MUFFINS. 

One scant cup of boiled rice, one egg, tablespoonful of 
white sugar, a little salt, one and a half cups of milk, one and 
a half cups flour, one teaspoonful Magic Baking Powder in 
the flour, tablespoonful of melted butter. Bake in muffin 
tins. 

EOLLED BEEAD AND BUTTEE. 

Eolled bread and butter is much preferable to flat slices for 
afternoon teas, as ladies may hold it without spoiling dainty 
gloves. Butter the loaf — not a fresh one — ^having first de- 
crusted it with a very sharp knife ; cut a slice as thin as pos- 
sible and roll each slice with flat of hand — practice soon per- 
fects. Pile the rolls log-^fashion, or in a pyramid, on a 
doyley-covered bread plate; garnish daintily with parsley or 
cress. [A cress sandwich just means a spray of cress laid on 
the slice before rolling, one end of the cress projecting from 
the roll.— Ed.] 

COENMEAL MUFFINS. 

Three-quarters of a cup of butter, two eggs, one cup of 
milk, three-quarters of a cup of cornmeal, two cups of flour, 
half a cup of sugar, three teaspoonfuls of Magic Baking 
Powder, a little salt. Bake in muffin tins. 

EYE GEMS. 

One pint of warm milk with one teaspoonful of Magic 
Soda dissolved in it, a pinch of salt, two eggs, well beaten. 
Eye flour enough to make a thin batter. Bake in gem-pans. 

MUFFINS. 

Muffin rings should be well greased, filled two-thirds full 
and baked upon a well-buttered griddle upon the stove, turn- 
ing ring and all with a pancake shovel when one side is done 
to brown the other. Or the rings may be filled and set in a 
buttered pan and baked in the oven. Turning will not be 
necessary. Muffin rings two and a half inches across and 
one and a half inches deep are the most convenient size. Gem 



276 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

irons can also be used. Occasionally the same recipe can be 
dropped in spoonfuls on a griddle and baked, turning over 
with a pancake shovel. This is nice when haste is necessary. 
Tear open and butter. 

MUFFINS, PLAIN. 

Three cups of flour before sifting, one cup of water, one 
and a half cups of sweet milk, three level teaspoonfuls butter, 
two tablespoonfuls of sugar, three teaspoonfuls of Magic Bak- 
ing powder. Mix the sugar and shortening to a cream, add the 
liquid, then sift the flour and Magic Baking Powder into it. 
Beat well, heat gem irons hot, grease, fill nearly full, and bake 
in hot oven twenty minutes. An egg is used sometimes. Sour 
milk and Magic Soda may be substituted, three-quarters tea- 
spoonful of Magic Soda. 

EAISB.D MUFFINS. 

Four cups of wheat flour, one and a half pints sweet milk, 
one heaping tablespoonful lard, two eggs, one-half teacupful 
of yeast. Sift the flour into a pan with a pinch of salt ; warm 
the milk and add lard, and stir into the flour. Beat the 
eggs light, add to the mixture. When thoroughly mixed add 
yeast. Set to rise about three hours before using, and when 
very light bake in muffin rings in a quick oven. These muf- 
fins must be served the instant they come from the oven. The 
muffin rings can be put on a griddle and baked also by turn- 
ing the rings over with a pancake turner. If wanted for 
bi-eakfast set over night. Tear the muffins open when done, 
put a bit of butter in each and keep warm until served. 
Never cut them. Graham muffins can be made the same way. 

ENGLISH BEEAKFAST MUFFINS. 

Three level teaspoonfuls of butter, two eggs, one pint of 
milk, three cups of flour, one tcaspoonful of salt, two tea- 
spoonfuls Magic Baking Powder. Soften the butter, add to 
it the yolks of two eggs ; beat ; add milk ; mix ; add flour, salt 
and Magic Baking Powder; beat well; stir in well-beaten 
whites, bake in quick oven twenty-five minutes in well-greased 
rings. 



BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC, 277 

WAFFLES. 

The first essential to success in waffles is a well-fitting 
waffle-iron. The waffle-iron should fit tightly over the stove- 
hole. There should be no space in which to admit a draught 
of air around the waffle-iron to the fire; yet there should be 
space enough for it to turn easily. 

Heat the irons thoroughly before beginning to bake. Thej 
should be as hot as a gi'iddle. Grease the waffle-irons with 
a piece of beef suet. Be sure that the side of the iron on 
which the batter is to be poured is extra hot, and as soon as 
the first waffles are put in it and the iron is closed, turn it. 
This method insures their baking on both sides. Fill two- 
thirds full of the batter. As soon as they are baked, lay them 
on a plate, butter them, lay another over them, and serve 
them. 

SAVOEY FEIED BREAD. 

Cut slices of stale loaf bread about half an inch thick, 
shape them like chops, soak the slices in a rich, well-seasoned 
vegetable stock until nearly saturated with it — don't allow 
them to become too soft — then dip in beaten egg mixed with 
a little milk and fry in butter until a nice brown. Serve 
with tomato sauce or around a dish of stewed tomatoes. 

COENMEAL GEMS. 

Cornmeal, three-quarters of a cup; flour, two cupfuls; 
sugar, half a cupful; butter, half a cupful; two eggs; milk, 
one cupful; three tablespoonfuls Magic Baking Powder, a 
pinch of salt. Bake in gem-pans. 

SPANISH BUN. 

Yolks of three eggs, one cupful brown sugar, one teaspoon- 
f ul of cinnamon, half a cupful of butter, a pinch of salt, three- 
quarters of a cup of milk, flour enough to make a nice batter. 
Bake in moderate oven. 

Icing for Spanish Bun. — Whites of three eggs, large cup 
of brown sugar; beat five minutes; spread on the cake; put in 
the oven and brown. 



278 BREAD, BISCUITS, ROLLS, MUFFINS, ETC. 

PAEKEE HOUSE EOLLS. 

Two quarts of flour, one pint of milk, two tablespoonfuls 
of sugar, one Cake Eoyal Yeast, four tablespoonfuls lard, a 
little salt. Mix at 9 o'clock with half of the flour ; at 12 stir 
in rest of flour; at 2.30 knead well; at 3.30 roll about a 
quarter of an inch thick, cut and spread lightly with melted 
butter, and double over. Let them rise until 5.40, and then 
bake twenty minutes in quick oven. 

FEUIT PIN WHEELS. 

Mix together one pint of sifted flour, one tablespoonful 
of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt, and two teaspoonfuls of 
Magic Baking Powder. Eub in two large tablespoonfuls of 
butter, and mix into a moderately stiff dough with half a pint 
of milk. Sprinkle the pastry board with flour, turn out the 
dough and roll it to a large square about half an inch thick. 
Spread a large spoonful of slightly melted butter on this, and 
then one cupful of Demarara sugar, and one cupful of well- 
cleaned currants, grate a little nutmeg over the sugar and 
currants and roll up just like a jelly roll or "rolypoly." 
Cut the roil into slices about three-quarters of an inch 
thick, and place them upon a well-buttered baking shell or 
tin, but do not let the slices touch each other. Bake in a 
very quick oven for ten or twelve minutes. 

GEAHAM GEMS. 

One cup of milk, one egg, one tablespoonful of sugar, one 
teaspoonful of Gillett's Cream Tartar, half a teaspoonful of 
Magic Soda, one and a half cups of Graham flour. Salt. 

ENGLISH MONKEY. 

Soak one cupful of stale breadcrumbs in one cup of milk 
fifteen minutes; put one heaping teaspoonful of butter into 
chafing-dish; add three-quarters of a cup of cheese cut fine; 
stir until melted; add crumbs with one beaten egg. 

LAPLANDS FOE BEEAKFAST. 

Beat separately the whites and yolks of five eggs; add 
one pint of rich cream and one pint of flour or a little more, 
enough to make the consistency of pound cake. Bake in small 
tins in a quick oven and serve very hot. 



TOAST. 



Toast should be made of stale bread, or at least of bread 
that has been baked a day. Cut smoothly in slices, not more 
than half an inch thick; if the crust is baked very hard, trim 
the edges and brown very evenly, but if it happens to burn, 
that should be scraped off. Toast that is to be served with 
anything turned over it, should have the slices lirst dipped 
quickly in a dish of hot water turned from the boiling tea- 
kettle, with a little salt thrown in. Cold biscuits cut in halves, 
and the under crust sliced off, then browned evenly on both 
sides, make equally as good toast. The following prepara- 
tions of toast are almost all of them very nice dishes, served 
with a family breakfast. 

MILK TOAST. 

Put over the fire a quart of milk, put into it a tablespoon- 
ful of cold butter, stir a heaping teaspoonful of flour into half 
a gill of milk ; as soon as the milk on the fire boils, stir in the 
flour, add a teaspoonful of salt; let all boil up once, remove 
from the fire, and dip in thin slices of toasted bread. When 
all are used up, pour what is left of the scalded milk over 
the toast. Cover, and send to the table hot. 

CREAM TOAST. 

Heat a pint of milk to boiling, and add a piece of butter 
the size of an egg ; stir a tablespoonf ul of flour smoothly into 
a cup of rich cream, and add some of the boiling milk to this ; 
heat it gradually and prevent the flour from lumping; then 
stir into the boiling milk, and let it cook a few moments; 
salt to taste. After taking from the fire stir in a beaten egg ; 
strain the mixture on to toast lightly buttered. 



280 TOAST. 

•^ AMEEICAN TOAST. 

To one egg thoroughly beaten, put one cup of sweet milk, 
and a little salt. Slice light bread and dip into the mixture, 
allowing each slice to absorb some of the milk; then brown 
on a hot, buttered griddle or thick-bottom frying-pan ; spread 
with butter, and serve hot. 

.. NUNS' TOAST. 

Cut four or five hard-boiled eggs into slices. Put a piece 
of butter half the size of an egg into a sauce-pan, and when 
it begins to bubble add a fine chopped onion. Let the onion 
cook a little without taking color, then stir in a teaspoonful 
of flour. Add a cupful of milk, and stir until it becomes 
smooth, then put in the slices of eggs and let them get hot. 
Pour over neatly trimmed slices of hot buttered toast. The 
sauce must be seasoned to taste with pepper and salt. 

-^FEENCH TOAST. 

Slice bread as for ordinary toast. Beat one egg well, add 
to it two cupfuls milk. Soak a slice of bread in the egg and 
milk, then fry it in butter, turn until nicely toasted on both 
sides, sprinkle white sugar over it. You may serve it sep- 
arately, or place one slice above another. This is an im- 
promptu dessert easily and quickly made. 

*^HAM TOAST. 

Three-quarters cup boiled ham without fat, minced, two 
tablespoons milk, one tablespoon butter, two eggs, pepper. 
Put milk and butter in a saucepan, let them come to a boil, 
and add the ham, pepper and eggs beaten light, stir con- 
stantly till it thickens. Serve on squares of buttered toast. 

CREAMED OYSTERS ON TOAST. 

Slices of hot toast covering large hot platter. One pint 
boiling milk. Turn in one pint oysters, then two dessert- 
spoons cornstarch or flour stirred smooth in a little milk. 
Salt, cayenne, lump of butter size of small egg. Pour over 
toast and serve instantly. 



SANDWICHES. 



The good housekeeper is never at a loss for sandwich- 
filling. If her larder is depleted of moat, she turns to eggs; 
if the hens are not complaisant, there is still the worthy 
cheese, the goodly cucumber, the crisp lettuce, the homely 
cress. Marmalade jam and jelly are generally to be secured, 
and honey is not always inaccessible. In short, the sand- 
wich is a joy forever in the subtleness of its interior. Beauti- 
ful effects may be secured in coloring, pink, yellow, green and 
red sandwiches being very easily arranged. For a crimson 
sandwich there is mashed beetroot, for a vermillion shade 
tomato catsup, for a deep or lighter yellow, pounded cheese 
or egg yolks, and for green, lettuce, cress, parsley and pistac- 
chio nuts. Salmon sandwiches or minced ham are pink, and 
cream cheese white. The lot may be combined in rainbow 
effect with great success. Of course one-day old bread of fine, 
firm texture is the first consideration. The best of butter, a 
little softened so as to spread perfectly, and the most careful 
cutting into shape and size exactly. A few tasty recipes for 
sandwiches not quite common are : 

CHEESE AND HONEY. 

Spread cream cheese on daintily cut and buttered slices, 
then spread scantily run honey on the cheese, or mix cheese 
and honey and spread together. Specially good for after- 
noon teas. 

HAM AND CHUTNEY. 

One cup finely minced lean ham, one or two tablespoon- 
fuls chutney. Mix and spread on buttered slices of home- 
made bread. 

^CHEESE AND MUSTAED SANDWICHES. 

Pound and mix together one cup of broken cheese and a 
teaspoonful of made mustard. Add a tiny drop of cream if 



288 SANDWICHES. 

not soft enough. Salt and a dash of pepper. Spread on thin 
buttered slices. 

LETTUCE SANDWICHES. 

Place leaf of lettuce, or portion thereof, between buttered 
slices, with a small dressing of mayonnaise, and keep very 
cold till ready to use. 

SAVOEY SANDWICHES. 

Pound hard boiled yolk of eggs, and if necessary pass 
through sieve. Add a seasoning of gait, pepper, French 
mustard and a little melted butter. Spread on thin crackers 
and serve with celery and ale or beer. 

^ OLIVE SANDWICHES. 

Mash cream cheese very fine. Chop olives also very small. 
Spread cheese on buttered bread and sprinkle chopped olives 
over it. 

CBIMSON SANDWICHES (COLE'S). 

Take dark-colored, cold boiled beet-root and pass through 
a fine sieve. Flavor with a little tabasco sauce. Spread on 
very white buttered slices, so that the color shows well at 
edges. 

EASTLAWN OYSTEE SANDWICHES. 

Thin glutinous brown bread, well buttered. A cupful of 
oysters bearded and dried on a napkin. Cut oysters fine with 
knife (do not chop), season with cayenne, a little salt and 
squeeze lemon-juice over. Then spread spai'ingly on the 
brown bread and set on the ice till wanted. Very wholesome 
and delicious for supper. 

ALEXANDEA EOLL (MeConkey's). 

Butter sparingly some thin brown bread, have ready some 
cold game or chicken pounded, about a third of its bulk of 
fresh butter, a few capers, a washed and boned anchovy for 



SANDWICHES. 283 

every ounce or so of chicken, and a good seasoning of cayenne 
pepper. Spread the bread and butter with this mixture, roll 
up cigar fashion, butter the top very lightly and roll half of 
these (cigars) in finely minced parsley and the other half in 
lobster coral or coralline pepper. 

' HAM SANDWICHES. 

Make a dressing of half a cup of butter, one tablespoonf ul 
of mixed mustard, one of salad oil, a little red or white pep- 
per, a pinch of salt and the yolk of an egg; rub the butter 
to a cream, add the other ingredients and mix thoroughly; 
then stir in as much chopped ham as will make it consistent, 
and spread between thin slices of bread. Omit salad oil and 
substitute melted butter, if preferred. 

V HAM SANDWICHES, PLAIN. 

Trim the crusts from thin slices of bread; butter them, 
and lay between every two some thin slices of cold, boiled ham. 
Spread the meat with a little mustard, if liked. 

CHICKEN SANDWICHES. 

Mince up fine any cold boiled or roasted chicken; put it 
into a saucepan with gravy, water or cream enough to soften 
it; add a good piece of butter, a pinch of pepper; work it 
very smooth while it is heating until it looks almost like a 
paste. Then spread it on a plate to cool. Spread it between 
slices of buttered bread. 

SAKDINE SANDWICHES. 

Take two boxes of sardines, and throw the contents into 
hot water, having first drained away all the oil. A few min- 
utes will free the sardines from grease. Pour away the water 
and dry the fish in a cloth; then scrape away the skins, and 
pound the sardines in a mortar till reduced to paste; add 
pepper, salt, and some tiny pieces of lettuce, and spread on 
the sandwiches, which have been previously cut. The lettuce 
adds very much to the flavor of the sardines. 



284 SANDWICHES. 

Or chop the sardines up tiue and squeeze a few drops of 
lemon-juice into them and spread between buttered bread or 
cold biscuits. 

WATERCKESS SANDWICHES. 

Wash well some watercress, and then dry them in a cloth, 
pressing out every atom of moisture, as far as possible; then 
mix with the cresses hard boiled eggs chopped fine, and sea- 
soned with salt and pepper. Have a stale loaf and some fresh 
butter, and with a sharp knife cut as many thin slices as will 
be required for two dozen sandwiches ; then cut the cress into 
small pieces, removing the stems; place it between each slice 
of bread and butter, with a slight sprinkling of lemon-juice ; 
press down the slices hard, and cut them sharply on a board 
into small squares, leaving no crust. 

EGG- SANDWICHES. 

Hard boil some very fresh eggs, and when cold, cut them 
into moderately thin slices, and lay them between some bread 
and butter cut as thin as possible; season them with pepper, 
salt and nutmeg. For picnic parties, or when one is travel- 
ling, these sandwiches are far preferable to hard-boiled eggs 
au naturel. 

MUSHROOM SANDWICHES. 

Mince beef tongue and boiled mushrooms together, add 
French mustard, and spread between buttered bread. 

■^^ CHEESE SANDWICHES. 

These are extremely nice, and are very easily made. Take 
one hard-boiled egg, a quarter of a pound of common cheese 
grated, half a teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pep- 
per, half a teaspoonful of mustard, one tablespoonful of 
melted butter, and one tablespoonful of vinegar or cold water. 
Take the yolk of the egg and put it into a small bowl and 
crumble it down, put into it the butter and mix it smooth 
with a spoon, then add the salt, pepper, mustard, and the 
cheese, mixing each well. Then put in the tablespoonful of 



SANDWICHES. 285 

vinegar, which will make it the proper thickness. If the vine- 
gar is not relished, then use cold water instead. Spread this 
between two biscuits or pieces of oat-cake, and you could not 
require a better sandwich. Some people will prefer the sand- 
wiches less highly seasoned. In that case, season to taste. 

SATOEY SANDWICHES. 

Mix a cupful of chopped chicken, a generous slice of 
boiled ham (minced), three tablespoonfuls of butter, half a 
teaspoonful of mace, and a few drops of onion-juice into a 
soft paste with a few spoonfuls of oyster-liquor. Set in a 
saucepan of boiling water and stir until smoking-hot. Set 
aside to get cold, and spread between thin slices of Graham 
bread. 

TONGUE SANDWICHES. 

Mix a cupful of finely chopped tongue with half as much 
boiled ham, stir in three tablespoonfuls of melted butter 
beaten light with as much salad oil, half a teaspoonful of. 
made mustard, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of paprica. 
When the mixture is smooth and light set in a saucepan of 
boiling water over the fire and cook until it is thoroughly 
heated. Beat in the yolk of a whipped egg, take from the 
fire and set by until perfectly cold. Spread between thin 
slices of bread. 

««■. CREAM-CHEESE SANDWICHES. 

Rub together half a Philadelphia cream-cheese, a table- 
spoonful of butter, the powdered yolks of two hard-boiled 
eggs; season with salt and paprica and spread this between 
crackers — saltines, or water-thin biscuits, or " sea foams." 
Home-made cottage cheese can be substituted for the Phila- 
delphia. 

^^ PIQUANT SANDWICHES. 

Cut bread very thin, buttering it lightly on the loaf. Upon 
each slice spread a filling made by mixing three hard-boiled 
eggs, minced extremely fine, with half their bulk of sharp 



286 SANDWICHES, 

green pickle chopped equally small. Season this compound 
with salt and pepper to taste, and work in a little butter. Lay 
another thin slice of bread, buttered side down, over this, and 
cut them into square and triangular sandwiches. 

CELEEY SANDWICHES. 

With a sharp knife cut white tender celery into bits a 
quarter of an inch long until you have a cupful. Mix with ifc 
two minced eggs that have been boiled twenty-five minutes, 
then left in cold water until they have cooled to the heart. 
Chop them fine and rub through a coarse sieve, work up well 
with the celery and beat in two tablespoonf uls of mayonnaise 
dressing. Spread between thin slices of buttered bread. 

LETTUCE SANDWICHES. 

Cut thin slices from the end of a loaf of Graham bread, 
buttering before slicing. Cut these into rounds with a cake- 
cutter. Spread each slice with mayonnaise dressing and 
enclose between every two a leaf of crisp "heart" lettuce. 
Trim off the projecting edges of the leaves. 

CEESS SANDWICHES 
are made in the same way. 

PEANUT SANDWICHES. 

Home made peanut butter for sandwiches demands fresh 
roasted peanuts made into a paste. First grind, or chop fine 
in the finest knife chopper. Mix this meat with a good oil 
mayonnaise. Spread it between folds of bread, like butter, 
for sandwiches. 

PEANUT SANDWICHES (No. 2). 

Crush the shelled peanuts divested of skins. Season with 
salt and mix to a paste with cream, or omit the salt and add 
to creamed butter. 



SANDWICHES. 287 

GREEN SANDWICHES. 

Chopped parsley and a finely cut white loaf. Butter slices 
and sprinkle with parsley, and pile sandwiches cross-wise on 
plates, decorate with a sprig of parsley in centre of pile. 
The parsley may be tossed in a very little onion-juice if 
relished. 

YELLOW SANDWICHES. 

Yolks of eggs well pounded, color deeply with a trifle of 
nnnatto, and season with pepper and salt. Spread on thin 
buttered bread and serve on plate covered with a fringed 
yellow tissue paper mat. 

TOAST SANDWICHES. 

Toast very carefully thin stale bread. Spread with cream 
while hot and place between thin slices of buttered bread. 
Some add a dash of nutmeg to the cream and sweeten it a 
very little. These sandwiches should be cut in oblong fingers, 
and are very good eating. 

,„,— .SALMON SANDWICHES. 

Canned salmon, pounded and mixed with a little mayon- 
naise ; season with a dash of cayenne and spread on thin but- 
tered bread. 

All meats, fish or game, used for sandwiches should be 
pounded or minced and spread, never sliced, and the dressing 
should be mixed with the meat and spread together. 

JAM SANDWICH. 

Bake very thin fingers of nice pastry and when cold spread 
daintily on the top of each finger a very little rich jam or 
jelly. Serve laid in star fashion on a large flat plate. 

SMART SANDWICH. 

Mix with some smoothly pounded cheese a tablespoonful 
of Worcester sauce, and spread on buttered slices. 



JJ88 SANDWICHES. 

HABITANT SANDWICHES. 

Prepare buttered slices from roll loaf. Pare large apples 
and slice through that each slice may fit on bread ; remove the 
seeds and core, and after placing on lower slice sprinkle a 
trifle of cheese over the apple, or spread with a rich mayon- 
naise. This is a very tasty " bonne bouche.'' 

CELERY AND CHEESE SANDWICHES. 

Chop cheese and celery together fine; toss in a little may- 
onnaise and spread between thin buttered slices. 

SWISS CHEESE SANDWICHES. 

Procure porous, leathery Swiss cheese and shave into thin- 
nest slices. Spread with a little French mustard and place be- 
tween thin buttered bread. These sandwiches are not sup- 
posed to be " dainty/' and should be cut a much larger size 
than others. 

WALNUT SANDWICHES. 

Walnut meats with mayonnaise make very tasty sand- 
wiches, so do chopped peanuts or pistacchio. The bread should 
be rather close-grained home-made. For all the foregoing 
f-andwiches the crust is always cut from the loaf first. In 
choosing what sandwiches to make for certain occasions the 
suitability should be considered. Cheese isn't nice for after- 
noon tea, nor jam sandwiches for supper. A meat sandwich 
should not be served with sweets, nor a highly spiced one at 
the end of a meal. 

RAW BEEF SANDWICH. 

For an impromptu supper with ale and celery men are very 
fond of tlic substantial above named. It is made of finely 
minced beef, seasoned well, and spread between rather thick 
slices of buttered bread. 



EGGS AND OMEJ.ETS. 



EGGS. 

There are so many ways of cooking and dressing eggs 
that it seems unnecessary for the ordinary family to use only 
those that are the most practical. 

To ascertain the freshness of an egg, hold it between your 
thumb and forefinger in a horizontal position, with a strong 
light in front of you. The fresh egg will have a clear ap- 
pearance, both upper and lower sides being the same. The 
stale egg will have a clear appearance at the lower side, whil: 
the upper side will exhibit a dark or cloudy appearance. 

Another test is to put them in a pan of cold water ; those 
that are the first to sink are the freshest ; the stale will rise and 
float on top ; or, if the large end turns up in the water, they 
are not fresh. The best time for preserving eggs is from 
July to September. • 

TO PEESEEVE EGGS. 

There are several recipes for preserving eggs, and we give 
first one which we know to be effectual, keeping them fresh 
from August until spring. Take a piece of quick-lime as 
large as a good-sized lemon, and two teacupfuls of salt; put 
it into a large vessel and slack it with a gallon of boiling 
water. It will boil and bubble until thick as cream ; when it 
is cold, pour off the top, which will be perfectly clear. Drain 
off this liquor, and pour it over your eggs ; see that the liquor 
more than covers them. A stone jar is the most convenient 
— one that holds about six quarts. 
*19 



290 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

Another manner of preserving eggs is to pack them in "a 
jar with layers of salt between, the large end of the egg down- 
ward, with a thick laj'er of salt at the top ; cover tightly, and 
set in a cool place. 

Some put them in a wire basket or a piece of mosquito 
net, and dip them in boiling water half a minute ; then pack 
in sawdust. Still another manner is to dissolve a cheap 
article of gum arable, about as thin as mucilage, and brush 
over each egg with it; then pack in powdered charcoal; set 
in a cool, dark place. 

Eggs can be kept for some time by smearing the shells 
with butter or lard; then packed in plenty of bran or saw- 
dust, the eggs not allowed to touch one another; or coat the 
eggs with melted paraifme. 

OMELET (very good). 

(Half will make nice sized omelet.) 

Beat separately six eggs, the whites to a stiff froth, two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, one teaspoonful of Magic Baking 
Powder, cup of milk, pinch of salt; put the whites in last; 
have frying-pan hot, and put in butter; when melted cook 
batter as quickly as possible after the whites are added; do 
not turn, but place in hot oven to cook top. 

* OMELET. 

Two eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately, two tea- 
spoons cornstarch, one-quarter teaspoon Magic Baking Pow- 
der, three tablespoons of milk, season to taste; stir in whites 
last. 

ANCHOVY EGGS. 

Two hard-boiled eggs, one teaspoon anchovy paste, two 
ounces butter, a few grains cayenne, a few drops of red and 
green coloring, pepper and salt; cut the eggs in half and 
take out the yolks very carefully; cut a small slice from the 
end of the whites. Pound together the yolks, butter and an- 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 291 

cliovy paste; add seasoning and fill the whites with the mix- 
ture; color remainder half red and half green; rub through 
a hair sieve and with it ornament the eggs. 

GERMAN OMELET (GOOD). 

Four eggs', four teaspoonfuls cornstarch, one-half pint 
milk, salt (and celery salt if preferred). Beat eggs sep- 
arately. Mix beaten yolks, milk, cornstarch and seasoning 
and divide into two parts. Pour into a hot buttered frying- 
pan and cook slowly. When beginning to set, put on the top 
of the half the beaten whites, and when cooked turn over so 
that the white of the eggs is enrolled in the omelet. Serve 
very hot, with brown side up; proceed in the same manner 
with the remaining half. 

SAVORY EGGS. 

Savory eggs is a dainty made as follows : Boil some eggs 
quite hard, shell them, cut in halves and take out the yolks. 
Pass through a sieve, mix with chopped ham, parsley, a little 
bit of onion, pepper and salt and a little cream. Then put 
back in the whites. Place on little rounds of bread and but- 
ter and serve cold. 



OMELET OF MUSHROOM OR POTATO. 

Omelet of mushroom or potato chopped verv fine is ex- 
cellent. Make an ordinary egg and cream omelet and as 
soon as it is set sprinkle the finely chopped scalded mushroom 
or hot-cooked potato cut fine, and fold the omelet over once 
and dish immediately. 



OMELET. 

Beat six eggs very light, the whites to stiff froth, the yolks 
to a smooth, thick batter; add to yolks a small cupful of milk, 
pepper and salt, lastly pour in whites lightly. Have ready 
in hot frying-pan a good lump of butter. When it sizzles 



292 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

pour in lightly your mixture, setting over clear fire; do not 
stir, but contrive, as eggs set, to slip broad-bladed knife under 
the omelet to guard against burning, the instant hiss of butter 
flowing to hottest part of pan proves the wisdom. If your 
even is hot you may put your frying-pan into it as soon as 
the middle is set. When done lay a hot dish, bottom upward, 
on the top of the pan, and dexterously upset the latter to 
bring the brown side of omelet uppermost. 



STEWED EGGS. 

Two Spanish onions, four hard-boiled eggs, two table- 
spoon . butter, two tablespoons flour, three-quarters pint milk 
or cream; salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Fry onions, sliced in 
butter in a covered pan till very tender, but do not brown; 
add flour and mix well, then add milk and stir until thick- 
ened; season, add eggs cut in quarters; simmer ten minutes 
and serve with garnish of fried strips of bread. 

EGGS STEWED IN CREAM. 

Boil one pint cream, add ten whole black peppers. When 
boiling add six eggs; let cook on top of stove five minutes, 
then bake in oven ten minutes. Add pinch of salt and serve 
from same dish. 



OYSTEE OMELET. 

Parboil a dozen oysters in their own liquor, skim them 
out, and let them cool; add them to the beaten eggs, either 
whole or minced. Cook the same as a plain omelet. Thicken 
the liquid with butter rolled in flour; season with salt, cay- 
enne pepper and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Chop up 
the oysters and add to the sauce. Put a few spoonfuls in the 
centre of the omelet before folding; when dished, pour the 
remainder of the sauce around it. 



EGGS AND OMELETS. 293 



FISH OMELET. 

Make a plain omelet, and Avlicn ready to fold, spread over 
it iish prepared as follows: Add to a cupful of any kind of 
cold fish, broken fine, cream enough to moisten it, seasoned 
with a tablespopnful of butter; then pepper and salt to taste. 
Warm together. 

ONION OMELET. 



Make a plain omelet, and when ready to turn spread over 
it a teaspoonful each of chopped onion and minced parsley; 
then fold, or, if prepared, mix the minces into the eggs before 
cooking. 



JELLY OMELET. 

Make a plain omelet, and just before folding together, 
spread with some kind of jelly. Turn out on a warm platter. 
Dust it with powdered sugar. 



LADY GAY^S SAVOEY OMELET. 

Four eggs beaten separately, four tablespoons cream 
beaten with yolks, four teaspoons finely minced onion and 
parsley; add whites beaten to froth. Cook in omelet pan and 
put in oven to brown on top. 



CUERIED EGGS. 

Delicious curried eggs may be made by mixing a tea- 
spoonful of curry powder and a tablespoon ful of corn- 
starch 6r wheat flour to a smooth paste with cold 
milk; pour this into a pint of boiling milk, stirring until 
it thickens ; break an egg carefully into a saucer, slip into the 
boiling mixture and poach until it sets. Have ready squares 
of buttered toast, and as the eggs are cooked lift out gently 



294 EGGS AND OMELETS. 

and lay one on eacli. When all are done pour remaining 
liquid around them and serve very hot. The curry powder 
may be omitted and the eggs served with cream sauce, flavor- 
ed with a little nutmeg, and called creamed instead of curried 
eggs. 

OMELETTE. 

Three eggs ; crumb a large half slice of bread, pour over it 
three-quarters of a cup of boiling milk, beat smooth and mix 
with beaten yolks ; add one tablespoonful of melted butter or 
olive oil; beat the whites to a stiff froth, mix lightly and 
thoroughly; pour into frying-pan in which a tablespoonful of 
melted butter (or oil) has got boiling hot; put on stove until 
a light brown on under side, then place pan in hot oven till 
set. Fold over and serve piping hot. 



SALADS AND SAUCES. 



Everything in the make-up of a salad should be of the 
freshest material, the vegetables crisp and fresh, the oil or 
butter the ve^y best, meats, fowl and fish well cooked, pure 
cider or white-wine vinegar — in fact, every ingredient first- 
class, to insure success. 

WINTER SALAD. 

Two cups of finely-chopped cabbage, one cup of chopped 
boiled beet root, one cup of chopped celery, two hard boiled 
eggs minced; tablespoonful horseradish and brown sugar; 
half teaspoon dry mustard; mix all together; break an egg 
in a sauce-pan, add half cup of vinegar, butter size of walnut; 
stir over fire till thick; do not boil; pour over salad, toss 
lightly, and serve cold. 

SALAD DRESSING. 

Four eggs, beaten together, one tablespoonful of sugar, 
one and one-half tablespoonfuls of mixed mustard, one and 
one-half cups of cold water, one-half cup of vinegar, butter 
the size of an egg, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one-half tea- 
spoonful of pepper ; cook over steam until it thickens. 

A DELICIOUS SALAD. 

Celery, nut meats, and Malaga grapes make a delicious 
salad. Cut grapes in halves and seed them. Cover with 
dressing. 

PINEAPPLE SALAD. 

To two cups shredded pineapple add one cup chopped 
celery and one sweet red pepper, cut into dice. For dressing 
use mayonnaise cream dressing. Serve very cold on lettuce 
hearts, garnished with nut meats. 

MAYONNAISE. 

Yolks of three eggs, one gill of best Lucca oil, two table- 
spoons vinegar, a little salt. Stir yolks and salt in bowl with 
wooden or silver spoon ; drop in oil and vinegar alternately in 



296 SALADS AND SAUCES. 

small quantities, always stirring vigorously. This mayon- 
naise should be thick and velvety if carefully mixed. Take 
half an hour to it. 

KUSSIAN SALAD. 

All sorts of cooked vegetables, cut neatly in small dice, 
balls, cubes, no matter how many sorts of vegetables, in 
equal proportion. Som.e capers, pickled gherkins, cut into 
shreds ; olives for garnish. Three parts of oil to one of vine- 
gar, salt and pepper as desired. Toss vegetables in this dress- 
ing. The salad may be piled on a china stand, and its suc- 
cess will depend a good deal on the taste of the maker in 
garnishing it. Shreds of any cold game, fowl, smoked salmon, 
lobster coral, anchovy, olives, hard-boiled eggs, parsley, let- 
tuce, or celery tops, with fancy stars of beet-root, may be 
employed for producing a pretty effect. [Mayonnaise may be 
used instead of plain dressing, but does not look so fresh 
and nice. — Ed.] 

SALAD DRESSING. 

Six eggs, three tablespoons of granulated sugar, one tea- 
spoon of mustard, a speck of cayenne pepper, salt to taste, half 
a cup of rich cream, half a cup of malt vinegar. Mix the vine- 
gar, sugar, mustard, pepper, and stir in the egg well beaten; 
will take nearly five minutes ; cook all in a double boiler, stir- 
ring constantly; when cold add the cream and salt. This 
makes a pint and will keep for weeks, 

LOBSTER SALAD. 

One glass jar of lobster, take the bone out and cut quite 
fine (not chop). Break the leaves from a head of lettuce, 
let stand in a pan of ice cold water till crisp ; lay the leaves 
on a board and shave fine ; just before serving mix the lettuce, 
lobster and half a cup of dressing together lightly wdth a 
fork; arrange some lettuce leaves on a dish and put the mix- 
ture in the centre. This is an exceedingly inviting dish. 

MAYONNAISE SAUCE. 

One-quarter pint of cream, yolks of three eggs, well 
beaten, one-half teaspoonfiil of salt, one teaspoonful mustard, 



SALADS AND SAUCES. 297 

one-half teaspoonful pepper, three and one-half tablespoon- 
fuls of white wine vinegar, pour the cream in last, and put on 
the stove, stir all the time until it is well scalded, pour into a 
jug. Nice to eat with sliced tomatoes, salmon or lettuce. 

CHICKEK SALAD. 

Have cold roasted or boiled chicken free of skin, fat 
and bones. Place on a board, and cut in long, thin strips, 
and cut these into dice. Place in an earthen bowl (there 
sbould be two quarts), and season with four tablespoonfuls 
of vinegar, two of oil, one teaspoonful of salt and one-half 
teaspoonful of pepper. Set away in a cold place for two or 
three hours. Scrape and wash enough of the tender white 
celery to make one quart. Cut this, with a sharp knife, in 
pieces about half an inch thick. Put these in the ice-box 
until serving time. Make the mayonnaise dressing. Mix 
the chicken and celery together, and add half the dressing. 
Arrange in a sjilad bowl or on a flat dish, and pour the re- 
mainder of the dressing over it. Garnish with white celery 
leaves. 

SALAD DKESSING. 

To the well beaten yolks of four eggs allow half a cup 
of sugar, half a tablespoonful each of salt, mustard and 
black pepper, half a cup of cream and the third of a teaspoon 
of cayenne pepper. Beat all these thoroughW, then take a 
little more than half a pint of vinegar; when hot add a table- 
spoon of butter. Pour this over the mixture, boil up and 
when cold put into large-mouthed bottles. This will keep 
many weeks in a cool place. 

SALAD DEESSIXa WITHOUT OIL. 

In a double boiler put the yolks of eleven eggs, three 
teaspoonfuls of salt, three teaspoonfuls of mustard, and nine 
teaspoonf uls of sugar ; stir well, then add one and a half cup- 
fuls of vinegar (not too strong) ; cook till quite thick, stirring 
all the time. When sufficiently cooked take fcom the fire and 
beat with an egg-beater until cool. This will keep for weeks. 
When required to use add cream to thin. 



298 SALADS AND SAUCES. 

OYSTER SALAD. 

Four dozen or one pint small oysters, pick over and cut 
in half, and parboil in the liquor and add one-half pint 
chopped celery. Dressing. — Four tablespoonfuls butter into 
double boiler, melt without browning, add one heaping table- 
spoonful flour, and stir till smooth, add one teacupful milk, 
beat three eggs without separating, two teaspoonfuls salt, 
one teaspoonful dry mustard, and one tablespoonful sugar, 
one-half cup vinegar, pinch cayenne. Before adding vine- 
gar, mix dry materials, add to the milk, return to fire and 
cook for five minutes. 

TOMATO SALAD. 

One quart can tomatoes, two bay leaves, put in granite 
pan with a few celery tips, or use one teaspoonful celery salt, 
if celery tops are used ordinary salt will do ; juice of one-half 
small onion, pinch of cayenne pepper. Stew gently for three 
hours. Soak three-quarters box Knox's gelatine in one cup 
of cold water ifor half an hour, add it and one tablespoonful 
lemon juice to tomatoes, and strain into moulds. If tomatoes 
are very thick when opened, add a little water to them. 

SALAD DEESSmO. 

Two teaspoonfuls sugar, one-half teaspoonful salt, one 
tablespoonful mustard, one-quarter cup milk, one-half cup 
vinegar, two eggs, butter size of egg. Take all ingredients 
and mix together (without vinegar), and put in double 
boiler and let it come to boil, stirring constantly. Then add 
vinegar and come to boil again. If too thick when cold add 
cream to thin it. Will keep for a long time. 

BOILED SALAD DRESSING. 

One tablespoon butter, one-half tablespoon flour, one- 
half teaspoon salt, one teaspoon mustard, one and one-half 
tablespoons sugar, dash of cayenne, yolks of two eggs, one- 
half cup vinegar, dil., two teaspoons lemon juice. Mix dry 
ingredients and add to yolks of eggs slightly beaten; beat 
butter and flour to a paste and put on stove till it bubbles, 
then add vinegar, stir in egg, take from stove and beat in 



SALADS AND SAUCES. 299 

as much whipped cream as is necessary to make desired con- 
sistency; add lemcn last, slowly. 

POTATO SALAD. 

One pint sifted hot potatoes, butter size of an egg, one- 
quarter teaspoon mustard, one-half teaspoon salt, shake of 
pepper, one egg lightly beaten. Cream together, then add a 
little vinegar or lemon juice. 

POTATO SALAD. 

Cut up five or six potatoes in small pieces and if you have 
fresh onion or cucumber mix a few pieces up with them (cut 
very finely). For the dressing take one cup vinegar, two 
tablespoon fuls sugar, two eggs, one teaspoonful dry mus- 
tard, a little pepper and salt. Put on the stove and stir all 
the time till thick. If too thick add a little cream when 
cold. Pour over the potatoes an hour or two before using. 

CABBAGE AND CELEKY SALAD. 

Mix equal parts of fine cut celery and shredded cabbage 
together with one cup salad dressing. Mix half tablespoon 
each of salt and mustard and one cup sugar, add one egg 
slightly beaten and two and a half tablespoons butter. 

CELERY SALAD. 

Two heads of celery, two sour apples, seven olives, all 
chopped up, not too fine. Mix a little mayonnaise dressing 
with it, pour over the top more mayonnaise dressing. Put 
chopped walnuts and capers over top. Hot-house cress around 
salad. 

SALAD DRESSING. 

One egg well beaten, three tablespoonfuls vinegar, one 
tablespoon ful olive oil or butter, one teaspoonful mustard, 
one-half teaspoonful salt, one teaspoonful sugar, three table- 
spoonfuls cream. Beat all together, let come to a boil until 
of the consistency of thick cream. Serve when cold. 



300 SALADS AND SAUCES. 

MAYONNAISE SALAD DEESSING. 
Yolks of two eggs, one-quarter teaspoon salt, dash of cay- 
enne, one cup of cold salad oil, added to the egg drop by drop, 
one tablespoon vinegar, one tablespoon lemon juice. If it 
curdles add it to another yolk. 

MAYONNAISE. 
Yolk one egg, one cup oil, one-half teaspoon salt, a dash 
of cayenne, one and one-half teaspoons lemon juice. Let oil 
and egg be thoroughly chilled before beginning to make the 
mayonnaise. Have the yolk entirely free from any vi^hite of 
egg, add drop by drop the oil. Success depends on adding 
oil slowly at first, afterwards it can be added in larger quan- 
tities ; when it has become a little thick alternate with a few 
drops of lemon juice ; if mustard is liked add a quarter of a 
teaspoon. 

DEESSING FOR FEUIT SALAD. 

Boil one cup sugar, one-half cup water, five minutes, then 
pour on to the beaten yolks of three eggs, return to the fire 
and cook over hot water, stirring constantly until thickened. 
Cool and add juice of two lemons. One-half cup wine may 
be used in place of the lemon juice, retaining one tablespoon- 
ful of lemon juice. Pour over the fruit salad and serve 
after being thoroughly chilled. Bananas, oranges, pine- 
apple and strawberries make the nicest salad. 

SAEDINE SALAD. 
Mix sardines with equal quantity of mashed yolks of 
hard-boiled eggs. Arrange in nests of lettuce leaves and 
serve with mayonnaise. 

EGG SALAD. 

Cut hard-boiled eggs in half, take out yolks, mash, add 
dressing and moisten. Season with celery salt, chopped mace, 
or parsley. Stuff whites with this, arrange in lettuce leaves 
and serve with mayonnaise. 

SWEET BEEAD SALAD. 
Parboil sweet breads twenty minutes, drain and cool, cut 
in one-half inch cubes ; mix with celery or cucumber ; cut in 



SALADS AND SAUCES. 301 

small pieces, season with salt 'and pepper. Moisten with oil, 
and arrange on lettuce leaves or serve in cucumber shells. 

NUT SALAD. 

Equal parts of English walnuts cut in pieces or chopped 
fine with celery and serve with mayonnaise. 

MAYONNAISE. 

]\Iix one egg yolk, one teaspoonful of salt, a little sugar, 
mustard, and cayenne pepper together, then add one cup of 
olive oil drop by drop, stirring well all the time. Moisten 
with lemon juice or vinegar and oil. 

SALAD DEESSING. 
Boil hard four eggs; take the yolks and rub smooth with 
two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one teaspoonful of salt, 
one teaspoonful dry mustard, one tablespoonful of sugar, and 
pepper to taste. Add to this mixture, stirring it in gradually, 
two teacups of milk or cream, and enough vinegar to thicken 
it. Boil all together, stirring briskly — do not mind if it 
curdles — go on stirring till it gets quite smooth. If no cream 
is used a tablespoonful of corn-starch dissolved in the milk 
will help to thicken it to the consistency of batter. Use whites 
of eggs to garnish salad. This is excellent and never fails. 

FEUIT SALAD. 

Equal quantities of grape fruit or oranges, apples and 
celery. Peel the grape fruit or oranges, carefully removing 
all the bitter white skin ; cut the pulp with bananas and apples 
into small dice, and cut the celery fine as for other salads; 
put the orange and apple together; the latter will absorb 
the juice of the orange. Set all on ice — these fruit salads 
must be ice-cold. When it is time to serve mix the fruit and 
celery together, put into a salad bowl, cover Avith cream dress- 
ing into which has been stirred a third as much cream as 
there is dressing, and add a little more salt to it in mixing. 
Serve in a bed of tender lettuce leaves. 

NORMANDY SALAD. 

One pint of French peas, one pint of Englit-h walnuts, 
half a head lettuce and four nasturtiums. Use the small 



302 SALADS AND SAUCES. 

French peas. Pour them into a colander, rinse in cold water, 
drain and dry on a towel. Blanch the walnuts by letting 
them remain in boiling water for a few minutes, tlien cut 
into small pieces the size of the peas. Sprinkle them with 
salt, and mix together, with enough mayonnaise to hold to- 
gether. Arrange on lettuce leaves, with bright yellow nastur- 
tium here and there between the leaves. Then cover the nuts 
and peas with the remainder of the mayonnaise. 

OEANGE AND WALNUT SALAD. 

Slice four peeled oranges lengthwise, dress with three or 
four tablespoonfuls of olive oil and one tablespoonful of lemon 
juice. Arrange slices in a mound upon a layer of lettuce 
leaves. Dress one cupful of sliced nut meats with one table- 
spoonful of oil, a dash of salt and half a teaspoonful of lemon 
juice, and dispose upon the centre of mound. Mix together 
before serving. 

SWEET POTATO SALAD. 

Three large sweet potatoes, two stalks celery and French 
dressing, olives and parsley. Boil the potatoes and cut into 
squares ; add the celery cut small. Mix, and pour over Frencb 
dressing. Garnish with olives and parsley. 

BEAN SALAD. 

Peel and slice ten small onions very fine. Pour cold water 
over them and press hard to remove the strong taste. Drain 
well. Have ready in the salad bowl a pint and a half of cold 
boiled or baked beans, preferably the latter. Mix with them 
the minced onion, a teaspoonful and a half of salt, a teaspoon- 
ful of pepper, two tablespoonfuls of salad oil, one teaspoon- 
ful white sugar and a scant cup of vinegnr. Toss and mix 
with a fork lightly, but thoroughly, and garnish with olives, 
two hard-boiled eggs sliced and lettuce leaves. 

SALAD DRESSING. 

One egg beaten up with one tablespoonful of brown sugar, 
one teaspoonful of mustard, a sprinkle of salt and pepper, a 
teaspoonful of butter. Mix in gradually half a cup of vinegar 
and three-quarters of a cup of milk, then boil till thick. 
(Have quite cold before using.) 



SALADS AND SAUCES. 303 

MAYONNAISE. 

Four eggs, beaten very light, one-half cup Cross & Black- 
welFs malt vinegar, one-quarter teaspoon cayenne, two tea- 
spoons mixed mustard, three-quarters cup butter, cut in small 
lumps, two tablespoons granulated sugar, two even teaspoons 
salt. Cook the above ingredients in a double boiler till they 
form a thick custard. When cold add two cups cream and four 
tablespoons tarragon vinegar added drop by drop. Beat for 
ten minutes. Will keep a fortnight or longer in a cool place. 

OYSTEE SALAD. 

Let fifty small oysters come to a boil (no more) in their 
liquor. Skim and strain. Season the oysters with three 
tablespoons vinegar, one tablespoon of oil, one-eighth tea- 
spoon pepper, one-half teaspoon salt, and place on ice for two 
hours. Cut finely one pint of the tender part of celery. 
When ready to serve mix this with the oysters and a small 
cup of mayonnaise dressing. Arrange in bowl, garnish with 
olives and celery tips. 

SALAD DEESSING WITHOUT EGGS. 

Put into a saucepan a small piece of butter half the size 
of an egg, two teaspoonfuls of sugar, one saltspoon of' salt 
and pepper, one teaspoonful of made mustard, half a cup 
of cream or milk, half a cup of vinegar, thicken with a little 
cornstarch. 

CHIFFONADE SALAD. 

Cut open two large green peppers, remove the seeds and 
veins and cut into shreds; drop into boiling water for one 
minute; drain and cool. Cut a grape fruit in halves. Take 
out the pulp with a spoon and cut into bits. Peel three good 
sized firm tomatoes, and cut into small pieces. Shred finely 
one head of crisp lettuce. Marinade each article separately 
with a French dressing. Put the grape fruit pulp in the 
centre of the salad dish and arrange around it the prepared 
peppers, tomatoes and lettuce in such a way as to display the 
different colors to the best advantage. 



304 SALADS AND SAUCES. 

WALDOEF SALAD. 

One quart apples cut in dice, one quart celery same size. 
Dress with rich creamy mayonnaise and serve very cold, on 
lettuce leaves. 

MAYONNAISE. 

One teaspoonful mustard, one-half teaspoonful salt, a 
dust of pepper, yolk of one egg. Mix well. Then add drop 
by drop three-quarters cup of olive oil, beating constantly dur- 
ing mixing. If it grows too thick add two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar. If it is to be used immediately add one-half cup of 
whipped cream. 

ORANGE SALAD. 

Peel several oranges, remove the inside skin, leaving the 
pulp as unbroken as possible. Make a very smootli French 
dressing as follows: One teaspoon sugar, three tablespoons 
olive oil, one tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice; mix in the 
order given, adding oil and vinegar slowly. Place a little of 
the orange on a crisp lettuce leaf, pour over a little of the 
dressing and serve. 

BEET SALAD. 

Boil half a dozen young beets, chop fine and pour over 
them warm vinegar with a little sugar in it. Slice very thin 
a couple of bunches of chives, and chop iine three stalks of 
celery. This will serve twelve people. In serving make a 
foundation of celery leaves, and on it place first the thin 
slices of chives, then a layer of beets, then chives, and sprinkle 
over them the chopped celery. Pour over all a salad dressing. 



PICKLES. 



Pickles should never be put into vessels of brass, copper or 
tin, as the action of the acid on such metals often results in 
poisoning the pickles. Porcelain or granite-ware is the best 
for such purposes. 

Vinegar that is used for pickling should be the best cider 
or white-wine, and should never be boiled more than five or 
six minutes, as it reduces its strength. In putting away 
pickles, use stone or glass jars; the glazing on common earth- 
enware is rendered injurious by the action of the vinegar. 
When the jar is nearly filled with the pickles, the vinegar 
should completely cover them, and if there is any appearance 
of their not doing well, turn oif the vinegar, cover with fresh 
vinegar and spices. Alum in small quantities is useful in 
making them firm and crisp. In using ground spices, tie 
them up in muslin bags. 

To green pickles, put green grape-vine leaves or green 
cabbage leaves between them when heating. Another way is 
to heat them in strong ginger tea. Pickles should be kept 
closely covered, put into glass jars and sealed tightly. 

"Turmeric" is India saffron, and is used very much in 
pickling as a coloring. 

A piece of horse-radish put into a jar of pickles will keep 
the vinegar from losing its strength, and the pickles will keep 
sound much longer, especially tomato pickles. 

CHUTNEY. 

Ona pound apples, eight ounces tomatoes, one-half ounce of 
salt (or one ounce), eight ounces sugar, eight ounces raisins, 
one-half teaspoonful of red pepper, two ounces ginger, two 
ounces garlic, two ounces of onions, three pints of vinegar, 
put in a warm place and stir twice a day for a fortnight. 
*20 



306 PICKLES. 

TOMATO CATSUP. 

One-half bushel tomatoes, six onions, one quart vinegar, 
cne-half teacup salt, one-quarter pound whole black peppers, 
one-quarter pound whole allspice, one ounce whole cloves, one 
ounce whole cinnamon, two pounds white sugar, one teaspoon 
cayenne pepper; cut up tomatoes and onions and boil soft, 
strain, tie all spices in a bag and boil together three hours. 
Bottle and cork while hot. 

CHILI SAUCE. 

Forty-eight good sized tomatoes peeled, eight onions, six- 
teen tablespoons white sugar, four cups vinegar, four table- 
spoons salt, two tablespoons allspice, two tablespoons cloves, 
two tablespoons cinnamon, two tablespoons mustard (the 
five latter ingredients ground), six green peppers; chop to- 
gether and boil till onions are soft. 

TOMATO SAUCE. 

Twenty pounds tomatoes (peeled), one quart vinegar, 
three-quarters of a pound of salt, one ounce cloves, two ounces 
allspice (whole), one-half ounce cayenne pepper, one pound 
sugar, two ounces garlic (peeled), one ounce black pepper 
(whole), four or five pounds apples. Boil five hours. 

TOMATO CHUTNEY. 

Four pounds ripe tomatoes, four pounds sour apples, two 
pounds raisins (stoned), two pounds brown sugar, eight 
ounces of salt, three ounces ground ginger, two ounces all- 
spice, three-quarters of an ounce of cayenne, one nutmeg 
grated, four small onions, juice of one lemon, t^vo quarts of 
vinegar. Chop tomatoes, apples, onions and raisins very fine ; 
add everything else and boil one hour slowly; bottle when 
cold. 

CHUTNEY. 

Eight pounds tomatoes, three pounds onions, three pints 
vinegar, two dozen small peppers, one pound prunes, stoned. 



PICKLES. 307 

one pound raisins, two pounds sugar, two ounces ground 
ginger, one-half pound mustard seed, cupful of salt. Chop 
well, cook slowly, stir often and seal well. 

CBAB-APPLE PICKLE. 

To one peck of apples- make a syrup of three pounds sugar, 
two quarts of vmegar, one-half ounce of cinnamon, one-half 
ounce of cloves. Boil sugar, vinegar, spices, tying spices in 
muslin bag; prepare apples by sticking three or four cloves in 
each apple ; steam until soft ; then put them in syrup and let 
simmer for fifteen minutes; then take apples out and let 
syrup boil for ten minutes longer. This recipe is good for 
peaches, plums and pears. 

TOMATO MUSTAED. 

One peck ripe tomatoes, boil with three red peppers and 
five onions for an hour. Then strain through a colander and 
add one-half pound salt, one tablespoon black pepper, one 
ounce ginger, one-half ounce cloves, one-half ounce mace 
(ground). Boil for one hour; when cold add one-quarter 
pound mustard and one pint vinegar. 

BENGAL CHUTNEY. 

(1) One pound brown sugar, (2) half pound salt, (3) half 
pound ground mustard, (4) one-quarter pound garlic, (5) 
one-quarter pound onion, (6) one-quarter pound ground 
ginger, (7) one-half pound raisins (stoned), (8) one ounce 
cayenne pepper, (9) three pints best vinegar, (10) thirteen 
large sour apples, peeled and cored, (11) thirteen ripe toma- 
toes. Mode. — Numbers 4, 5, and 7 chopped fine. Numbers 
10 and 11 to be boiled in 11 till quite soft, then bruised. 
Mix all together. Cook till thoroughly soft, bottle. This 
makes a great quantity. 

PICKLED MUSHROOMS. 

Take the small buttons and rub them very clean with a 
flannel and some vinegar, then put them in a dish with a 
little salt over them to draw the liquor from them. When 



308 



PICKLES. 



this is done put them into a kettle with their own liquor and 
sufficient good vinegar to cover them, also some mace, cloves 
and black pepper to suit taste. Boil gently for a few min- 
utes, then bottle and cork tightly. 

CRAB-APPLE CATSUP. 

Three pounds of fruit which has been cored, one and 
three-quarters pounds sugar, one quart vinegar, one table- 
spoonful of each of the folloMdng spices: cloves, cinnamon, 
and pepper, and one teaspoonf ul of salt. Scald the fruit, run 
it through the sieve, then mix all ingredients together and 
boil until it is almost as thick as jam. 

SPICED GRAPES. 

Seven pounds of grapes, five pounds of sugar, one cup of 
vinegar, one teaspoon ful of cloves, one teaspoonf ul of nut- 
meg, one teaspoon ful of cinnamon, one teaspoonf ul allspice. 
Squeeze pulp from skin, boil pulp and strain out seeds, then 
boil again with skins and other ingredients until it jellies. 

YELLOW PICKLE. 

In one day one can get all the ingredients ready, make the 
pickle, and make it cold and ready to put away before night. 
One quart glass self-sealing jars are the best for pickles, for, 
like sweetmeats, it is better not to open and expose to the air 
too much at a time. A piece of clean horseradish root laid 
en the top of the pickle in each jar makes it doubly sure it 
will keep well, almost indefinitely. The following recipe I 
consider beyond improvement, and if strictly adhered to, must 
prove a most satisfactory success. The materials required 
are three good -si zed cauliflowers, sixty small cucumbers, or 
ar equal quantity string beans, four green peppers, one and 
one-half cupfuls of sugar, one-half cupful of flour, six large 
spoonfuls of dry mustard, three quarts cider vinegar, one 
ounce of turmeric, to be had at the druggist's, two quarts of 
small, white onions, three quarts of green tomatoes. Cut up 
the latter, cutting out all imperfections; cut up with them 
the four peppers, throwing away the seeds. Put these in a 
strong brine for an hour, then drain and put on to cook till 



PICKLES. 309 

tender in fresh, hot water. In another kettle put the cauli- 
flowers, broken into small pieces; in another kettle put the 
peeled onions. When all are well done drain. Then put in 
the vinegar in a large kettle. Take the mustard, flour and 
turmeric, and stir into a smooth paste, with a little of the 
\inegar, then stir into the rest of the vinegar and bring it to 
a boil. Then put all the ingredients into this liquid. Cook 
slowly an hour or more, stirring often. It might require 
more salt, which could only be learned by tasting. It should 
be thick and of an even consistency. The flavors are blended 
so that no one predominates, and the pickle is only agreeably 
sharp, and is hard to beat. 

FEENCH PICKLE. 

Slice one peck green tomatoes, sprinkle with one cup of 
salt, and leave over night. Then drain well and add two 
quarts of water and one of vinegar. Boil fifteen minutes. 
Drain again and add two quarts of vinegar, two and a half 
pounds brown sugar, two small tablespoonfuls of each of the 
following, all ground ; mustard seed, allspice, ginger, mustard, 
cloves, two large tablespoonfuls of cinnamon. Mix, and boil 
fifteen minutes. 

CHOW-CHOW. 

One quart of green tomatoes, one quart of gherkins, one 
quart of ripe cucumbers, peeled ; one quart of celery, one quart 
white onions, one quart of string beans, one large cauliflower, 
six green peppers. Chop all very fine and cover with a good 
sprinkling of salt and water over night. Bring to a boil and 
drain. Boil together three cups of malt vinegar, three cups 
of brown sugar, six tablespoonfuls mustard, four tablespoon- 
fuls of flour, three tablespoonfuls of turmeric. Pour boiling 
hot over vegetables and bottle. 

MUSTARD PICKLES. 

Two quarts of small onions, three quarts of cucumbers, 
three heads of celery, three heads cauliflower, four green pep- 
pers (chopped.) Cut all up and put in brine twenty-four hours. 
Put on the stove and let come to a boil in the brine, remove 



310 PICKLES. 

and drain perfectly dry. To three quarts of boiling vinegar 
add two cups of sugar, half a cup of flour^ two cups of mus- 
tard, half an ounce turmeric, with a little curry powder mixed 
in. Pour over vegetables. 

MUSTAED CATSUP. 

One peek of tomatoes, one pound of brown sugary quarter 
of a pound of mustard, three red peppers, one pint best cider 
vinegar, quarter of a pound of salt, one ounce of ginger, half 
an ounce of cloves, half an ounce of mace, half a teaspoonful 
cayenne pepper. Put tomatoes in oven until hot, and squeeze 
through a strainer, and then add other ingredients. Put 
spices, which must be whole, in a bag; add a tablespoonful 
of corn-starch to mustard, which makes it thicken. Cook 
for an hour. Count from time it begins to boil. 

GEAPE CATSUP. 

Take seven pounds of grapes, squeeze out the pulp, and 
heat up without any water; just let it come to a boil, then put 
through a sieve. Take skins and pulp, and three and a half 
pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, good tablespoonful of 
groimd cloves and cinnamon. Cook till thick; watch it con- 
stantly. 

SWEET CHILI SAUCE WITH CELEEY. 

One peck of ripe tomatoes peeled and sliced, four bunches 
Qfi celery chopped fine, three cups vinegar, three cups brown 
sugar, half small cup salt, one-quarter pound whole mixed 
spices tied in a bag, one teaspoon pepper, same of mustard. 
Boil all together one hour or longer. 

CELEEY SAUCE. 

Twenty-four ripe tomatoes, six heads celery, six small 
onions, one cup salt, os« red pepper, one cup sugar, one 
quart vinegar, one tablespoon mixed spice. Peel tomatoes 
and onions, chop very finely the celery, pepper, tomatoes and 
onions, add the vinegar, sugar, spice, etc. Boil gently for 
♦hree hours. 



PICKLES. 311 

CHILI SAUCE. 

Twelve large ripe tomatoes, two large onions, four green 
peppers, two tablespoonfuls sugar, four teaspoonfuls salt; 
chop onions and peppers very fine. Boil one hour and a half ; 
add one teacup of vinegar half an hour before taking from 
the fire. Bottle, cork closely. Keep in the coolest part of 
the cellar. 

PICKLED PEACHES. 

Eub fruit with coarse cloth, stick one clove and one bit 
cinnamon into each; pack closely in a stone crock. Boil in 
vinegar enough to cover fruit, four, or if you like them 
sweeter, six pounds sugar to each gallon vinegar. Add cloves, 
cinnamon stick and a small quantity of mace tied in a thin 
muslin bag. When all are boiled for five or seven minutes, 
pour over the peaches and cover closely. Boil again the two 
days following and pour over fruit while boiling hot. Cover 
close and keep in a cool cellar. (A splendid recipe. — Ed.) 

MUSTARD DRESSING. 

One large tablespoon of mustard, one large tablespoon of 
cornstarch, one-half cup sugar, one egg. Add one cup of 
vinegar, and one teaspoon of salt. 

TOMATO MUSTARD. 

One peck ripe tomatoes, take out stalks and boil for one 
hour with six red peppers. Then strain through a colander 
and add quarter pound salt, three tablespoons black pepper, 
one ounce ginger, one ounce allspice, half ounce mace, half 
ounce cloves, and a few cloves of garlic, two onions. Boil for 
one hour ; when cold add half pint vinegar, one tablespoon red 
pepper, quarter pound mustard. 

SPICED GRAPES. 

Seven pounds of fruit, one pint of vinegar, four pounds 
of sugar, four teaspoonfuls ground cinnamon, five teaspoon- 
fuls ground cloves. Remove skins of grapes and boil pulp 



312 PICKLES. 

till soft, strain through a bag or fine colander, then add 
skins and ingredients, and boil two hours. Then bottle. 
The boiling process is to leave out the seeds. Thle is a deli- 
cious relish for cold meat. 

TOMATO SAUCE. 

Eight pounds ripe tomatoes, one pound of onions, one 
pound of apples, one pound of raisins, two lemons. Chop 
all fine together; add one pound of brown sugar, one cup of 
suet, one-quarter ounce of red pepper, one quart of vinegar. 
Boil two hours. 

TO PICKLE LEMONS. 

Take two dozen lemons, grate off the rind, prick them, 
and put them in a dish so as not to touch each other; cover 
them with salt, and turn them every day for a month, then 
wipe them dry and let them remain within the air of the fire 
three or four days to dry. Take one ounce of whole mace, 
one ounce of nutmeg; cut in slices; half ounce of pounded 
cloves, two ounces of ginger bruised, quarter-ounce of white 
peppercorns, quarter-ounce Jamaica long pepper and cayenne 
pods ; tie them in two or three separate muslin bags ; quarter- 
ounce of shallots, pared; a piece of horseradish. Put the 
lemons and seasoning in well glazed jars. Boil three quarts 
of good vinegar and pour it on the lemons while hot. Let 
the jars remain near the fire a few days, shaking them gently 
each day. Look at them in a few weeks to see if they require 
more vinegar. Better kept some time before using. 

CHUTNEY. 

Eight apples (chopped fine), eight peppers (four red and 
four green), twelve tomatoes (peeled), eight large onions, 
quarter of a pound of salt, one pound of brown sugar, half 
a pound of raisins (chopped), two quarts of vinegar, one 
ounce of ginger, all chopped fine and boiled till thick. 

EIPE TOMATO SOY. 

One peck of tomatoes, peeled and sliced; eight large 
onions sliced thin; one cupful of salt. Put tomatoes and 



PICKLES. 313 

onions in alternate layers and let stand twenty-^four hours; 
drain ofc all the liquor, then add two quarts of vinegar, one 
tablespoonful each of ground mustard, ground ginger, ground 
cloves, ground allspice; one teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 
Stew slowly two or three hours, and when nearly done add 
two pounds of brown sugar and quarter pound of mustard 
seed. 

CHOW CHOW. 

Two heads of cabbage, two heads of cauliflower, two 
quarts of onions, two quarts green tomatoes, two cucumbers, 
six roots of celery, two green peppers. Chop fine; boil in 
just enough water to cover until moderately soft; strain. 
Take two quarts of vinegar, half a pound of mustard, one 
ounce turmeric, one small cup of white sugar; salt to taste. 
Lei; this come to a boil and pour it over the mixture. 

CHILI SAUCE. 

Two large onions, three peppers chopped fine. Select 
six large ripe tomatoes, one tablespoonful of salt, one cup of 
sugar, one tablespoonful of nutmeg, one tablespoonful of 
cloves, ginger and horseradish, two cups of vinegar. Cook 
slowly for two hours. 

SWEET TOMATO PICKLES. 

Take four and a half pounds of green tomatoes — the same 
of apples quartered — stick a few cloves (two) in each quarter; 
three pints of vinegar, four pounds of sugar, one ounce of 
ellspice, one ounce of peppers and some stick cinnamon. Tie 
all the spices in muslin bags. Let vinegar, sugar and spices 
come to a boil, then add tomatoes and apples, and boil till 
tender. 

GREEN CUCUMBER PICKLES. 

One gallon cold vinegar, one ounce of ginger root, quarter 
of a pound of mustard, quarter of a pound of salt, two ounces 
of white mustard seed, two ounces of peppercorns, a few red 
peppers. Drop in as many cucumbers, beans, etc., as the 
vinegar will cover. Good to use in a month. Stir frequently. 



814 PICKLES. 

MUSTARD PICKLES. 

To one and a half gallons of best white wine vinegar put 
four ounces of ginger, bruised; two ounces of allspice, half 
an ounce of chillies, bruised; two ounces of turmeric, one 
pound Keen's mustard, one ounce garlic, two pounds of 
common salt, two large onions cut in small pieces. Boil it 
for a quarter of an hour, the onions and garlic only three 
minutes. The mustard and turmeric should be mixed well 
with some of the vinegar before it is put on to boil. When 
done put in a crock ; when cold put in the vegetables. 

SPICED CUERANTS. 

To every four pounds of ripe currants add two pounds of 
sugar, one ounce of stick cinnamon, same of mace, half an 
ounce of whole cloves, teaspoonful of white mustard-seed tied 
in a muslin bag. Cook slowly one hour, then add one and 
a half cupfuls of vinegar; stir constantly for fifteen minutes, 
also add one and one-quarter pounds of raisins chopped fine. 

CHERRY PICKLES. 

Pul; cherries in cold salt and water for eighteen hours, then 
season vinegar with allspice, cloves, cinnamon and sugar, and 
pour hot over the cherries. Do this for three days in -suc- 
cession. 

INDIA. PICKLES. 

Quarter of a pound of turmeric, half a pound of mustard- 
seed, half a pound of ground mustard, one ounce of curry 
powder, two ounces of ground ginger, two ounces of allspice, 
half an ounce of cayenne pepper. Boil these ingredients five 
minutes with four quarts of good malt vinegar, and pour over 
the vegetables while the mixture is hot. Prfepare the vege- 
tables as follows: Soak at least eight days in strong salt and 
water, then dry them; put them into jars, not too closely 
packed, and pour over them the above mixture. This is 
really good. 



PICKLES. 315 

LEMON PICKLE. 

Six lemons, half a pound of salt, quarter of an ounce of 
cloves, quarter of an ounce of mace, quarter of an ounce of 
turmeric, three pints of vinegar. Cut the lemons in halves; 
squeeze out the Juice; cut each half into four pieces; rub 
each piece with salt, put them in a slow oven till they are 
quite brown and hrrd. Then rub them with the turmeric 
and put them in a jar. Put the juice, spice and vinegar and 
quarter ounce of cayenne pepper over them. Cover them up 
and set the jar on a hot hearth or on the back of the stove 
till the pickles are soft. 

YELLOW PICKLE. 

Chop finely four large green peppers, slice two quarts, or 
four large cucumbers, two quarts green tomatoes, two quarts 
small onions or one quart large, four cauliflowers, two heads 
of celery. Cover with salt and let stand twenty-four hours; 
drain; add one cup mustard-seed. Dressing — Mix two table- 
spoonfuls mustard, two and a half cups of flour, three and a 
half cups of sugar (a little more if you wish it), two table- 
spoonfuls turmeric powder, one pint cider vinegar. Then 
put on to scald three and a half quarts cider vinegar; when 
scalding add mixture and vegetables, leave on stove to scald 
and get soft. Do not boil. (This is good.) 

BENGAL CHUTNEY. 

One pound brown sugar, one-half pound salt, one-half 
pound mustard seed, one-quarter pound garlic, one-quarter 
pound onions, one-quarter pound ground ginger, one-half 
pound raisins, stoned and chopped fine, one ounce 
cayenne pepper, three pints vinegar, thirteen large 
apples, seven large tomatoes, one-half ounce turmeric, two 
ounces ground mustard. Grind the mustard seed or boil 
in a pint of vinegar, chop onions fine, cook apples and 
tomatoes separately, boil soft and mash fine through a col- 
ander; when cool mix ingredients well and put away in a 
stone jar; let remain behind stove for a few days. 



316 PICKLES. 

CHUTNEY. 

Eight pounds of tomatoes, three pounds of onions, three 
quarts of vinegar, two dozen small peppers, one pound ot 
prunes, one pound of stoned raisins, two pounds of sugar, two 
ounces of ground ginger, half a pound of mustard-seed, one 
cup of salt. Chop well; cook slowly; stir often; seal while 
hot. 

GEAPE CATSUP. 

Stew five pounds of grapes over a slow fire until soft, then 
strain through a sieve. Add one and a half pounds of sugar, 
one pint of vinegar, two tablespoonfuls of salt, cinnamon and 
allspice, one quarter of a teaspoonful of red pepper, a few 
cloves (ground), and one teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. 
Mix all together and boil till quite thick. . 

CELERY RELISH. 

One dozen heads of celery, chopped fine; two quarts of 
medium strong white wine vinegar, two ounces of curry 
powder, one and a half cups of sugar, one quarter -pound of 
Keen's mustard, two red peppers, salt to taste; three table- 
spoonfuls of flour. Boil up the vinegar, then let it simmer. 
Mix the dry ingredients separately very smooth, flour first; 
then add mustard, curry and pepper; add sugar to vinegar. 
Put celery and all ingredients in boiling vinegar. 

HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. 

One-half cup butter, juice of half a lemon, yolks of two 
eggs, speck of cayenne pepper, one-half cup of boiling water, 
one-half teaspoon salt. Beat butter to a cream, and add yolks 
on) by one, then lemon juice, pepper and salt. Place in 
saucepan of boiling water or on the top of kettle. Beat 
until it begins to thicken. Then add boiling water, beating 
all the time. 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 



Fruit for preserving should be sound and free from ail 
defects, using white sugar, and also that which is dry, which 
produces the nicest syrup; dark sugar can be used by being 
clarified, which is done by dissolving two pounds of sugar 
in a pint of water; add to it the white of an egg, and beat 
it well, put it into a preserving kettle on the fire, and stir 
with a wooden spoon. As soon as it begins to swell and boil 
up throw in a little cold water; let it boil up again, take it 
off, and remove the scum; boil it again, throw in more cold 
water, and remove the scum; repeat until it is clear and 
pours like oil from the spoon. 

In the old way of preserving, we upcd pound for pound, 
when they were kept in stone jars or crocks; now, as most 
preserves are put up in sealed jars or cans, less sugar seems 
sufficient; three-quarters of a pound of 'sugar is generally 
all that is required for a pound of fruit. 

Fruit should be boiled in a procelain-lined or granito' 
ware dish, if possible; but other utensils, copper or metal, 
if made bright and clean, answer as well. 

Any of the fruits that have been preserved in syrup mav 
be converted into dry preserves, by first draining them from 
the syrup, and then drving them in a stove or very moderate 
oven, adding to tliem a quantity of powdered loaf sugar, which 
will gradually penetrate the fruit, while the fluid parts of the 
syrup gently evaporate. They should be dried in the stove 
or oven on a sieve, and turned every six or eight hours, fresh 
powdered sugar being sifted over them every time they are 
turned. Afterwards, ihey are to be kept in a dry situation^ 
in drawers or boxes. Currants and cherries preserved whole 
in this manner in bunches are extremely elegant, and have 



318 PRESERVES. JELLIES, ETC. 

a fine flavor. In this way it is, also, that orange and lemon 
chips are preserved. 

Mould can be prevented from forming on fruit jellies by 
pouring a little melted paraffine over the top. When cool, it 
v.dll harden to a solid cake, which can be easily removed wlion 
the jelly is used, and saved to use over again another year. 
It is perfectly harmless and tasteless. 

Large glass tumblers are the best for keeping jellies, much 
better than large vessels, for by being opened frequently they 
soon spoil; a paper should be cut to fit, and placed over the 
jelly; then put on the lid or cover, with thick paper rubbed 
over on the inside with the white of an egg. 

There cannot be too much care taken in selecting fruit 
for jellies, for if the fruit is over ripe, any amount of time 
in boiling will never make it jelly — there is where so many 
fail in making good jelly, and another important matter is 
overlooked, that of carefully skimming off the juice after it 
begins to boil and a scum rises from the bottom to the top; 
the juice should not be stirred, but the scum carefully taken 
off: if allowed to boil under, the jelly will not be clear. 

When either preserves or canned fruits show any indi- 
cations of fermentation, they should be immediately reboiled 
with more sugar to save them. It is much better to be gener- 
ous with the sugar at first, than to have any losses afterwards. 
Keep all preserves in a cool, dry closet. 

CANNED FEUITS. 

Berries and all ripe, mellow fruit require but little cook- 
ing, only long enough for the sugar to penetrate. Strew 
:-Aigar over them, allow them to stand a few hours, then merely 
scald wVh the sugar; half to three-quarters of a pound is 
considered sufficient. Harder fruits, like pears, quinces, etc., 
require longer boiling. 

The great secret of canning is to make the fruit or vege- 
table perfectly air-tight. It must be put up boiling hot, and 
the vessel filled to the brim. 

Have your jars conveniently placed near your boiling 
fruit, in a tin pan of hot water on the stove, roll them in the 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 319 

hot water, then fill immediately with the hot, scalding fruit, 
fill to the top, and seal quickly with the tops, which should 
also be heated; occasionally screw down the tops tighter, as 
the fruit shrinks as it cools, and the glass contracts, and 
allows the air to enter the cans. They must be perfectly air- 
tight. The jars to be kept in a dark, cool, dry place. 

Use glass jars for fruit always, aiid the fruit should be 
cooked in a porcelain or granite-iron kettle. If you are 
obliged to use common large-mouthed bottles with corks, 
steam the corks and pare them to a close fit, driving them in 
with a mallet. Use the following wax for sealing: one 
pound of resin, three ounces of beeswax, one and one-half 
ounces of tallow. Use a brush in covering the corks, and as 
they cool, dip the mouth into the melted wax. Place in a 
basin of cool water. Pack in a cool, dark, and dry cellar. 
After one week examine for flaws, cracks or signs of ferment. 

The rubber rings used to assist in keeping the air from 
the fruit cans sometimes become so dry and brittle as to be 
almost useless. They can be restored to normal condition 
usually by letting them lie in water in which you have put 
a little ammonia. Mix in this proportion : One part of am- 
monia and two parts water. Sometimes they do not need 
to lie in this more than five minutes, but frequently a half- 
hour is needed to restore their elasticity. 

WINE JELLY. 

Soak for several hours large-sized package of gelatine in 
pint of cold water, grate the rinds (or peel thin) two lemons, 
add with the Juice of the lemons the whites and shells of two 
eggs, a pint of hot water (not boiling), half a cup of wine 
and some whisky (about one wineglassful), some cinnamon 
and sugar and let all boil; skim and strain through flannel 
bag, add large cup sugar and remainder of wine and put in 
mould to cool. 

LEMOIT JELLY. 

Soak one box of gelatine for one hour in a pint of cold 
water, then add one pint of hot water, one-half pint of wine, 
one pint of sugar, two lemons, juice, and thinly pared rind. 



320 PRESERVES, JELLIES;, ETC. 

Boil for one-half a minute and strain. This with wine left 
out and whites of three eggs (beaten to a stiff froth and 
stirred in before quite cold), and put in mould. 

OEANGE MARMALADE. 

Nine bitter oranges and three sweet oranges, four lemons; 
cut the oranges and lemons across the grain as fine as possible, 
put all together in a jar, and cover with four quarts of water; 
let it stand for twenty-four hours, then boil one hour; next 
add eight pounds sugar (white), and boil two hours; pot for 
use. 

ORAJs^GE MARMALADE. 

Nine bitter oranges, five sweet oranges, four lemons. 
Cut up fruit across grain as finely as possible, taking out 
seeds; place in a jar with four quarts cold water and let it 
stand thirty-six hours; then boil for two hours, add eight 
pounds of white sugar and boil till it jellies. Just before 
removing from the fire a wine glass of brandy or whisky 
clarifies the marmalade. 

ASPIC JELLY. 

One quart nicely flavored stock, made from beef- 
steak, whites and shells of two eggs, one cup of lean un- 
booked beef minced; mix the beef and eggs thoroughly to- 
gether and add to the stock before it gets hot. When hot add 
one ounce gelatine (previously soaked in cold water), boil for 
about five minutes, strain and add one tablespoonful of vine- 
gar and two tablespoons of sherry; spices — twenty pepper 
corns, ten cloves, two or three stalks of celery, one teaspoon 
salt, one-half saltspoon of ground mace, sprig of parsley. 

APPLE JELLY. 

Windfall apples make the best jelly; all sorts, large or 
small, washed, boiled whole in a preserving kettle until quite 
pulpy, strained through a jelly bag without squeezing. If 
passed through a silver wire sieve first, will run easier. Put 
sugar into a kettle with a little water, enough to melt, and 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 321 

boil quickly for ten minutes. Then add strained apple juice; 
tc every five pints, four pounds of sugar is allowed ; thin rind 
of two lemons ; boil all together one hour. A beautiful clear 
jelly and keeps well. Measure apple juice carefully before 
putting on sugar, and gauge sugar exactly. 



FKUIT JELLY. 

SuflBcient for quart mould ; one package gelatine, one cup 
granulated sugar, juice of two lemons, one-half pint cold 
water, one and one-half pints boiling water, six peaches. Dis- 
solve gelatine in one-half pint cold water, add sugar and 
lemon juice, with boiling water. Let this stand until the 
jelly begins to thicken, then pour a little into the mould ; place 
en it a layer of peaches, cut any shape desired. Put in more 
jelly and fruit, alternately until the mould is filled. Place on 
ice to set and serve with whipped cream. Care should be 
taken to allow each layer of fruit and jelly to set before 
putting in another, so that the fruit will not fall together. 
When prunes, pineapple or cherries are used instead of 
peaches, the lemon juice is not needed. 



PEACH, APPLE, OE QUINCE LEATHER. 

One pound of the fruit (apples and quince of equal quan- 
tities, or of either separately), one pound sugar. Peel and 
cut up the fruit in small pieces. Put on to boil with as little 
water as possible. While boiling mash fine with a spoon. 
Add one pound of granulated sugar and boil about fifteen 
or twenty minutes longer. Then spread the mass very thin 
on a flat tin or platter to dry. In the south it is put out of 
doors in the sun under netting and brought in at night. It 
can be done equally well by using a cool oeen, leaving the 
door open, so that it may stay there at night as well. It 
must not cool, only dry. Several days are required in dry- 
ing. Then cut in strips, roll in sugar and roll up or leave 
in plain lengths. 
♦21 



32S PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

PEUNE JELLY. 

One pint of prunes, half a box of gelatine, sugar to taste, 
and a pinch of salt. Wash the prunes, then boil slowly till 
soft in sufficient water to cover. Take out the stones, sweeten 
to taste ; add essence of vanilla, or if preferred the juice and 
rind of a lemon, and the juice of two oranges. Soak the 
gelatine till soft, then add the above, stir all well together, 
nnd pour into a mould and let stand till it is very cold. 

PEUKE JELLY. 

One pound of prunes, well washed, then covered with 
water and allowed to soak for six hours. Put on to boil in 
sam.e water until tender; add one pound of sugar, and boil 
ten minutes; strain and remove stones. Take one ounce of 
gelatine soaked in one cup of water. Put juice from prunes 
equal to two and a half cupfuls; add juice of lemon and 
orange. When this commences to boil add gelatine and 
prunes. Turn intj mould and serve when cold with whipped 
cream. 

GEAPE JELLY. 

Small cupful of water in the bottom of a four-quart kettle, 
filled with grapes. Let fruit boil until all the juice is ex- 
tracted. Strain and add a pound of sugar to a pint of juice 
and boil until it jellies. 

SIMPLE EECIPE FOE MAEMALADB. 

Twelve bitter oranges, one lemon cut very thin, and put 
into six quarts of water; let stand over night or thirty-six 
hours, then boil rather fast two and one-half hours, then add 
seven or eight pounds of white sugar and boil one hour longer. 
Take out all seeds and hard ends. If sweet oranges are used 
put in only the pulp. The addition of the pulp of two sweet 
oranges sometimes improves the marmalade. 

•— — OEANGE MAEMALADE. 

Two dozen bitter oranges, half dozen sweet oranges, the 
juice of six lemons. Cut up the oranges very thinly; cover 
with twenty-two pints of cold water ; allow to stand for thirty- 
eix hours; boil quickly for two hours; add twenty-two pounds 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 333 

of white sugar, and boil steadily for one hour. If you care 
to, add one wineglass of brandy as you are taking from the 
stove, to clear the jelly. Put into pots, cool, and cover. 

OEANGE MAEMALADE. 

Take two dozen bitter oranges and weigh them, cut the 
skin and take it off in quarters; put in a cheese-cloth bag 
and cook in water nearly two hours, until you can pierce 
easily with a straw, then cut in tliin pieces about an inch 
Icng, cut the oranges into halves and scrape out the pulp and 
juice, throwing away the pith. Take as many pounds of 
sugar as you have oranges, put it into the water you cooked 
Ihe rinds in, and boil ten minutes, skim and add the rinds and 
pulp, cook half an hour, then dip in tumblers, and set away to 
( col before sealing. 

PLUM SHAPE. 

Pour boiling water over a quart of plums, lot them stand 
long enough to soften the skins, but not to break them open; 
pour off the water and when cool peel and remove the stones, 
taking care to save all the juice. Soak half a box of gelatine 
in a C!!p of cold water. Stew tho plums until tender after 
adding a cup of water; sweeten to taste; then stir the 
whole while hot into the gelatine. Serve with whipped cream. 
T.emon juice or wine may be used with the water, if liked. 

PEAR AND QUINCE MAEMALADE. 

Twenty-four juicy pears, ten ripe quinces, juice of three 
lemons; allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to every 
pound of fruit after it is ready for cooking, and one pint of 
water to every one and a half pounds of sugar. Pare and 
core the fruit and throw into cold water — while you stew 
pijrings and cores in a little cold water to make syrup. When 
tlie parings are well boiled strain off liquid. When cold put 
in fruit and bring quickly to a boil, boiling until smooth, 
then add the sugar and lemon juice, and cook steadily for an 
hour, working with a spoon to a rich jolly. 



324 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

GINaER APPLES. 

In days when apples are plentiful it is a good thing to 
know of diverse methods of making un this fruit, and this 
is a palatable conserve. 

In the first place firm pippins must be used. They are 
peeled and cut into even sized pieces while firm, and to six 
pounds allow a quarter of a pound "of green ginger root and 
four lemons; also five pounds of sugar. Cut the ginger root 
into thin slices and the lemon peel into thin chips and boil 
till it looks clear. Drain, and let stand till cold, using the 
water in which they are boiled to make the syrup. Simmer 
the apples in this syrup till they are tender enough to be 
pierced with a straw, then put them into fruit jars, cook the 
lemon and ginger a little more in the syrup and then divide 
it among the jars of apples, filling up with a thick syrup, 
and screw the lids while the syrup is hot, as for the fruit con- 
serve. This is a delicious way to serve apples, and during 
the winter is often preferred to other fruit. 

APPLE BUTTER. 

Take five gallons of the expressed juice of apples, called 
sweet cider, one peck of tart apples and two pounds of the 
best brown sugar. Pare and core the apples, then quarter, 
and cut across to shorten the fibre. Boil the cider down to 
about half its original quantity, add the apples and sugar, and 
continue to stir the mixture well from the bottom. It must 
be boiled until the apples and cider form one solid mass and 
do not separate. One of the secrets of success is in thorough 
boiling, and simmering without burning. Properly made 
it is a conserve that will keep a long while. 

PIPE GOOSEBERRY JAM. 

To every pound of fruit allow three-quarters of a pound 
of sugar. To every six pounds of fruit, half a pint of red- 
currant juice. 

Select red, hairy gooseberries, which should be gathered 
ill dry weather, and when quite ripe. Weigh them, cut off the 
tops and tails, and to every six pounds of fruit add half a 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 325 

pint of red-currant juice, drawn as for jelly. Put the fruit 
and juice into a preserving-pan, and let them boil rather 
quickly, keeping them well stirred. When they begin to 
bieak, which will be in about an hour, add the sugar, and keep 
simmering until it becomes firm, stirring and skimming all 
the time. Put it into pots (not too large), and when cold 
cover with oiled and egged paper. 

EHUBARB JAM (GREEN). 

To one and a half pounds of green rhubarb allow one 
pound of loaf sugar, the thin rind of half a large lemon, 
quarter of an ounce of bitter almonds, and a little ginger. 

Wipe the rhubarb quite dry, cut it into pieces about two 
inches long, and put it into a preserving-pan with the sugar 
broken small; the rind of the lemon cut very fine, and the 
almonds blanched and divided. Boil the whole well together, 
taking care to stir and skim frequently, and when it is nearly 
done stir in the ginger. Young rhubarb will take about three- 
quarters of an hour, but if old it must be boiled for an hour 
and a half. This preserve should be of a green color, and 
will be found a very good substitute for green-gage jam. 

RHUBARB JAM (RED). 

Four pounds of rhubarb — the red kind — four pounds of 
loaf sugar, and five ounces whole ginger. 

Peel and cut up the rhubarb into small pieces, add the 
sugar and ginger, and boil until clear. Pot and tie down as 
for other preserves. This should be of a brilliant red color, 
and is very good for serving with blanc-mange, moulded rice, 
or rice flummery. 

ORANGE MARMALADE. 

Nine bitter oranges, three sweet oranges, two lemons. 
Slice the fruit across the grain, as thin as possible, being care- 
ful, at the same time, to remove all seeds. Place in a deep 
dish with four quarts of water, allow it to stand for twenty- 
four hours, then add eight pounds of granulated sugar and 
boil for one hour, or until it will jelly. Before taking off 
the fire add one glass of whisky to clarify. 



336 PRESERVES;, JELLIES, ETC. 

TOMATO JELLY. 

One can tomatoes, one teaspoonful cinnamon, one onion. 
one bay leaf, two tablespoonfuls vinegar, salt and pepper to 
taste. Cook till tomatoes are soft, then strain. Dissolve one 
tablespoonful of Knox gelatine in half a cup of cold water, 
pour the tomatoes over the gelatine while hot. Pour into 
moulds and cool. Sauce for tomato jelly — One tablespoonful 
grated horseradish, four tablespoonfuls whipped cream, two 
tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Salt and cayenne to taste. 

PEAE JELLY. 

Six large baking pears, half pound of sugar, quarter pint 
wine, eight whole cloves, half a lemon, half an ounce of gela- 
tine. Peel the pears and cut them into quarters, put them 
into a shallow dish with sugar, cloves, and water enough to 
cover them; stew until tender, not broken. Take the pears 
from the liquor and put them in a mould. To half a pint of 
liquor add the gelatine juice, and grated rind of lemon and 
the wine. Let these ingredients boil quickly five minutes, 
strain the warm liquid over the pears and set in a cool place. 

CANNED PINEAPPLE.* 

Peel and remove all dark spots on the pineapples. Shred 
with a fork. To six pounds fruit, take four and one-half 
pounds sugar and three pints water. Mode. — Boil sugar and 
water ten minutes, skim and add the shredded pineapple. Let 
it boil up, then seal in self -sealers with a brandied paper be- 
tween the fruit and glass tops. 

PINEAPPLE JELLY. 

Soak one package (Knox's) gelatine in one cup cold water 
for one-half hour; add the grated rind of two lemons to this, 
soak for fifteen minutes. Then add one small cup sugar, 
juice of four lemons, two and one-half cups boiling water 
and one-half cup of pineapple juice made by above* 
recipe. Let come to a boil and strain into a mould which has 
been soaked in cold water. Drop three-quarters cup chopped 
pineapple (recipe*) into the mould and set away to cool. 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 327 

PEAE JAM. 

One basket of pears, the Juice of six lemons and the rind 
of four cut thin, one-quarter pound root ginger well pounded, 
three-quarters pound sugar to each pound of fruit. Peel 
pears, leaving the stem. Put on with as little water as pos- 
sible and let them stew a short time. Take them out, leaving 
the juice in the kettle, add sugar, lemon rind and juice, and 
if desired any spice can be added in a muslin bag. Let all 
boil together for ten minutes, then add the pears with a clove 
or two stuck in each pear. Boil till the pears are tender. 

SCOTCH MABMALADE. 

Two dozen Seville oranges, three lemons, cut into thin 
slices, take out seeds; put in an earthenware pan and cover 
with eight and one-half quarts of cold water; let it stand for 
twenty-four hours. Boil quickly for two hours, then add 
sixteen pounds sugar and boil again one and one-half hours. 
The seeds should be soaked for twenty-four hours in one pint 
of cold water ; when ready to put in the sugar pour the liquid 
off them through a strainer and add to the oranges. If not 
wanted very thick do not boil so long after adding sugar. 

TO PRESERVE FRUIT WHOLE, WITHOUT SUGAR. 

Suitable for pies, etc. 

For plums, green-gages, cherries, or gooseberries — Select 
sound, fresh fruit and prepare as for ordinary stewing, i.e., 
wiping the plums, or taking the stems off the cherries or 
gooseberries. Then fill your glass gem-jars with the fruit 
as closely packed as possible without bruising. Screw on the 
tops tightly and place the jars in a boiler of cold water, suf- 
ficient to cover the jars. Let this boil, and after it has boiled 
a few minutes watch your jars to ascertain when the contents 
are sufficiently cooked. When you see the skins of the plums 
or cherries commence to split, or the gooseberries turn color 
to a yellowish shade, then remove them one at a time ; take off 
the top of the jar and fill up with fast-boiling water from the 
kettle. Quickly screw on the top of the jar again, and put 



828 PRESE/RVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

it away to cool, tightening it again when cold. I have kept 
fruit like this 'for two years and when used it was like fresh 
fruit. By using ripe fruit, and filling up the jars with boil- 
ing syrup instead of water, it makes a delicious preserve. 
Indeed, this is the best way to preserve crab-apples. For 
syrup, use five cups of sugar to six of water ; boil ten minutes. 

BLACKBEEEY AND AEPLE JAM. 

Pick over your blackberries and weigh them. To each 
pound of berries put half a pound of sliced apple. To every 
six pounds of berries add one lemon, very thinly sliced. Equal 
weight of fruit and sugar. Put the fruit on and let it boil 
steadily nearly half an hour, then add the sugar by degrees, 
and boil about twenty minutes. Some fruit takes longer to 
boil than others, but the berries should feel quite soft and 
mashy when done. Very delicious. 

CHIPPED PEAES. 

Eight pounds of Seckle pears, or other good pears; eight 
pounds of granulated sugar, half a pound of candied ginger 
root, four lemons. Chip or slice the pears, slice the ginger 
root and let them boil together with the sugar for one hour, 
slowly. Boil the lemons whole in clear water until tender, 
then cut up in small bits, removing the seeds; add to the pears 
and boil an hour longer. Put in glasses. Use candied or 
crystallized ginger in preference to the green root. 

EOYAL MAEMALADE. 

Twelve Seville oranges; cut eacn orange into eight quar- 
ters and slice them very fine ; take out the seeds and put them 
into a basin and cover with water; to every pound of fruit 
add three pints of cold water. Let it stand for twenty-four 
hours, then boil until tender. Put the juice from the seeds 
in also. Let it stand until the following day, then to every 
pound of boiled fruit add one and a half pounds of sugar and 
the rind and juice of two lemons; boil, stirring constantly 
until the syrup jellies. 



PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. . Z29 

EED CUKEANT MAEMALADE. 

Six pounds red ripe currants, half pound raisins, six 
pounds of sugar, six oranges, half teaspoonful mace, half 
teaspoonful of cinnamon. Boil the currants and press 
through a sieve; boil the yellow rind of the oranges in a 
little water and chop finely. Chop raisins and pulp of 
oranges. Boil all together till thick, half or three-quarters 
of an hour. Half yellow rind after boil is sufficient. 

CEANBEEEY JELLY. 

To one quart of cranberries add one scant cupful of water, 
and cook until the berries are tender. Eemove from the fire 
and strain through a fine sieve. Eetum the juice to the 
saucepan, add two cupfuls of sugar, and cook just long enough 
to thoroughly melt the sugar. When cool, put in a mould and 
pack in ice for an hour, and serve in sherbet glasses. 

BITTEE OEANGE MAEMALADE. 

Slice twelve Seville oranges into a large bowl — leaving 
out pips. To each pound of fruit add three pints of cold 
water and let stand twelve or eighteen hours. Then boil 
gently till soft, about thirty minutes. Let stand again till 
next day. Then weigh and to every pound of fruit and juice 
add one pound granulated sugar, and boil till clear and thick. 

FOE BOTTLING WHOLE FEUIT. 

Make a syrup (cold or hot) with a quarter of a pound of 
sugar to a quart of water ; fill the jars very full of fruit ; pour 
on the syrup ; screw down, but not tightly ; place the bottles in 
a kettle of cold water, with boards under them, and allow 
them to boil a quarter of an hour or a little longer, according 
to the ripeness of the fruit. When done lift the bottles out, 
screw down tightly, and allow them to stand until cold. Crab- 
apples, Bartlett pears, cherries, peaches, plums can be done 
ii this way and retain their flavor and color. 



380 PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC. 

STIFF CRANBERRY JELLY. 

To each pound of berries add oue pint of water, and boil 
half an hour, stirring gently and skimming. Strain well, 
and to each pint of juice add one pound of sugar (granu- 
lated). Boil again until it jellies. 

PRUNE JELLY. 

One pound of stewing prunes, wash well and leave them 
to soak about an hour. In the meantime put half a package 
of gelatine to soak, then take the prunes and put them on a 
saucepan on the fire, well covered with water and about half 
a cupful of sugar. Boil for about an hour. Strain the juice 
from the prunes, then add the gelatine to the juice and put 
on the fire to boil up. Cover the prunes with the juice and 
gelatine mixed, put in hot in a mould and leave till cold- 
Serve with whipped cream. 

PINEAPPLES PRESERVED. 

Take six fine large pineapples, as ripe as you can get them. 
Make them clean, but do not take off rind or leaves, as they 
keep in the flavor while boiling. Put them whole into a 
large pot (or boiler), fill it up with cold water and boil the 
pineapples until they are so tender that you can pierce them 
through to the core with a straw from a corn broom, then 
take them out of the pot and drain them. When they are 
cool enough to handle remove the leaves and pare off the rind ; 
cut them into round slices half an inch thick, extracting the 
core from the centre, leaving a small round hole in the 
middle of each slice; weigh them, and allow to each 
pound of fruit one pound of the best white sugar; 
cover the bottom of a deep dish with a thick layer 
of the sugar; on this a layer of the pineapple slices, 
and so on alternately, ending up with sugar on top. Let 
them stand twenty-four hours, then drain the slice? from the 
syrup and lay them in wide jars. Put all the syrup in a 
porcelain bottle and boil and strain until the scum ceases to 
rise, then pour it hot upon the pineapple, and cover. 

I take this recipe from my great grandmother^s book, and 
have never tasted any pineapple that compared with what I 
preserve this way. The 24th May is the cheapest and best 
time for preserving them. 



CANDIES. 



In tlie making of confections, the best granulated or loaf 
sugar should be used. (Beware of glucose mixed with 
sugar.) Sugar is boiled more or less, according to the kind 
of candy to be made, and it is necessary to understand the 
proper degree of sugar boiling to operate it successfully. 

Occasionally sugar made into candies, "creams'^ or 
syrups, will need clarifying. The process is as follows : 
Beat up well the white of an egg with a cupful of cold water 
and pour it into a very clean iron or thick new tin sauce- 
pan, then put into the pan four cupfuls of sugar, mixed with 
a cupful of warm water. Put on the stove, and heat moder- 
ately until the scum rises. Remove the pan, and skim off 
the top, then place on the fire again until the scum rises again. 
Then remove as before, and so continue until no scum rises. 

This recipe is for good broAvn or yellowish sugar ; for soft, 
white sugars, half the white of an egg will do, and for refined 
or loaf sugar a quarter will do. 

The quantities of sugar and water are the same in all 
eases. Loaf sugar will generally do for all candy-making 
without furtlier clarification. Brown or yellow sugars are 
used for caramels, dark-colored cocoanut, taffy, and pulled 
molasses candies generally. 

Havana is the cheapest grade of white sugar and a shade 
or two lighter than the brown. 

Confectioners' A is superior in color and grain to the 
Havana. It is a centrifugal sugar — that is, it is not re- 
boiled to procure its white color, but is moistened with water 
and then put into rapidly revolving cylinders. The un- 
crystallized syrup or molasses is whirled out of it, and the 
sugar comes out with a dry, white grain. 

Icing or Powdered Sugars. This is powdered loaf sugar. 
Icing can only be made with powdered sugar, which is pro- 
duced by grinding or crushing loaf sugar as fine as flour 
nearly. 



38» CANDIES. 

Granulated Sugar. This is a coarse-grained sugar, gen- 
erally very clean and sparkling, and fit for use as a colored 
sugar in crystallized goods, and other superior uses. 

This same syrup answers for most candies, and should 
be boiled to such a degree that when a fork or splinter is 
dipped into it the liquid will run off and form a thick drop 
oh the end, and long, silk-like threads hang from it when 
exposed to the air. The syrup never to be stirred while hot, 
or else it will grain, but if intended for soft, French candies, 
should be removed, and, when nearly cold, stirred to a cream. 
For hard, brittle candies, the syrup should be boiled until, 
when a little is dropped in cold water, it will crack and break 
when biting it. 

The hands should be buttered when handling it, or it 
will stick to them. 

The top of the inside of the dish that the sugar or mo- 
lasses is to be cooked in, should be buttered a few inches 
around the inside; it prevents the syrup from rising and 
swelling any higher than where it reaches the buttered edge. 

For common crack candies, the sugar can be kept from 
graining by adding a teaspoonf ul of vinegar or Gillett's Cream 
Tartar. 

Essences and extracts should be bought at the druggist's, 
not the poor kind usually sold at the grocer's. 

Granulated sugar is preferable. Candy should not be 
stirred after it begins to boil. Butter should be added when 
candy is almost done. 

BUTTEE SCOTCH. 

One cup of brown sugar, butter the size of an egg, two 
tablespoonfuls of milk; flavor with vanilla; boU until it 
hardens on a spoon. 

CAEAMELS. 

One cup of molasses, one cup of brown sugar, one cup of 
cream or milk, piece of butter the size of an egg ; beat all to- 
gether; boil until it thickens in water. Turn into flat tins, 
and when nearly cold cut into small squares. 



CANDIES. 333 

PEANUT CANDY. 

Shell and skin a quart of peanuts, and roll them until fine. 
Place a heaping coffee cup of granulated sugar in a sauce- 
pan. Set it over a hot fire and stir the contents quickly until 
it melts. Do this while the peanuts are being heated through 
in the oven, and after the pans are buttered and set on the 
back of the range to be kept hot. When the sugar has melted 
pour the hot peanuts into it, remove from the fire and pour 
into the hot buttered pans. When cold it can be broken into 
pieces. 

HICKOKY-NUT CANDY. 

One cup of meats, two cups of sugar, half a cup of water ; 
boil sugar and water without stirring until thick enough to 
spin a thread. Set off to cool. Stir until white, and add 
nut meats. Turn into a flat tin and when cold cut in squares. 

YUM YUM. 

One pound of brown sugar, enough water to thoroughly 
moisten it. Butter size of an egg. Cook until it becomes 
brittle when dropped into cold water, then pull until creamy 
white. 

VELVET CREAM CANDY. 

Two cups of sugar, one cup of milk. . Cook until it will 
roll in fingers. Let it cool, and pull and pat until it becomes 
creamy. Pat out flat in platter, and cover with a damp nap- 
kin until ready to use. Better second day. 

COCOANUT CREAM CANDY. 

One cup of sugar and a little water boiled without stirring 
until it will spin a thread. Take from the fire ; add a large 
tablespoonful of shredded cocoanut and stir until creamy. 
Drop size of a penny on buttered paper. Slip off when cool 
and pack in boxes. 

CARAMELS. 

Three pounds brown sugar, one cake of chocolate, one cup 
of cream or milk, butter the size of an egg; flavor with van- 



334 CANDIES. 

ilia. Grate the chocolate and dissolve; then add the sugar 
and hutter and boil until they will harden in cold water. Put 
into a buttered pan ; work off in squares when half cold. 

SCOTCH TOFFEE. 

Take two pounds of fine yellow sugar, six ounces of fresh 
butter ; melt the butter slowly and when fully melted add the 
sugar. Mix thoroughly and stir in sufficient cream to make 
the whole of the consistency of a thin batter. Now place on 
the stove and stir until the boiling point is reached. After 
this it must not be stirred on any account. Boil very slowly 
until it feels tough, but not brittle, when tested by cooling 
a little in cold water. Now pour into buttered trays and cool 
slowly, then cut into squares. The color may be made a 
rich brown by the addition of a teaspoonful of cochineal be- 
fore boiling. Success depends largely on slow boiling and 
cooling. The above recipe is from a famous Scottish con- 
fectioner. 

MAPLE CREAM CANDY. 

Three cups of brown sugar, half a cup of cream or milk. 
When it comes to the boil add a dessertspoonful of butter. Let 
it boil for fifteen minutes, stirring just before taking off the 
fire, put in tablespoonful of vanilla ; remove from the fire; 
beat briskly for five minutes. Butter your plates. 

CHOCOLATE CARAMELS. 

Put on the fire in a saucepan two pounds of brown sugar, 
half a pound of Baker's chocolate, broken into small pieces, 
and a small cupful of cold water. Boil this until a little 
of it hardens in water, stir into it two tablespoonfuls of but- 
ter and two teaspoonfuls of vanilla, turn into buttered pans 
and cut into squares. If you like the sugary, soft caramels, 
stir the mixture hard for several minutes after you take it 
from the fire; but should you prefer the sticky variety, add 
four tablespoonfuls of molasses to your sugar when you put 
it on to cook, and do not stir it after it leaves the stove. 



CANDIES. 335 



CHOCOLATE CREAMS. 

To the white of an egg, mixed with as much water, add 
enough confectioner's sugar to make a dough-like paste that 
can be worked with the lingers into small balls. Grate six 
tablespoonfuls of sweetened chocolate, melt it, without water, 
in a cup on the stove, and when smooth and thick dip your 
balls of sugar-paste into it and then let them dry on waxed 
paper. They may have to be dipped several times before they 
are satisfactory. 

MAPLE SUGAR CAA^DY (No. 1). 

Take two pounds of maple sugar, broken into small pieces, 
and put it in a saucepan with a quart of rich milk — part 
cream is better. Let this boil until it reaches the stage 
where it hardens in cold water; pour it into pans, and mark 
it in squares as you would taffy or caramels. 

MAPLE SUGAR CANDY (No. 2.) 

One pound of maple sugar ; one pint of milk ; one table- 
spoonful of butter. Break the sugar into small pieces and 
put it into a double boiler with the milk. Put it on the stove 
and cook until the sugar melts. Set the inner vessel of the 
double boiler directly on the stove and boil, stirring constant- 
ly, until the syrup reaches the stage where a little dropped in 
cold water becomes brittle. Add your butter then, and when 
this is melted turn the syrup into greased pans. As it cools, 
mark it off in squares with a knife. 

MAPLE SUGAR CREAM CANDY. 

To one cup thick cream add two cups maple sugar cut in 
small pieces. Boil, stirring always one way until when tried 
in cold water the mixture adheres to spoon. Remove from 
fire and stir the opposite way until mixture gets quite thick ; 
add one-half cup chopped walnuts and pour out on buttered 
platter. When cold cut in small squares. 



336 CANDIES. 

NOUGAT. 

The simplest, if perhaps the least scientific, way to make 
this is the following : Boil together a pound of sugar and half 
a cupful of cold water until a little of it becomes brittle when 
dropped in cold water. Do not stir it after the sugar melts. 
Butter a shallow tin — a biscuit-pan will answer — and cover 
the bottom closely with blanched almonds, the kernels of 
hickory, pecan, and hazel nuts, thin strips of cocoanut, split 
and stoned dates, bits of figs, etc. When the candy is done 
add to it a tablespoonful of lemon-juice, and pour it over 
your nuts and fruits. Mark it into strips or squares when 
cool. 

MAPLE CREAM. 

Proceed as in preceding recipe, using maple sugar instead 
of the plain white sugar. 

STUFFED DATES. 

Eemove the stone and put in its place a bit of fondant, 
or, better still, a peanut or a blanched almond and dust with 
fine sugar. 

TUEKISH DELIGHT. 

One ounce gelatine, soak in one-half cup of cold water for 
two hours; one pound of granulated sugar put in a pan with 
one-half cup of cold water. Stand the pan over the fire until 
the sugar is melted and comes to the boil; add soaked gelatine 
and boil steadily for twenty minutes; flavor with the juice of 
one lemon and one orange and a tablespoonful of rum, WeV 
a tin in cold water and turn the mixture in, having it about 
one inch thick; when it is hard or jellied, spread icing sugar 
over the top and cut into inch square pieces; roll in the icing 
sugar. A few chopped nuts added with the flavoring makes 
it much nicer. Let the mixture stand in the pan over night 
before cutting, as it is very sticky. 

N.B. — This is one of the most wholesome of candies and 
will not hurt any person either sick or well, as it is really 
jelly. 



CANDIES. 337 

CUKEANT DROPS. 

Use currant-juice, instead of water, to moisten a quantity 
of sugar. Put it in a pan and heat, stirring constantly; be 
sure not to let it boil ; then mix a very little more sugar, let 
it warm with the rest a moment; then, with a smooth stick, 
drop on paper. 

LEMON DROPS. 

Upon a coffee-cupful of finely powdered sugar, pour just 
enough lemon-juice to dissolve it, and boil it to the consistency 
of thick syrup, and so that it appears brittle when dropped 
iu cold water. Drop this on buttered plates in drops ; set 
away to cool and harden. 

NUT MOLASSES CANDY. 

When making molasses candy, add any kind of nuts you 
fancy; put them in after the syrup has thickened, and is ready 
to take from the fire; pour out on buttered tins. Mark it 
off in squares before it gets too cool. Peanuts should be fresh 
roasted and then tossed in a sieve, to free them of their inner 
skins. 

SUGAR NUT CANDY. 

Three pounds of white sugar; half a pint of water; half 
a pint of vinegar; a quarter of a pound of butter; one pound 
of hickory-nut kernels. Put the sugar, butter, vinegar and 
water together into a thick saucepan. When it begins to 
thicken, add the nuts. To test it, take up a very small quan- 
tity as quickly as possible directly from the centre, taking 
care not to disturb it any more than is necessary. Drop it 
into cold water, and remove from the fire the moment the 
little particles are brittle. Pour into buttered plates. Use 
nny nuts with this recipe. 

COCOANUT CANDY. 

One cocoanut, one and one-half pounds of granulated 
sugar. Put sugar and milk of cocoanut together, heat slowly 
♦22 



338 CANDIES. 

until the sugar is melted, then boil five minutes ; add eocoanut 
(finely grated), boil ten minutes longer, stir constantly to 
keep from burning. Pour on buttered plates, cut in squares. 
Will take about two days to harden. Use prepared eocoanut 
v.hen other cannot be had. 

MOLASSES CANDY. 

Put one quart of West India molasses, one cupful of brown 
sugar, a piece of butter the size of half an egg, into a six- 
quart kettle. Let boil over a slack fire until it begins to look 
thick, stirring it often to prevent burning. Test it by taking 
some out and dropping a few drops in a cup of cold water. 
If it hardens quickly and breaks short between the teeth it 
is boiled enough. Now put in half a teaspoonful of Magic 
Soda, and stir it well; then pour it out into well-buttered 
flat tins. When partly cooled, take up the candy with your 
hands well buttered, then pull and double, and so on, until 
the candy is a whitish yellow. It may be cut in strips and 
rolled or twisted. If flavoring is desired, drop the flavor- 
ing on the top as it begins to cool, and when it is pulled, the 
whole will be flavored. 

FUDGE. 

Two cups white sugar, one cup milk, one-quarter pound 
Baker's unsweetened chocolate, butter the size of a walnut. 
Scald the milk, then add the sugar, butter and chocolate 
broken into small pieces. Boil until it sets when tried in 
cold water. Take off the fire, and beat until nearly cold. 
Then turn out on plates and mark into squares. 

CEEAM CHOCOLATE CARAMELS. 

Half pint sugar, half pint molasses, half pint thick cream, 
one large tablespoonful butter, four ounces Baker^s chocolate. 
Place on the fire and stir till it boils. Cook till it hardens 
in cold water; stir frequently while boiling. 



CHAFING DISH. 



WITH THE CHAFUSTG DISH. 

A few years ago it might have been thought necessary to 
iuclude, in a book of this character, an elaborate treatise 
upon the methods of cooking with the chafing dish, and a 
long list of recipes. But we have changed all that. Few 
and far between are the homes in which the chafing dish is 
not a familiar friend, and each man or woman who handles it 
has his, or her, own pet recipes for at least the best-known 
dishes that can be prepared ever an alcohol flame. There- 
fore it is not designed to give elementary instructions here. 
There follow only such dishes as have seemed new or unusual, 
and so worthy of being made known to the public. 

DEVILED OYSTERS. 

Twenty oysters ; one gill of oyster-liquor ; two tablespoon- 
f uls of butter ; one dessertspoonful of flour ; one teaspoonf ul 
of salt; half a tablcspoonful of curry powder; one teaspoon- 
ful of Worcestershire sauce; ten drops of Tabasco sauce; 
juice of one lemon. 

Melt the butter in the blazer, stir in the flour, and when 
this is blended, the oyster-liquor and all the seasoning except 
the lemon-juice. As soon as the sauce is boiling hot, drop 
in the oysters and cook three minutes or until they plump. 
Add the lemon-juice and serve them at once on Graham toast. 

Huntley & Palmer's Breakfast Biscuits make an excellent 
substitute for toast in chafing-dish cookery. 

OYSTEES WITH ANCHOVY. 

Twenty oysters, two tablespoonfuls of butter, one heaping 
teaspoonf ul of anchovy paste, a little cayenne; juice of a 
lemon. 



340 CHAFING DISH. 

Melt the butter and the anchovy together in the blazer, 
piit in the oysters, cook three minutes, add the cayenne and 
lemon-juice and serve on buttered toast or "breakfast- 
biscuit." 

CELERY OYSTERS. 

Twenty fine oysters, one gill of oyster-liquor, half a cup- 
ful of crisp celery, minced fine ; two tablespoonf uls of butter, 
one gill of cream, one gill of sherry or Madeira, one teaspoon- 
ful, each, of salt and paprica. 

Put the oyster-liquor, celery, and paprica in the chafing 
dish over hot water, and when it comes to a boil simmer three 
or four minutes; add the butter and the cream, and when 
iliese are boiling hot put in the oysters. Cook until the 
edges curl, stir in the wine and salt, and serve at once on 
toast. 

CLAMS SAUTE. 

Twenty soft clams, from which the tough part has been 
removed; two slices of salt pork or fat bacon cut into fine 
dice; a little white pepper. 

Fry the pork or bacon crisp in the blazer, and when the 
dice begin to brown push them to the side of the pan and lay 
in the clams. Saute them, turning once or twice, and serve 
on Graham or Boston brown bread toast. 

DEVILED SARDINES. 

One box of boneless sardines, drained and skinned; two 
tablespoonf uls of butter ; one teaspoonful of paprica, or one- 
half saltspoonf ul of cayenne ; one saltspoonf ul salt ; one table- 
spoonful of lemon-juice. 

Melt the butter in the blazer and when hissing hot lay in 
the sardines. Cook until heated through, turning once, 
sprinkle with salt and paprica, add the lemon- juice, and serve 
on toast. 



CHAFING DISH. 341 

SHEIMPS WITH ANCHOVY SAUCE. 

One can of shrimps, two tablespoonfuls of butter, one gill 
of cream, one teaspoonful of anchovy paste, yolks of two 
eggs, half saltspoonful of cayenne. 

Melt together the butter and anchovy, lay in the shrimps, 
pepper them, and saute until they are hot through. Break 
the eggs in a bowl, beat the cream into them, and pour into 
the chafing dish. Stir two or three minutes, until the sauce 
thickens, and serve at once on toast. 

This dish should be prepared over hot water. 

SHEIMPS WITH TOMATO SAUCE. 

One cupful of tomato sauce (see recipe). This can easily 
be prepared in the chafing dish. One can of shrimps. Salt 
to taste, and one saltspoonful of cayenne. 

Stir the shrimps into the tomato sauce, bring to a boil, 
season, and serve on toast or in scallop-shells, or nappies. 

CELEEY LOBSTEE. 

Two cupfuls of lobster-meat, cut into small pieces; one 
cupful of crisp celery, minced ; two tablespoonfuls of butter ; 
one dessertspoonful of flour; half a pint of milk; yolks of 
two eggs; one teaspoonful of salt; one saltspoonful of cay- 
enne ; juice of a lemon. 

Cook together the butter and flour over hot water, add the 
milk, stir until smooth, put in the celery and cook three 
minutes, add the lobster, seasoning, and yolk of egg; stir 
until thick, and serve, 

HUNGAEIAN MUSHEOOMS. 

Half a pound of fresh mushrooms, stemmed and peeled; 
three tablespoonfuls of salad oil; one teaspoonful of paprica; 
one saltspoon of pepper. 

CHICKEN CEOQUETTES (CHAFING DISH). 

Four cups minced chicken. One cup bread crumbs, three 
Gggs. Tablespoonful butter and seasoning. Mix and make 



343 CHAFING DISH. 

into balls, dip into beaten egg and bread criuDbs. Pry a nice 
brown. 

WELSH EAREBIT (FOR CHAFING DISH). 

Break two eggs into the upper pan of the chafing dish, 
beat them well, then add half a pound of soft, mild cheese, 
broken into small bits; one tablespoonful of butter, half tea- 
spoonful of salt, one teaspoonful mustard, a grain of ca3'enne 
and half a cupful of cream or milk; stir this mixture well, 
until cheese is melted. Serve on crisp toast or on toasted 
thin water-crackers. 

HOT TARTARE SAUCE. 

One tablespoonful of butter; melt in saucepan; stir in 
one tablespoonful of flour, enough boiling water to make it 
not too thick; let stand to cool five minutes, then drop in 
3'olk of one egg and beat up and add a little more butter and 
water if too thick ; then add a teaspoonful of vinegar and one 
teaopoonful of chopped pickled cucumber. 

LOBSTER A LA NEWBERG. 

Three tablespoons butter, melted in chafing dish, one caw 
lobster, added. When hot add one small cup of milk, one cup 
sherry (very slowly), salt and cayenne to taste. Thicken 
with one tablespoonful cornstarch dissolved in a little milk. 
Just before serving stir in one egg beaten very light. 



FOREIGN RECIPES. 



ENTEEE (BAVAEIAN STYLE). 

One-half pound Leef coUops, one-half pound sausage 
meat, one egg, salt and pepper to taste, one small onion 
minced fine; form into croquettes. Have some half -boiled 
leaves of cabbage, wrap each croquette in one large leaf, com- 
pletely covering the meat, tie firmly and fry slowly in lard 
and butter (half and half) until brown on both sides. Serve 
on a flat platter with gravy poured over, which may be in- 
creased by addition of a little boiling water. 

CAULIFLOWEE A"D GEATIN. 

An Italian Eecipe. 

Boil in hot, salted water and divide into tiny clusters, a 
" flower " or two on each. Butter a deep dish and put in a 
layer of these, sprinkling with butter, salt, and pepper, and 
covering first with Parmesan cheese, then with cracker- 
crumbs. Wet each layer with milk, and fill the dish in this 
order, finishing with a layer of crumbs dotted with butter- 
bits, and dusted with cayenne. Bake, covered, half an hour, 
then brown. Serve in the dish. 

GEEMAN PTTDDING. 

One cup stewed apples, sweetened; one cup of bread- 
crumbs soaked in milk; piece of butter size of egg, table- 
spoonful of sugar creamed with butter; three eggs, yolks 
and whites beaten separately ; juice of one lemon and some of 
the peel chopped fine; a few almonds chopped fine and mixed 
well with butter. Steam. 

GHEEKIN SALAT (GEEMAN). 

Peel medium-sized cucumbers. Slice across as thin as 
possible into salted water, in which leave for several hours. 



344 FOREIGN RECIPES. 

Take out and drain, place in towel and wring gently until 
dry. Turn into salad dish and toss lightly in French dress- 
ing (oil, vinegar, salt and pepper), and sprinkle with finely 
chopped parsley. 

HEISSER-KEAUT SALAT (GEEMAN). 

Slice as fine as possible half a hard crisp cabbage. Should 
be in shreds ; put in frying-pan with butter and cook slightly, 
turning carefully. Pour over it vinegar and water and cover 
closely until cooked. Serve hot with boiled pickled pigs' 
knuckle that has been carefully and slowly cooked until al- 
most jellied. 

KARTOFFEL SALAT (GERMAN). 

One quart cold boiled potatoes cut into dice, two onions 
shaved as thin as possible, one tablespoonful of nicely minced 
parsley. Mix in salad bowl, dressing with vinegar, oil and 
seasoning of salt and pepper. 

HAMBURG STEAK (AS MADE IN HAMBURG). 

Procure some thin slices of beef from a round (uncooked) . 
Pound a little to tender. Divide into portions the size of your 
hand. On each portion strew a little thyme, or savory, a little 
pepper, a dust of salt and some pounded onions. Have a por- 
tion of veal kidney suet and form the bits of beef into rolls 
with a bit of kidney suet in the inside. Tie with twine, or if 
possible darn little silver skewers into the flap of each steak 
to keep rolled. Dust in flour and place in a frying-pan with 
some butter or nice dripping ; roll the steak so that each side 
may get brown. Then carefully pour in a cupful of boiling 
water, cover the frying pan tight and set on some part of 
range where the steaks may cook very slowly. Turn out in 
ten minutes or longer on a very hot dish and pour gravy over 
them. A little more gravy may be supplied by browning 
some flour after lifting the steaks and thinning with boiling 
water. 



FOREIGN RECirES. 345 

BEELINEE LOBSTER. 

One fresh lobster, cut into small pieces, put in butter size 
of egg, melt quickly in double boiler. Beat up yolks of three 
eggs with one-half pint of best cream; beat slowly while 
standing in another dish of hot water till creamy, then take 
ofE the fire. Add salt and paprica to taste and small glass of 
best sherry. Pour over lobster and serve quickly and hot. 

GERMAN RED CABBAGE. 

Shave one head of red cabbage very fine, put slowly into 
quart of boiling water; add one onion cut fine, two large 
apples, salt, pepper and allspice to taste, wineglass best sherry, 
one-quarter cup vinegar, two tablespoons sugar, butter size 
of two eggs, let simmer one and one-half or two hours and 
serve hot. This is delicious. 

GERMAN COFFEE CAKE. 

To a quart of lukewarm milk use one cake Royal Yeast, 
flour enough to make stiff sponge (sifting flour twice be- 
fore using), knead till batter shows large bubbles, mix in even- 
ing; next morning knead again; put batter about three-quar- 
ters high in tins, let raise till twice this size, glaze with melted 
butter, and sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar over top (or 
chopped almonds instead of cinnamon). Bake in medium 
hot oven. Serve with coffee. 

TO BOIL RICE. 

(Recipe in Native's Own Words.) 

Wash him well, much wash in cold water, the rice water 
make him stick, wash all quite away. Water boil in sauce- 
pan all ready, very fast; throw rice in, can't burn water shake 
him 80 much. Boil quarter of an hour or little more. Rub 
rice in finger and thumb, if soft him well done. Put rice 
in colander, hot water go away; pour cup of cold water on 
him; put back rice in saucepan, keep him covered up near 
fire; then rice all done, eat him up. 



346 FOREIGN RECIPES. 

BAKED RICE CURRY. 

An East Indian Dish. 

Wash a cupful of raw rice in three waters, and let it soak 
fifteen minutes in water enough to cover it. Boil an onion 
in a quart of water with a little salt until the onion is very 
soft. Strain the water, squeezing the onion hard in a bit of 
cloth. Throw it away, put the water over the fire with a 
heaping teaspoonful of curry-powder, and when it boils again 
pour upon the rice and the water in which it was soaked. 
Turn all into a jar with a close top, or a casserole dish with 
a cover, and set in a moderate oven until the rice has soaked 
up the liquid and is swollen and soft, but not broken. Serve 
in a deep, open dish, and pour over it a few spoonfuls of 
melted butter, loosening the rice gently with a fork to allow 
the butter to penetrate to the bottom. Serve with roast 
chicken, veal, or fish. 

THE BEGUM'S CURRY. 

Meat or chicken, one tablespoon curry powder, one table- 
spoon vinegar, one-half tablespoon Harvey sauce, salt, cocoa- 
nut, ground rice, butter, one-half cup gravy, onions. Cut 
soma meat into small dice, and put butter in frying-pan; fry 
the meat a nice brown. Whilst cooking, add all ingredients, 
which must be previously all mixed together. One tablespoon 
curry powder, one of vinegar, one-half of Harvey sauce, a 
little salt, the juice of a cocoanut, groimd rice and butter. 
Then add half a cup of gravy. Stir all together. Let it cook 
a little while, and then turn the curry into a brown earthen- 
ware jar. Fry some onions in butter, and add to the curry. 
Let the jar stand on the hob and simmer until required. 

BEET-TOPS. 

A German Recipe, 

Cut half a pound of cold boiled ham into dice and fry in 
a little salad oil with half a grated onion. Add two table- 
spoonfuls of hot vinegar, and set in hot water while you 



FOREIGN RECIPES. 347 

wash, pick over, and boil the greens in hot, salted water. 
Fifteen minutes should make them tender. Chop fine, drain 
well, and mix with the fried ham and vinegar. Dish hot, 
with poached eggs on top of the greens. 

BAKED OmONS. 

' A Norwegian Eecipe. 

Cook tender in two waters — the second salted and boiling. 
Drain well, pressing each onion in a coarse cloth, gently, not 
to break it, and when they are dry, lay all together, side by 
side, in a bake-pan. Pepper, salt, and butter, and add a 
cupful of stock. Brown in a quick oven ; take out the onions 
and keep them hot in a deep dish while you thicken the gravy 
left in the pan with browned flour. Pour over the onions, 
set in the oven for two minutes, and serve. 

STUFFED SWEET PEPPEES. 

Make an incision in one side, and extract the seeds through 
this wdth a bit of stick. StujS with a force-meat of tongue, 
chicken, ham, or veal, mixed up with boiled rice, and sea- 
soned with salt, a dash of onion-juice, and a little butter. 
Sew up the peppers with a few stitches, pack them into a 
bake-dish, pour in enough weak stock to keep them from 
burning, cover and bake in a moderate oven for an hour, then 
dish, withdrawing the strings. Keep hot while you add to 
the gravy in the dish a tablespoonful of brown roux. Boil 
up once and pour over the peppers. Should the gravy have 
boiled away too much, put in a little boiling water to thin 
the roux. This is a Syrian recipe and excellent. 

STEWED CAULIFLOWEE A LA HOLLANDAISE. 

Cut into large clusters of uniform size and stew tender in 
weak stock or bouillon. (This may be utilized afterward for 
soup.) Drain, butter, salt, and pepper, and pass with it 
drawn-butter, into which have been whipped the yolks of two 
raw eggs. This is a Dutch recipe and good. 



348 FOREIGN RECIPES. 

CEEAMED YOUNG CAEROTS. 

Scald for five minutes and rub off the skins with a rough 
cloth. Slice crosswise and thin. Heat in a saucepan a table- 
spoonful of butter, two of hot water, salt and pepper to taste, 
and put in the sliced carrots. Cook gently, covered, for half 
an hour. In another saucepan heat four tablespoonfuls of 
cream and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. When the mix- 
ture boils take from the fire and pour upon the beaten yolks 
of two eggs. Stir up well, pour over the carrots, cook one 
scant mmute and dish. This is a French recipe. 

SWISS APPLE PUDDING. 

Apples, breadcrumbs, moist sugar, butter. 

Prepare the apples as for a pie, and put a layer of them in 
a buttered dish; cover with breadcrumbs, and a little sugar, 
and a few small pieces of butter. Repeat this until the dish 
is full, and bake till well browned. When finished, turn it 
out of the dish and sprinkle with white sugar. 

AUSTRIAN PUDDING. 

One pound of flour, a pinch of salt, one large teaspoonful 
of Magic Baking Powder, one-quarter pound finely chopped 
suet, one tablespoonful of sugar, one breakfastcup of milk, 
one breakfastcup of treacle. 

Mix the dry ingredients together, then warm the milk, stir 
it into the treacle, and add it to the pudding. Mix well and 
boil in a well-buttered basin for three hours. 

RICH CHOCOLATE TORTE (GERMAN). 

One-half pound Cowan's chocolate (made in Toronto), 
one-half pound pounded almonds, one-half pound sugar, 
yolks of seven eggs, very well beaten with the sugar ; add the 
whites thoroughly beaten, last. Butter a flat shallow pan 
with unsalted butter, and sift in finely rolled cracker or 
bread crumbs. Pour in the mixture and cook half an hour 
in a moderate oven. Must be cut while hot into cubes. Will 
keep well for weeks. 



BEVERAGES. 



Boiling water is a very important desicleratum in the 
iTiaking of a good cup of coffee or tea, but the average house- 
wife is very apt to overlook this fact. Do not boil the water 
more than three or four minutes; longer boiling ruins the 
water for coffee or tea-making, as most of its natural pro- 
perties escape by evaporation, leaving a very insipid liquid, 
composed mostly of lime and iron, that would ruin the best 
coffee, and give the tea a dark, dead look, when it ought to be 
the reverse. 

Water left in the tea-kettle over night must never be used 
for preparing the breakfast coffee; no matter how excellent 
your coffee or tea may be, it will be ruined by the addition of 
water that has been boiled more than once. 

THE HEALING PEOPEETIES OF TEA AND COFFEE. 

The medical properties of these two beverages are con- 
siderable. Tea is used advantageously in inllammatory dis- 
eases and as a cure for the headache. Coffee is supposed to 
act as a preventive of gravel and gout, and to its influence 
is ascribed the rarity of those diseases in France and Turkey. 
Both tea and coffee powerfully counteract the effects of opium 
and intoxicating liquors; though, when taken in excess, and 
without nourishing food, they themselves produce, tempor- 
arily at least, some of the more disagreeable consequences in- 
cident to the use of ardent spirits. In general, however, 
none but persons possessing great mobility of the nervous 
system, or enfeebled or effeminate constitutions, are injuri- 
ously affected by the moderate use of tea and coffee in con- 
nection with food. 



350 BEVERAGES. 

MAKING COFFEE. 

1. The coffee should be roasted just before use; as if kept 
more than one day after roasting there is a decided loss of 
aroma. 

2. The simplest way of roasting coffee is in an enamelled 
fiying-pan. Eoast the beans over a mild, smokeless fire until 
the beans turn a rich brown color, not black. The beans must 
be constantly stirred and turned, or they will burn. 

3. Take one large tablespoonful of coffee powder for each 
cup of coffee required. 

4. Put the powder into a jug and pour boiling water over 
it in the proportion of half a cupful of water to each table- 
spoonful of coffee powder. The water must be at full boiling 
point. 

5. Let the coffee stand in the jug for half an hour, and 
then strain through a linen or cotton bag (muslin is too thin) 
into the coffee-pot. 

6. To one-quarter of a cupful of coffee add three-fourths 
of boiling milk, and sugar to taste. 

The directions must be strictly adhered to. 

GINGEE BEER. ' 

Pour ten quarts of boiling water on three pounds of white 
sugar, three ounces of whole ginger bruised, three ounces of 
Gillett's Cream Tartar, the thin rind and juice of six lem- 
ons. When cool add six teaspoons of brewer^s yeast or two 
cakes Royal Yeast; let stand two days, bottle and cork. 

BEVERAGE. 

Ingredients are: three lemons, one ounce of tartaric acid 
and three pounds of sugar. Pare rind of lemons as thin as pos- 
sible, put rinds, white sugar and tartaric into a jar and cover 
with quart boiling water, and stir till sugar is melted. When 
cold add the juice of the lemons and two quarts of cold water. 
When about to serve add two bottles of ginger ale. 



BEVERAGES. 351 

RtJSSIAN TEA. 

One quart of boiling water poured on two tablespoonfuls 
of black tea; add large cup or three parts of sugar and the 
juice of four lemons. Let stand two hours, then strain 
through a cloth; add large piece of ice. A delicious drink 
for hot weather. 

CHOCA. 

This drink is a combination of coffee and chocolate, and 
has many adherents. To prepare it, scald one pint of milk 
and add the same amount of boiling water. Mix together 
four tablespoonfuls of sugar and one scant cupful of grated 
cliocolate. Add sufficient of the hot liquid to mix to a smooth 
paste, gradually dilute and turn into the milk and water, 
then cook gently for five minutes. Add a pinch of salt, one 
pint of very strong clear coffee, and ten drops of vanilla, and 
take from the fire. Serve with whipped cream for luncheon 
or 5 o'clock tea. 

GINaER COEDIAL. 

One gallon of whisky, eight lemons, four pounds of 
sugar, quarter-pound of whole ginger biscuit, one quart of 
water added to the sugar, and four pounds of red currants 
if made in summer. Put the whisky, lemons and ginger 
in a crock and let it stand for three days, stirring every day; 
then strain and add the sugar, which has been dissolved in 
the quart of water. Stir until all is well mixed ; then bottle. 
Ready for use at once. 

MILK PUNCH. 

Pare six oranges and six lemons as thin as possible ; grate 
them with lump sugar to get the flavor. Steep the peels in a 
quart of rum and a pint of brandy in a close crock for twenty- 
four hours. Squeeze the fruit on two pounds of sugar ; add 
four quarts of water and one quart of boiling hot new milk ; 
then stir the rum and brandy into the above and run it 
through a Jelly bag until perfectly clear. Bottle and cork at 
onoe. It will keep good for some weeks. 



352 BEVERAGBS. 

MILK PUNCH. 

Steep rinds cut from ten or twelve lemons in one bottle 
brandy for three days with a grated nutmeg; shake fre- 
quently. Dissolve two pounds loaf sugar in one and one-half 
bottles water, add two bottles rum, one pint lime juice and 
the above lemon brandy. Bring one bottle of fresh milk to 
a boil, and that instant pour it into the other ingredients, 
stirring constantly. Let stand twenty-four hours and strain 
through double flannel; cork well. Will keep any time. 

CLAEET CUP. 

For about fifty people put six bottles of claret, six of soda 
water, four lemons and six wine glasses of curacao. A large 
lump of ice. Peel lemons quite thin, throw the rind in bowl 
and then squeeze in the lemons; put a lump of ice in bowl 
first. Then pour claret on top of it, putting claret and 
soda in last. Sugar to taste. 

CLAEET CUP (AEMY EECIPE). 

One quart claret, one bottle soda, one-half pound crushed 
ice, four tablespoons sugar, one-quarter teaspoon grated nut- 
meg, wineglass of brandy or maraschino. 

CAFE FEAPPE. 

To one quart strong coffee sweetened, add the beaten 
whites one egg and freeze. Serve in glasses with whipped 
cream on top, or with vanilla ice cream. 

BLACK, OE AFTEE-DINNEE COFFEE. 

One cupful of freshly ground coffee; three large cupfuls 
of freshly boiled water. Make as directed in last recipe, run- 
ning through the filter three times. Serve in small cups, 
and give the drinkers their choice of sugar or no sugar. Black 
coffee is a good digestive agent and is far more wholesome 
than coffee mixed with cream or milk. 



BEVERASES. 353 

CAFE AU LAIT. 

One-half cupful of ground coffee; two cupfuls of boiling 
water ; one cupful and a half of fresh milk. Make the coffee 
in the usual way. Strain into a coffee-pot or pitcher, add the 
milk, scalding hot, and set for five minutes, closely covered, 
in boiling water. When allowed to cool and then iced this 
^.e a favorite beverage at hot-weather luncheons and picnics. 

CHOCOLATE. 

Allow to six tablespoonfuls of grated chocolate a pint of 
boiling water, and as much milk. Kub the chocolate to a 
paste with a little cold water, and stir into the hot water. 
Boil twenty minutes; add the milk and boil ten minutes 
longer, stirring often. Sweeten in the cups. It is improved 
by laying upon the surface of each cup a teaspoonf ul of cream. 

COCOA. 

" Cocoa,'* says a noted vmter upon dietetics, " is, for gen- 
eral use, a milder, less stimulating, and more nutritious bev- 
erage than tea or coffee." As it contains fifty per cent, of 
fat and twelve per cent, of albuminoids, the chemical analysis 
bears out the assertion. Boil a pint of water, rub three table- 
spoonfuls of grated cocoa to a smooth paste with cold water, 
and stir into the hot water. Boil ten minutes, hard, and pour 
upon it a pint of hot milk (with a bit of soda in it). Boil 
for ten minutes longer, stirring and beating well. Sweeten 
in the cups. 

LEMONADE. 

Four lemons, rolled, peeled, and sliced; four large spoon- 
fuls of sugar; one quart of water. Put lemons (sliced) and 
sugar into a pitcher and let them stand for an hour, then add 
water and ice. If you substitute Apollinaris for plain water 
you have a most refreshing drink. 

OEANGEADE. 

Make as you would lemonade, but add the juice of a lemon, 
a few bits of shredded orange-peel, and a slice of pineapple. 
Orangeade is insipidly sweet without these additions. 
•23 



354 BEVERAGES. 

RASPBERRY OR BLACKBERRY VINEGAR. 

Put a gallon of berries into a great crock and crush them 
well with a potato-beetle or wooden mallet. Cover an inch 
deep in cider-vinegar. Set in the hot sunshine for a day and 
leave all night in the cellar. Stir six times during the day 
of sunning. Strain and squeeze the berries dry and throw 
them away. Put another gallon of mashed berries into the 
strained vinegar and leave again in the sun all day and an- 
other night in the cellar. On the morrow strain and squeeze 
the berries and measure the liquid thus gained. For each 
quart allow a pint of water, and for every pint of the water 
thus added, five pounds of sugar (you have then five pounds 
of sugar for every three pints of mingled juice, vinegar, and 
water). Turn into a porcelain-lined or agate-iron kettle and 
set over the fire, stirring until the sugar melts. Heat to 
boiling, and boil hard one minute to throw up the scum. 
Skim w^ell, take from the fire, strain and, while still warm, 
bottle. Seal the corks with a mixture of beeswax and resin. 

RASPBERRY ROYAL. 

is made as in the last recipe, but a pint of fine brandy is 
added to every three quarts of the raspberry vinegar just be- 
fore it is bottled. 

BLACKBERRY CORDIAL. 

Pound and squeeze enough blackberries through a coarse 
nuislin bag to make a quart of juice. Put this into an agate- 
iron or porcelain-lined kettle, with a pound of sugar, two 
teaspoonfuls each of grated nutmeg, cinnamon, and allspice, 
and one teaspoonful of cloves. Tie the spices up in little 
tliin muslin bags and stir the sugar until dissolved. Set 
over the fire and cook together, after the boil begins, fifteen 
minutes. Take off the scum, turn into a jar, and cover closely 
while it cools. When perfectly cold strain out the spices and 
acid a pint of good brandy. Bottle and seal. This cordial 
will keep for years and is valuable in case of summer com- 
plaint and other intestinal disorders. 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 



TO MAKE BUTTER. 



Thoroughly scald the churn, then cool well with ice or 
dpring water. JSTow pour in the thick cream; churn fast at 
first, then, as the butter forms, more slowly, always with per- 
fect regularity ; in warm weather, pour a little cold water into 
the churn, should the butter form slowly; in winter, if the 
cream is too cold, add a little warm water to bring to the pro- 
per temperature. When the butter has " come," rinse the sides 
of the churn down with cold water, and take the butter up 
with the perforated dasher or a wooden ladle, turning it dexter- 
ously just below the surface of the buttermilk to catch every 
stray bit; have ready some very cold water, in a deep wooden 
tray, and into this plunge the dasher when you draw it from 
the churn; the butter will float oif, leaving the dasher free. 
When you have collected all the butter, gather behind a wooden 
butter-ladle, and drain off the water, squeezing and pressing 
the butter with the ladle ; then pour on more cold water, and 
work the butter with the ladle to get the milk out, drain off 
the water, sprinkle salt over the butter, — a tablespoonful to 
a pound — work it in a little, and set in a cool place for an 
hour to harden, then work and knead it until not another 
drop of water exudes, and the butter is perfectly smooth and 
close in texture and polish ; then with the ladle make up into 
rolls, little balls, stamped pats, etc. 

The churn, dasher, tray and ladle, should be well scalded 
before using, so that the butter will not stick to them, and 
then cooled with very cold water. 

When you skim cream into your cream jar, stir it well 
into what is already there, so that it may all sour alike; and 
no fresh cream should be put with it within twelve hours be- 
fore churning, or the butter will not come quickly, and per- 
haps not at all. 



356 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

Butter is indispensable in almost all culinary preparations. 
Good, fresh butter, used in moderation, is easily digested; it 
is softening, nutritious, and fattening, and is far. more easily 
digested than any other of the oleaginous substances some- 
times used in its place. 

TO MAKE BUTTEE QUICKLY. 

Immediately after the cow is milked, strain milk into clean 
pans, and set it over a moderate fire until it is scalding hot; 
do not let it boil; then set it aside; when it is cold, skim 
off the cream ; the milk will still be fit for any ordinary use ; 
when you have enough cream, put it into a clean earthen 
basin; beat it with a wooden spoon until the butter is made, 
which will not be long; then take it from the milk and work 
it with a little cold water, until it is free from milk; then 
d]TJn off the water, put a small tablespoonful of fine salt to 
each pound of butter, and work it in. A small teaspoonful 
of fine white sugar, worked in with the salt, will be found an 
improvement — sugar is a great preservative. Make the butter 
in a roll; cover it with a bit of muslin, and keep it in a cool 
place. A reliable recipe. 

A BEINE TO PRESEEVE BUTTEE. 

First work your butter into small rolls, wrapping each one 
carefully in a clean muslin cloth, tying them up with a string. 
Make a brine, say three gallons, having it strong enough of 
salt to bear up an egg* add half a teacupful of pure, white 
sugar, and one tablespooufr' of saltpetre; boil the brine, and 
when cold strain it carefully. Pour it over the rolls so as to 
more tlian cover them, as this excludes the air. Place a 
weight over all to keep the rolls under the surface. 

PUTTING UP BUTTEE TO KEEP. 

Take of the best pure, common salt two quarts, one ounce 
of white sugar and one of saltpetre; pulverize them together 
completely. Work the butter well, then thoroughly work in 
an ounce of this mixture to every pound of butter. The butter 
to be made into half-pound rolls, and put into the following 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 357 

brine — to three gallons of brine strong enough to bear an egg, 
add a quarter of a pound of white sugar. 

CUEDS AND CEEAM. 

One gallon of milk will make a moderate dish. Put one 
spoonful of prepared rennet to each quart of milk, and when 
you find that it has become curd, tie it loosely in a thin cloth 
and hang it to drain ; do not wring or press the cloth ; when 
drained, put the curd into a mug and set in cool water, which 
must be frequently changed (a refrigerator saves this trouble). 
When you dish it, if there is whey in the mug, ladle it gently 
out without pressing the curd ; lay it on a deep dish, and pour 
fresh cream over it; have powdered loaf-sugar to eat with it; 
also hand the nutmeg grater. 

Prepared rennet can be had at almost any druggist's, and 
at a reasonable price. Ask for Crosse & Blackwell's Prepared 
Rennet. 

NEW JEESEY CEEAM CHEESE. 

First scald the quantity of milk desired ; let it cool a little, 
then add the rennet ; the directions for quantity are given on 
the packages of " Prepared Eennet." When the curd is 
formed, take it out on a ladle without breaking it; lay it on 
a thin cloth held by two persons; dash a ladleful of water 
over each ladleful of curd, to separate the curd; hang it up 
to drain the water off, and then put it under a light press for 
one hour ; cut the curd with a thread into small pieces ; lay 
a cloth between each two, and press for an hour; take them 
out, rub them with fine salt, let them lie on a board for an 
hour, and wash them in cold water ; let them lie to drain, and 
in a day or two the skin will look dry ; put some sweet grass 
under and over them, and they will soon ripen. 

COTTAGE CHEESE. 

Put a pan of sour or loppered milk on the stove or range, 
where it is not too hot; let it scald until the whey rises to 
the top (be careful that it does not boil, or the curd will be- 
come hard and tough). Place a clean cloth or towel over a 



358 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

sieve, and pour this whey and curd into it, leaving it covered 
to drain two or three hours ; then put it into a dish and chop 
it fine with a spoon, adding a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoon- 
ful of butter and enough sweet cream to make the cheese the 
consistency of putty. With your hands make it into little 
balls flattened. Keep it in a cool place. Many like it made 
rather thin with cream, serving it in a deep dish. You may 
make this cheese of sweet milk, by forming the curd with 
prepared rennet. 

SLIP. 

Slip is bonny-clabber without its acidity, and so delicate is 
its flavor that many persons like it just as well as ice-cream. 
It is prepared thus : Make a quart of milk moderately warm ; 
then stir into it one large spoonful of the preparation called 
rennet; set it by, and when cool again it will be as stiff as 
jelly. It should be made only a few hours before it is to be 
used, or i' will be tough and watery; in summer set the dish 
on ice after it has jellied. It must be served with powdered 
sugar, nutmeg and cream. 

CHEESE EONDU. 

Melt an ounce of butter, and wliisk into it a pint of boiled 
milk. Dissolve two tablespoonfuls of flour in a gill of cold 
milk, add it to the boiled milk and let it cool. Beat the yolks 
of four eggs with a heaping teaspoonful of salt, half a tea- 
spoonful of pepper, and five ounces of grated cheese. Whip 
the whites of the eggs and add them, pour the mixture into 
a deep tin lined with buttered paper, and allow for the rising, 
say four inches. Bake twenty minutes and serve the moment 
it leaves the oven. 

CHEESE SOUFFLE. 

Melt an ounce of butter in a sauce-pan; mix smoothly 
with it one ounce of flour, a pinch of salt and cayenne and a 
quarter of a pint of milk ; simmer the mixture gently over the 
fire, stirring it all the time, till it is as thick as melted butter; 
stir into it about three ounces of finely-grated Parmesan, or 
any good cheese. Turn it into a basin, and mix with it the 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 359 

yolks of two well-beaten eggs. Whisk tliree whites to a solid 
froth, and just before the souffle is baked put them into it, 
and pour the mixture into a small round tin. It should be 
only half filled, as the fondu will rise very high. Pin a nap- 
kin around the dish in which it is baked, and serve the mo- 
ment it is baked. It would be well to have a metal cover 
strongly heated. Time twenty minutes. Sufficient for six 
persons. 

SCALLOPED CHEESE. 

Any person who is fond of cheese could not fail to like 
this recipe: 

Take three slices of bread, well-buttered, first cutting off 
the brown outside crust. Grate fine a quarter of a pound of 
any kind of good cheese ; lay the bread in layers in a buttered 
baking-dish, sprinkle over each the grated cheese, some salt 
and popper to taste. Mix four well-beaten eggs with three cups 
of milk; pour it over the bread and cheese. Bake it in a 
hot oven as you would cook a bread pudding. This makes 
an ample dish for four people. 

PASTEY EAMAKINS. 

Take the remains or odd pieces of any light puff-paste left 
from pies or tarts; gather up the pieces of paste, roll it out 
evenly, and sprinkle it with grated cheese of a nice flavor. 
Fold the paste in three, roll it out again, and sprinkle more 
cheese over ; fold the paste, roll it out, and with a paste-cutter 
shape it in any way that may be desired. Bake the ramakins 
in a brisk oven from ten to fifteen minutes, dish them on a 
hot napkin, and serve quickly. The appearance of this dish 
may be very much improved by brushing the ramakins over 
with yolk of egg before they are placed in the oven. Where 
expense is not objected to, Parmesan is the best kind of cheese 
to use for making this dish. 

Very nice with a cup of coffee for a lunch. 

CAYENNE CHEESE STEAWS. 

A quarter of a pound of flour, two ounces of butter, two 
ounces grated Parmesan cheese, a pinch of salt, and a few 



360 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

grains of cayenne pepper. Mix into a paste with the yolk 
of an egg. Eoll out to the thiclmess of a silver quarter, about 
four or five inches long; cut into strips about a third of an 
inch wide, twist them as you would a paper spill, and lay 
them on a baking-sheet slightly floured. Bake in a moderate 
oven until crisp, but they must not be the least brown. If put 
away in a tin, these cheese straws will keep a long time. Serve 
cold, piled tastefully on a glass dish. You can make the 
straws of remnants of puff-pastry, rolling in the grated 
cheese. 

CHEESE CEEAM TOAST. 

Stale bread may be served as follows : Toast the slices and 
cover them slightly with grated cheese ; make a cream for ten 
slices out of a pint of milk and two tablespoonfuls of plain 
flour. The milk should be boiling, and the flour mixed in a 
little cold water before stirring in. When the cream is nicely 
cooked, season with salt and butter ; set the toast and cheese 
in the oven for three or four minutes, and then pour the 
cream over them. 

WELSH KAEEBIT. 

Grate three ounces of dry cheese, and mix it with the yolks 
of two eggs, four ounces of grated bread, and three of 
butter; beat the whole together in a mortar with a dessert- 
spoonful of made mustard, a little salt and some pepper ; toast 
some slices of bread, cut off the outside crust, cut it in shapes 
and spread the paste thick upon them, and put them in the 
oven, let tbein become hot and slightly brownedj serve hot as 
possible. 

CHEESE SOUFFLE. 

Four tables] »oonful8 of grated cheese, one gill milk, yolks 
of two eggs, two tablespoonfuls of butter, two ounces bread, 
one-half teaspoonful of mustard, whites of three eggs, pepper 
and salt to taste. Put the bread and milk on to. boil, stir and 
boil until smooth, add the cheese and butter, stir over the fire 
for one minute ; take off, add seasoning and the yolks of eggs. 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 361 

Beat the whites to a stiif froth and stir them in carefully; 
pour into a greased baking-dish and bake fifteen minutes in 
a quick oven. 

WELSH EAEEBIT. 

Butter size of an egg in saucepan, two or three cups of 
grated cheese, half pint beer, two beaten-up eggs, cayenne 
and salt to taste, a little grated onion juice. Serve hot on 
toast. 

CHEESE SOUFFLE. 

Two tablespoons butter, three tablespoons flour, half tea- 
spoon salt, dash cayenne pepper, half cup scalded milk, 
qr.arter cup old cheese, three eggs, yolks and whites. Make 
same as white sauce; add yolks and cheese, set to cool, then 
add whites beaten stiff. Put into a greased pudding dish in 
medium oven, bake fifteen or twenty minutes. 

CHEESE STEAWS. 



Two ounces flour, two ounces butter, three ounces cheese, 
a little salt and cayenne pepper, one egg; grate the cheene 
and mix all together ; roll out and cut into thin strips with 
a pastry cutter and bake in a flat tin. 

WELSH EAEEBIT. 

One-quarter pound (ordinary) factory cheese, grated, two 
ounces butter, two tablespoons of ale (or the yolks of two raw 
eggs beaten in half a cvip of milk), one saltspoon each of salt 
and dry mustard, one-quarter saltspoon of pepper, and a 
dash of cayenne ; stir in a saucepan over the fire until melted 
smoothly together. Pour on a couple of slices of toast laid 
on a hot dish. 

DELICIOUS SCALLOPED CHEESE. 

Eoll enough dry bread crumbs to fill a cup, soak until soft 
in two cups of sweet milk ; mix with three eggs beaten light, 
add one-half pound grated cheese and large tablespoonful of 



362 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

butter in small pieces. Salt and pepper to taste. Put all 
in baking dish and cover the top with sifted bread crumbs 
which have been buttered, peppered and salted. Bake fifteen 
minutes. 

CHEESE STRAWS. 

One cup grated cheese, one cup flour, one-half cup butter ; 
rub together and wet with water like pie-paste, roll thin and 
cut in strips; quick oven; just cut enough at one time for 
oven. 

CHEESE SOUFFLE. 

One cup of milk, three eggs beaten separately, one cup 
grated cheese, two tablespoons (not heaping) flour, two table- 
spoons butter. Season with salt and pepper. Heat butter, 
stir in the flour, add the hot milk. Cook two minutes. Set 
away to cool; when cold stir in the cheese and yolks of eggs. 
Last the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stijEf froth. Turn into 
a buttered dish and bake from twenty to twenty-five minutes. 
Serve in the same dish. 

CHEESE FONDU. 

Put in a saucepan one tablespoonful of butter and when 
melted stir in the same quantity of flour and a gill of hot 
cream. Stir constantly and when thick and smooth stir in 
six tablespoonfuls of finely grated cheese, a saltspoonful of 
salt and a pinch of cayenne. Turn out into a bowl and beat 
in the beaten yolks of two eggs. Beat the whites of three 
eggs as stiff as possible; have the baking dish heated and 
buttered, and just fifteen minutes before the fondu is wanted 
mix in the whites very quickly and lightly and bake. The 
oven should be hot, but not over hot, and the fondu should 
rise to twice its original height. 

SPAGHETTI. 

Boil in milk in double boiler till tender and thickening. 
Add lump of butter, salt, pepper, and for medium sized dish 
half cup grated cheese and two cups tomatoes. Turn into 
baking dish, cover with crumbs and brown. 



BUTTER AND CHEESE. 363 

WELSH EAREBIT. 

Quarter pound rich cream cheese, one-quarter cup cream 
or milk, one teaspoonful mustard, one-half teaspoonful salt, a 
few grains of cayenne, one egg, one teaspoonful butter, four 
slices of toast. Break the cheese in small pieces, or if hard 
grate it. Put it with the milk in a double boiler. Toast the 
bread and keep it hot. Mix the mustard, salt and pepper ; add 
the egg, and beat well. When the cheese is melted, stir in 
the egg and butter, and cook two minutes, or until it thickens 
a little, but do not let it curdle. Pour it over the toast. 
Many use ale instead of cream. 

CHEESE SAVORY. 

Toast slices of white or brown bread, half -inch thick ; one 
yolk of egg, tablespoonful of cream, one ounce of bread 
crumbs, two ounces of grated cheese; pepper, salt, cayenne 
to taste; pour the mixture on the toast, brown in oven and 
serve very hot. 

CHEESE SOUFFLE. 

One large cup milk, one-half cup scant bread-crumbs. Set 
over boiling water, stir till smooth. Take from fire and add 
one large tablespoon butter, four tablespoonfuls grated cheese, 
salt, cayenne, two yolks eggs beaten well. Fold in the whites 
of eggs well beaten. Bake in buttered dish for twenty min- 
utes in a pan of hot water. Serve at once. 

LEMON" CHEESE. 

One-quarter pound fresh butter, juice of three large 
lemons, and grated peel of one, three fresh eggs very well 
beaten, one pound white granulated sugar. Make in double 
boiler, boiling to the consistency of thick honey — stirring all 
the while. Excellent. 

WELSH EAREBIT (WEBB'S). 

Half a glass of old ale, half a pound of old cheese, pinch 
red pepper, sufficient mustard to cover five cent piece, dash 
of Lea & Perrins' Worcestershire sauce. Grate cheese fine, 



364 BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

place in a chafing-dish or small saucepan on fire, rub well with 
back of spoon until thoroughly dissolved ; mix pepper, mustard 
and Worcester sauce thoroughly with ale, and pour into 
cheese. Thorouglily mix until smooth. Serve on buttered 
toast, cut diamond shape on red-hot dish. 

WELSH RAEEBIT (McConkey's). 

Ingredients: One-half pound cheese grated fine (ordin- 
ary Canadian), one ounce of butter, two tablespoons of milk, 
ale or consomme, one tablespoonful of made mustard, a little 
salt. Melt the butter in a saucepan, then add grated cheese 
and stir till melted, put in the ale, milk or consomme little at 
a time, then the mustard and a very little salt. Stir con- 
stantly till smooth and pour over slices of hot buttered toast. 
This is sufficient to serve three persons, and should take about 
ten minutes to prepare. 

CHEESE STRAWS. 

Two ounces butter, two ounces flour, two ounces bread- 
crumbs, two ounces cheese, salt and cayenne pepper. Grate 
the cheese and mix the ingredients into a paste; season with 
the pepper and salt; roll out very thin and cut into strips 
quarter of an inch wide and six inches long, then twist sev- 
eral times and lay on a buttered tin dish. Bake about five 
minutes. 

MACARONI AND CHEESE. 

Two cups boiled macaroni, one cup sauce. Sauce. — One 
tablespoon butter, one tablespoon flour, one cup sweet milk, 
three tablespoons grated cheese, one-half teaspoon salt, two 
dashes cayenne pepper. Put butter and flour in saucepan, 
stir until well blended ; add milk, stir until it comes to a boil, 
add salt, pepper and cheese; stir until cheese melts; turn 
boiled macaroni into the sauce; stir well, turn into a dish, 
sprinkle with fine bread-crumbs and brown in oven. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



HOW TO CUT BACON. 

Place the bacon on a board with the rind down. With a 
very sharp knife slice the bacon very thin down to the rind, 
but do not try to cut through it. When enough slices are cut 
run the knife under, keeping it close to the rind, and the 
slices will be free. 

STOVE POLISH. 

One-half pint of turpentine, one pint of water, one table- 
spoonful of butter, one tablespoonful of sugar, one box of 
polish, or rather black lead (six cakes). 

POLISH FOR MOROCCO FURNITURE. 

Scrape down sufficient red castile soap into turpentine to 
boil into a paste about the consistency of soft soap ; then rub 
on any red morocco furniture with a piece of flannel and rub 
off very dry. Be careful and watch the mixture while on the 
stove, as turpentine catches fire very easily. This will keep 
furniture soft and polished. 

CHINESE WASHING FLUID. 

We recommend to the notice of house-keepers the follow- 
ing formula for making the above Washing Fluid, which 
will save labor, time, trouble and the clothes as well. 

1 can Gillett's Lye; | oz. Muriate of Ammonia; -J oz. 
Salts of Tartar; 1 oz. Sulphate of Soda. 

Dissolve above in 3 gallons of water. For an ordinary 
washing use one teacupful of the solution to each tub of 
water, and soak the clothes therein over night, and next 
morning they will come out clean and beautiful without 
much rubbing. 



366 MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Chinese Washing Fluid will not injure the finest 
fabrics. Be careful to use Gillett's Lye as it is the best. 
Refuse all imitations and substitutes. We advise the use 
of soft water whenever obtainable. 

GOOD FURNITUEE POLISH. 

Half a pint of linseed oil, half a pint of vinegar, half a 
pint of turpentine, half a pint of spirits of wine. 

BATTER OF TIMBALES. 

One cup flour, one-half pint milk, one egg. Vyit the flour 
into a basin ; drop in yolk of egg. Stir in the milk by degrees. 
Whip the white to a stiff froth and add lightly. Dip your 
hot ir^n into this and fry in deep boiling lard. 

TIMBALE DE VOLAILLE. 

Cut a cooked chicken into small peiccs; chop up mush- 
room, ham, and truffles, and stir into white sauce. Line a 
mould with pieces of macaroni, cooked, cut in even lengths; 
fill in with the volaille and steam one hour. Turn out very 
carefully. Serve with white or brown sauce. 

FOR SOFTENING HARD WATER. 

Fill a coal-oil or vinegar barrel with water and add three 
or four teaspoonfuls of Gillett's Lye. Correct way is to 
prepare the water the day before washing day. By the use 
of this method it is always possible to have nice soft water 
that will not injure the finest goods, or do any damage to 
the hands. The Chinese Washing Fluid can be used in this 
water without risk of doing any damage. 

KING KALAKUA'S CURRY FOR SHRIMPS AND 
CHICKEN. 

Ingredients — One cocoanut, one clove, garlic, one piece of 
root ginger size of nutmeg. Grate all these, and add a few 
shreds of onion, two tablespoonfuls curry powder, one quart, 
or less, of new milk. Put all these on stove and let simmer 
for an hour or so, until all the oil is quite extracted from the 
cocoanut; strain, pressing tho cocoanut quite dry. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 367 

For shrimps — Heat again, adding a little butter, salt and 
corn-starch to bring to consistency of rich, smooth cream, and 
add the shrimps in time to heat well through. 

For chicken or any meat preferred — Omit the onion in 
the first preparation, which put in the pan with a big spoon- 
ful of butter; stir until hot, then add chicken cut in small 
pieces; stir until the glp.ze is formed, and add only sufficient 
water to cook the meat thoroughly and slowly; when done 
turn into it the curry mixture and thicken with corn-starch. 
In the tropics rice is always served in a separate dish, to be 
eaten with any curry, cut limes or lemons, and mango chut- 
ney ; also " Bombay Ducks," a kind of long, thin, dried fish, 
about half an inch wide and six inches long, very crisp. 
These accompaniments are handed together on a tray. 

HOW TO WASH DISHES. 

To many women the washing of dishes is always distaste- 
ful. The only way in which this can be accounted for is that 
the proper method of washing dishes is not generally under- 
stood. When a young woman is heard to exclaim, " I hate 
to wash dishes," it may be taken for granted that she is not 
a trained worker. When once the correct method of wash- 
ing them is properly understood the task will lose all its dis- 
tastefulness and becomes interesting, even if not pleasurable. 

Before you begin to wash at all arrange a good, dry place 
to put your dishes when they are dry. Arrange so that you 
have room enough without letting clean dishes touch soiled 
ones or being obliged to put dry dishes on a wet spot. 

Begin with the glass, and see that every glass is emptied. 
Cold water in one, some milk in another, claret in another, 
will soon make your dishwater unfit to wash anything in. 
After the glass, take the delicate china cups and saucers and 
dessert plates. Put your mirid on your work. See that each 
piece before it leaves your hand is clean and dry. By the 
time the glass and fine china are washed, the water will be 
chilled, so either throw it out and make fresh suds for the 
silver, or put it on the stove to reheat while putting the clean 
dishes away. 

When your silver is dry, put it away. Do not let it lie 
where it will be spattered from the washing of the next things. 



368 MISCELLANEOUS. 

Now use your own judgment and see whether the water is 
clean enough and hot enough lor the dishes. Never put 
many dishes to wash in at one time. Put dishes of one kind 
in at one time and dishes of another kind in at another time. 
There is economy in the washing of dishes, as well as in every- 
thing else, and every good housekeeper's experience has been 
that the best way of doing it is to make a good hot suds in 
one pan, have a second pan half filled with very hot water, 
and as the dish is washed in the suds put it right through the 
hot water, thus making sure that every part is rinsed, then 
allow to drain on the draining board, or in another pan. By 
the time a panful of dishes are washed, rinsed, and drained, 
thev are still hot enough to wipe, and you will not need more 
than one or two towels. In making the suds, be carefiil that 
it is not too strong, as too much soap quickly takes off color 
and gilding from the fine china. Never leave the soap in the 
water. Then you can work rapidly. Change the water when 
it is necessary. 

Never on any account leave the dishes in the water while 
you go to attend to something else. To do so injures the gild- 
ing and coloring. Remember, if you are quick you can do a 
great deal before the water cools, and you will have to change 
it only when it is soiled. 

THINGS TO REMEMBEE. 

Save refuse grease and make soap of it with Gillett's 
Lye; full directions on each package. 

A dash of salt added to the whites of eggs makes them 
whip better. 

Not a speck of the yolk must get into the whites which are 
tc be whipped. 

Fold the whipped whites into any mixture rather than 
stir them in, as the latter method breaks the air cells. 

Break eggs one at a time into a saucer, so any can be re- 
jected if necessary and the mixture not be spoiled. 

Add a tablespoonful of water to an egg used for crumb- 
ing in order to remove the stringiness. 

Use a double boiler for milk. 

Milk is scalded when the water in the lower pan boils. 

A pinch of Magic Soda mixed with tomato before milk 
or cream is added prevents the milk from curdling. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 369 

With sour milk, or molasses, use Magic Sodj, instead of 
Baking Powder. 

Milk and butter should be kept in closely covered vessels, 
as they readily absorb flavor and odor from other articles. 

Butter added slowly in small bits to creamy mixtures, or 
sauces, prevents a greasy line forming. 

Crumbs grated directly from the loaf give a more delicate 
color than dried crumbs to fried articles. 

Dried crumbs absorb more moisture, and are better for 
watery dishes. 

Crumbs spread over the tops of dishes should be mixed 
evenly with melted butter over the fire; this is a better 
method than having lumps of butter dotted over the crumbs 
after they are spread. 

When the sauce bubbles through the crumbs on top of a 
scallop dish, the cooking is completed. 

Meat should not be washed. It can be cleaned by rubbing 
with a ^et cloth, or by scraping with a knife. 

Drippings are better than water for basting meats. 

Meats should not be pierced while cooking. 

Soak salt fish with the skin side up over night. Change 
the water several times. 

To skim sauces, draw the saucepan to the side of the fire, 
throw in a teaspoonful of cold water, and the grease will rise 
so that it can be easily taken off. 

A teaspoonful of Gillett's Lye to one gallon of water 
will simplify dish washing very materially. 

A few drops of onion juice improve made-over meat 
dishes; not enough need be used to give a pronounced onion 
flavor. 

The skimming from soups, drippings from any beef roasts, 
and trimmings from any beef, serve the same uses as lard, 
cottolene, or butter. 

To extract onion juice, press the raw surface of an onion 
against a grater, move it slightly, and the juice will run off 
the point of the grater. 

Chop suet in a cool place, and sprinkle it with flour to 
prevent its oih'ng and sticking together. Remove the mem- 
brane before chopping it. 
♦24 



370 MISCELLANEOUS, 

Add a few drops of rose-water to almonds to prevent their 
oiling when chopped or pounded. 

To loosen grated peel, or other articles, from the grater, 
strike the grater sharply on the table. 

When mixing a liquid with a solid material, add but little 
liquid at a time and stir constantly to prevent lumping. 

When adding cornstarch, arrowroot, or any starchy ma- 
terial to hot liquid, first mix it with enough cold water, or 
milk, to make it fluid; pour it in slowly and stir constantly 
until it becomes clear. 

Soak gelatine in a cool place for an hour in cold water or 
milk. It will then quickly dissolve in hot liquid and have no 
odor. If jellied dishes do not stiffen, add more gelatine; 
boiling down will not effect the purpose. 

Grease moulds evenly with butter or oil, using a brush. 
Lumps of butter on the side of moulds leave an uneven sur- 
face on the article cooked or moulded in them. Moulds for 
jellies are not greased. 

Invert a dish over a mould before turning it, so that the 
form will not break; also, place it in exactly the right spot 
be*fore lifting off the mould. 

It is desirable to pass all liquid mixtures through a 
strainer to make them perfectly smooth. 

To keep dishes warm until time for serving, place the 
saucepan in a pan of hot-water. 

Any flavoring is added after the mixture is cooked, ex- 
cepting for baked dishes. Wine increases the taste of salt, 
therefore, where wine is used for flavoring, very little salt 
should be put in until after the wine is used, when more can 
be added if necessary. 

Dishes which are to be frozen need an extra amount of 
sweetening. 

Flour raisins before adding them to a mixture in order 
to prevent their settling to the bottom. 

Never slam the oven door, or jar any rising material while 
it is baking. 

Anything being cooked for the second time needs a hot 
oven. 



FOR THE SICK. 



Dishes for invalids should be served in the daintiest and 
most attractive way; never send more than a supply for one 
meal; the same dish too frequently set before an invalid 
often causes a distaste, when perhaps a change would tempt 
the appetite. 

"^Tien preparing dishes where milk is used, the condition 
of the patient should be considered. Long cooking hardens 
the albumen and makes the milk very constipating; then, if 
the patient should be already constipated, care should be 
taken not to heat the milk above the boiling point. 

The seasoning of food for the sick should be varied ac- 
cording to the condition of the patient ; one recovering from 
illness can partake of a little piece of roast mutton, chicken, 
rabbit, game, fish, simply dressed, and simple puddings are 
all light food and easily digested. A mutton chop, nicely 
cut, trimmed and broiled, is a dish that is often inviting to 
an invalid. As a rule, an invalid will be more likely to en- 
joy any preparation sent to him if it is served in. small, deli- 
cate pieces. As there are so many small, dainty dishes that 
can be made for this purpose, it seems useless to try to more 
than give a small variety of them. Puddings can be made of 
prepared barley, or tapioca, well-soaked before boiling, with 
an egg added, and a change can be made of light puddings 
by mixing up some stewed fruit with the puddings before 
baking; a bread pudding from stale bread-crumbs, and a 
tiny cup-custard, boiled in a small basin or cup ; also various 
drinks, such as milk punch, wine, whey, apple-toddy, and 
various other nourishing drinks. 

BEEFSTEAK AND MUTTON CHOPS. 

Select the tenderest cuts, and broil over a clear, hot fire. 
Let the steak be rare, the chops well done. Salt and pepper ; 
lay between two hot plates three minutes, and serve to your 



3Ti5 FOR THE SICK. 

patient. If he is very weak, do not let him swallow anything 
except the juice, when he has chewed the meat well. The 
essence of rare beef roasted or broiled, thus expressed, is con- 
sidered by some physicians to be more strengthening than 
beef-tea prepared in the usual manner. 

BEEF TEA. 

One pound of lean beef, cut into small pieces. Put into 
a glass canning-jar without a drop of water; cover tightly, 
and set in a pot of cold water. Heat gradually to a boil, and 
continue this steadily for three or four hours, until the meat 
is like white rags, and the juice all drawn out. Season with 
salt to taste, and when cold, skim. 

VEAL OR MUTTON BROTH. 

Take a scrag-end of mutton (two pounds), put it in a sauce- 
pan, with two quarts of cold water, and an ounce of pearl 
barley or rice. When it is coming to a boil, skim it well, 
then add half a teaspoonful of salt; let it boil until half 
reduced, then strain it, and take off all the fat, and it is 
ready for use. This is excellent for an invalid. If vege- 
tables are liked in this broth, take one turnip, one carrot, 
and one onion, cut them in shreds, and boil them in the broth 
half an hour. In that case, the barley may be served with 
the vegetables in broth. 

OATMEAL GRUEL. 

Put four tablespoonfuls of the best grits (oatmeal 
coarsely ground) into a pint of boiling water. Let it boil 
gently, and stir it often, till it becomes as thick as you wish 
it. Then strain it, and add to it while warm, butter, wine, 
nutmeg, or whatever is thought proper to flavor it. Salt to 
taste. If you make the gruel of fine oatmeal, sift it, mix it first 
to a thick batter with a little cold water, and then put it into 
the sauce-pan of boiling water. Stir it all the time it is 
boiling, lifting the spoon gently up and down, and letting 
the gruel fall slowly back again into the pan. 



FOR THE SICK. 373 

OEANGE ALBUMEN (for invalid). 

Juice of half an orange, white of an egg, tablespoonful 
of water, sugar to sweeten; strained through muslin; lemon 
can be used. 

CALVES-FOOT JELLY. 
(For an Invalid.) 

Four calves^ feet, which must be perfectly fresh. Get 
the butcher to clean them thoroughly and remove the hoof- 
horns. If not sufficiently white, pour boiling water over 
them and scrape with a knife. Divide each foot in half; 
place over the fire in a preserving pan, three parts full of 
cold water, adding a pinch of salt. Boil till the meat comes 
to shreds, adding water occasionally, and the bones separate 
easily. Strain, set aside to cool (the liquid should measure 
about two quarts). When cool skim off every particle of 
fat, rejecting the sediment beneath the jelly. Add one-third 
of a box of Knox's gelatine dissolved in the boiling stock; 
take off the fire, add the juice of three lemons and grated 
rind of one, a stick of cinnamon, and sugar to taste. Beat 
up with these the whites of four eggs and broken shells 
slightly beaten, set on the fire again and boil a few minutes 
till a thick scum rises to the top. Set the pan on the back 
(jf the stove one minute, then pour slowly through a flannel 
jelly bag, returning till the jelly is clear. When finished add 
a pint of sherry. The bag should be suspended in front of 
the oven and not moved, or the jelly will be cloudy. Cold air 
must be excluded. 

EGG GETJEL. 

Beat the yolk of an egg with one tablespoonful of sugar ; 
pour one teacupful of boiling water on it; add the white of 
an egg, beaten to a froth, with any seasoning or spice desired. 
Take warm. 

MILK PORRIDGE. 

The same as arrowroot, excepting it should be all milk, 
and thickened with a scant tablespoonful of sifted flour; let 



374 FOR THE SICK. 

it boil five minutes, stirring it constantly, add a little cold 
milk, and give it one boil up, and it is ready for use. 

AEEOWEOOT MILK POEEIDGE. 

One large cupful of fresh milk, new if you can get it; one 
cupful of boiling water; one teaspoonful of arrowroot, wet 
to a paste with cold water; two teaspoonfuls of white sugar; 
? pinch of salt. Put the sugar into the milk, the salt into the 
boiling water, which should be poured into a farina-kettle. 
Add the wet arrowroot, and boil, stirring constantly until it 
is clear ; put in the milk, and cook ten minutes, stirring often. 
Give while warm, adding hot milk should it be thicker than 
gruel. 

SLIPPEEY-ELM BAEK TEA. 

Break the bark into bits, pour boiling water over it, cover, 
and let it infuse until cold. Sweeten, ice, and take for sum- 
mer disorders, or add lemon juice and drink for a bad cold. 

FLAX-SEED LEMONADE. 

To a large tablespoonful of flax-seed, allow a tumbler 
and a half of cold water. Boil them together till the liquid 
becomes very sticky. Then strain it hot over a quarter of a 
round of pulverized sugar, and an ounce of pulverized gum 
arable. Stir it till quite dissolved, and squeeze into it the 
juice of a lemon. This mixture has frequently been found 
an efficacious remedy for a cold, taking a wine-glass of it as 
often as the cough is troublesome. 

HOMINY. 

Put to soak one pint of hominy in two and one- 
half pints of boiling water over night, in a tin vessel with a 
tight cover; in th" morning add one-half pint of sweet milk, 
and a little salt. Place on a brisk fire in a kettle of boiling 
water, the tin vessel containing the hominy ; let boil one-half 
hour. 

Cracked wheat, oatmeal, mush, are all good food for the 
sick. 



FOR THE SICK. 375 

CHICKEN JELLY. 

Cook a chicken in enough water to little more than cover 
it; let it stew gently until the meat drops from the bones, 
and the broth is reduced to about a pint; season it to taste, 
with a little salt and pepper. Strain and press, first through 
a colander, then through a coarse cloth. Set it over the fire 
again, and cook a few minutes longer. Turn it into an 
earthen vegetable dish to harden; set it on the ice in the re- 
frigerator. Eat cold in slices. Nice made into sandwiches, 
with thin slices of bread, lightly spread with butter. 

BOILED EICE. 

Boil half a cupful of rice in just enough water to cover 
it, with half a teaspoonful of salt; when the water has boiled 
nearly out and the rice begins to look soft and dry, turn over 
it a cupful of milk, and let it simmer until the rice is done 
and nearly dry; take from the fire and beat in a well-beaten 
egg. Eat it warm with cream and sugar. Flavor to taste. 

SOFT TOAST. 

Toast well, but not too brown, two thin slices of stale 
bread; put them on a warm plate, sprinkle with a pinch of 
salt and pour upon them some boiling water; quickly cover 
with another dish of the same size, and drain off the water. 
Put a very small bit of butter on the toast and serve at once 
while hot. 



EGG TOAST. 

Brown a slice of bread nicely over the coals, dip it in hot 
water slightly salted, butter it, and lay on the top an egg 
that has been broken into boiling water, and cooked until the 
white has hardened; season the egg with a bit of butter and 
a crumb of salt. 

The best way to cook eggs for an invalid is to drop them, 
or else pour boiling water over the egg in the shell and let 
it stand for a few minutes on the back of the sto^e. 



376 FOR THE SICK. 

OYSTEE TOAST. 

Make a nice slice of dry toast, butter it and lay it on a 
hot dish. Put six oysters, half a teacupful of their own 
liquor, and half a cupful of milk, into a tin cup or basin, and 
boil one minute. Season with a little butter, pepper and 
salt, then pour over the toast and serve. 

MULLED JELLY. 

Take one tablespoonful of currant or grape jelly; beat 
with it the white of one egg and a teaspoonf ul of sugar ; pour 
en it a teacupful of boiling water, and break in a slice of dry 
toast or two crackers. 

CUP CUSTAED. 

Break into a coffee-cup an egg, put in two teaspoonfuls of 
sugar, beat it up thoroughly, a pinch of salt and a pinch of 
grated nutmeg; fill up the cup with good sweet milk; turn, 
it into another cup, well buttered, and set it in a pan of boil- 
ing water, reaching nearly to the top of the cup. Set in the 
oven, and when the custard is set it is done. Eat cold. 

CEACKEE PANADA. 

Break in pieces three or four hard crackers that are baked 
quite brown, and let them boil fifteen minutes in one quart 
of water; then remove from the fire, let them stand three 
or four minutes, strain off the liquor through a fine wire 
sieve, and season it with sugar. This is a nourishing bever- 
age for infants that are teething, and with the addition of a 
little wine and nutmeg, is often prescribed for invalids re- 
covering from a fever. 

BEEAD PANADA. 

Put three gills of water and one tablespoonful of white 
snorar on tbe fire, and just before it boils add two tablespoon- 
fuls of the crumbs of stale white bread ; stir it well, and let it 
boil three or four minutes; then add one glass of wbite wine, 
a grated lemon and a little nutmeg; let it boil up once, then 



FOR THE SICK. 377 

remove it from the fire, and keep it closely covered until it is 
wanted for use. 

SLIPPEEY-ELM TEA. 

Put a teaspoonful of powdered slippery-elm into a tum- 
bler, pour cold water upon it, and season with lemon and 
sugar. 

TOAST WATEE, OE CEUST COFFEE. 

Take stale pieces of crust of bread, the end pieces of the 
loaf; toast them a nice, dark brown, care to be taken that 
they do not bum in the least, as that affects the flavor. 
Put the browned crusts into a large milk pitcher, and pour 
enbugh boiling water over to cover them; cover the pitcher 
closely, and let steep until cold. Strain, and sweeten to taste ; 
put a piece of ice in each glass. This is also good, drank 
warm with cream and sugar, similar to coffee. 

POWDEES FOE CHILDEEN. 

A very excellent carminative powder for flatulent infants 
mav be kept in the house, and employed with advantage when- 
ever the child is in pain or griped, dropping five grains of 
oil of anise-seed and two of peppermint on half an ounce of 
lump sugar, and rubbing it in a mortar, with a drachm of 
magnesia, into a fine powder. A small quantity of this may 
be given in a little water at any time, and always with benefit. 

FOE CHILDEEN TEETHING. 

Tie a quarter of a pound of wheat flour in a thick cloth, 
and boil it in one quart of water for three hours ; then remove 
the cloth and expose the flour to the air or heat until it is 
hard and dry ; grate from it, when wanted, one tablespoonf ul, 
which put into half a pint of new milk, and stir over the fire 
until it comes to a boil, when add a pinch of salt and a table- 
spoonful of cold water, and serve. This gruel is excellent 
for children afflicted with summer complaint. Or, brown a 
tablespoon ful of flour in the oven or on top of the stove on 
a baking-tin ; feed a few pinches at a time to a child, and it 
will often check a diarrhoea. The tincture of "kino" — of 



378 FOR THE SICK. 

which from ten to thirty drops, mixed with a little sugar and 
water in a spoon, and given every two or three hours, is very 
efficacious and harmless — can be procured at almost any 
druggist^s. Tablespoon doses of pure cider vinegar, and a 
pinch of salt, has cured when all else failed. 

BLACKBEEEY COEDIAL. 

This recipe may be found under the head of " Beverages." 
It will be found an excellent medicine for children teething 
and summer diseases. 

POULTICES. 

A Bread and Milk Poultice. — ^Put a tablespoonful of the 
crumbs of stale bread into a gill of milk, and give the whole 
one boil up. Or, take stale bread-crumbs, pour over them 
boiling water and boil till soft, stirring well; take from the 
fire and gradually stir in a little glycerine or sweet oil, so as 
to render the poultice pliable when applied. 

A Hop Poultice. — Boil one handful of dried hops in half 
a pint of water, until the half pint is reduced to a gill, then 
stir into it enough Indian meal to thicken it. 

A Mustard Poultice. — Into one gill of boiling water stir 
one tablespoonful of Indian meal ; spread the paste thus made 
upon a cloth, and spread over the paste one teaspoonful of 
mustard flour. If you wish a mild poultice, use a teaspoon- 
ful of mustard as it is prepared for the table, instead of the 
mustard flour. Equal parts of ground mustard and flour 
made into a paste with warm water, and spread between two 
pieces of muslin, form the indispensable mustard plaster. 

A Ginger Poultice. — This is made like a mustard poultice, 
using ground ginger instead of mustard. A little vinegar is 
sometimes added to each of these poultices. 

A Stramonium Poultice. — Stir one tablespoonful of In- 
dian meal into a gill of boiling water, and add one tablespoon- 
ful of bruised stramonium seeds. 

Wormwood and Arnica are sometimes applied in poultices. 
Steep the herbs in half a pint of cold water, and when all 



FOR THE SICK. 379 

their virtue is extracted stir in a little bran or rye-meal to 
thicken the liquid; the herbs must not be removed from the 
liquid. This is a useful application for sprains and bruises. 

Linseed Poultice. — Take four ounces of powdered linseed, 
and gradually sprinkle it into a half pint of hot water. 

A EEMEDY FOE BOILS. 

An excellent remedy for boils is water of a temperature 
agreeable to the feelings of the patient. Apply wet linen to 
the part affected, and frequently renew or moisten it. It 
is said to be' the most elTectual remedy known. Take in- 
wardly some good blood purifier. 

CUEE FOE EINGWOEMS. 

Yellow dock, root or leaves, steeped in vinegar, will cure 
the worst case of ringworm. 

EXCELLENT COUGH MIXTUEE. 

One cup of gum, one cup of honey, one cup of lemon juice, 
one ounce of glycerine; mix well, bottle, and take one tea- 
spoonful when cough is troublesome. 

CUEE FOE COUGHS (old fashioned). 

Three newly-laid eggs, unbroken, over which pour the 
juice of six lemons, and allow to stand for forty-eight hours. 
Then pick out any bits of eggshell which are not dissolved; 
add one-half pound of rock candy, and one pint of Jamaica 
brandy; mix well and bottle. Dose: 1 tablespoonful three or 
four times a day. 

Tomc. 

One quart of rye whisky, one ounce fluid extract of cel- 
ery, two ounces fluid extract of hops, half ounce fluid extract 
of rhubarb, four quarts of cold water. Mix well, and bottle 
for usa One tablespoonful before each meal and at bedtime. 



380 FOR THE SICK. 

SOAP LINIMENT. 

One and one-half ounce soap liniment, one-half ounce 
turpentine, one-half ounce camphor, one-half ounce harts- 
horn, one-half ounce spirits of wine; have made up at drug- 
gist. Excellent. 

KEMEDY FOE COUGH. 

One ounce of Balm of Gilead buds; put in a quart of 
water and boil down to a pint; add one pint of Bourbon 
whisky and one pound of loaf sugar. 

DANDELION WINE. 

(For the blood.) 

Four quarts of dandelion flowers; cover with one gallon 
of water and boil ; strain, and when luke-warm add six lemons, 
four pounds of white sugar and half royal yeast-cake; let it 
stand about ten days, or until done working, then strain 
bottle and seal. 

COUGH MIXTUEB. 

(Excellent.) 

One ounce of tincture of benzoin, two wine-glasses of 
whisky, one cup of molasses. Mix well. One teaspoonful 
whenever cough is troublesome. 

ELLIMAN'S EMBEOCATION. 

One new-laid egg well beaten, add to it by degrees one gill 
turpentine, one gill vinegar, put in alternately one-half ounce 
spirits of camphor. Directions for use, — For rheumatism, 
lumbago, for sore throat, cold in chest, etc., rub in well with 
hand, night and morning. A flannel may also be soaked in 
embrocation and put on, covered with a cloth or flannel. Can 
be used also as a substitute for mustard plaster, as above. 

ELLIMAN'S EMBEOCATION. 

Two glasses turpentine, one glass vinegar, one teaspoon 
salad oil, two raw eggs. Put all in a bottle and shake well 
for quarter of an hour, when it will be ready for use. Keep 
\t well corked. 



FOR THE SICK. 381 

EEMEDIAL QUALITIES OF THE COMMON FEUITS. 

A table giving the remedial qualities of the common fruits 
and vegetables is herewith appended : — 

Celery for any form of rheumatism and nervous dyspepsia. 

Lettuce for insomnia. 

Water-cress for scurvy. 

Onions are almost the best nervine known. Use for in- 
somnia, for coughs and colds, and as a complexion curer. 
Eaten every other day, they soon have a clearing and whiten- 
ing effect on the complexion. 

Spinach for gravel. 

Asparagus to induce perspiration. 

Carrots for suffering from asthma. 

Turnips for nervous disorders and for scurvy. 

Raw beef proves of great benefit to persons of frail con- 
stitution, and to those suffering from consumption. It is 
chopped fine, seasoned with salt, and heated by placing it in 
a dish in hot water. It assimilates rapidly and affords the 
best nourishment. 

Eggs contain a large amount of nutriment in a compact, 
Quickly available form. Beaten up raw with sugar they are 
used to clear and strengthen the voice. With sugar and lemon 
juice the beaten white of egg is used to relieve hoarseness. 

Cranberries for erysipelas are used externally as well as 
internally. 

Cranberries eaten raw are one of the finest tonics and ap- 
petizers known. 

In cases of yellow or typhoid fever, cranberries are almost 
indispensable as a tonic and to assist in clearing the system 
of the harmful bacteria. 

For some forms of dyspepsia there is no more simple and 
effective remedy than raw cranberries. Carry a supply in the 
pocket and eat them frequently during the day. They will 
?ure headache as well. 

People who are subject to biliousness will find that with 
cranberries a part of each day's food they will be free from 
such attacks. 



382 FOR THE SICK. 

Honey is wholesome, strengthening, cleansing, healing 
and nourishing. 

Fresh ripe fruits are excellent for purifying the blood and 
toning up the system. 

Sour oranges are highly recommended for rheumatism. 

Watermelon for epilepsy and for yellow fever. 

Lemons for feverish thirst in sickness, biliousness, low 
fevers, rheumatism, colds, coughs, liver complaints, etc. 

Blackberries for diarrhoea. 

Tomatoes are a powerful aperient for the liver, a sovereign 
remedy for dyspepsia and for indigestion. 

Tomatoes are invaluable in all coijiditions in which the use 
of calomel is indicated. 

Figs are aperient and wholesome. They are said to be 
valuable as a food for those suffering from cancer. They are 
used externally as well as internally. 

Bananas are useful as a food for those suffering from 
chronic diarrhoea. 

Pie-plant is wholesome and aperient ; is excellent for rheu- 
matic sufferers and useful for purifying the blood. , 

Peanuts for indigestion. They are especially recom- 
mended for corpulent diabetes. Peanuts are made into a whole- 
some and nutritious soup, are browned and used as a coffee, 
are eaten as a relish simply baked, or are prepared and served 
as salted almonds. 

Apples are useful in nervous dyspepsia; they are nutri- 
tious, medicinal and vitalizing; they aid digestion, clear the 
voice, correct the acidity of the stomach, are valuable in rheu- 
matism, insomnia, and liver trouble. An apple contains as 
much nutriment as a potato, in a pleasanter, more wholesome 
form. 

Grapes dissolve and dislodge gravel and calculi, and bring 
the stomach and bowels to a healthy condition. 

Eipe pineapples have been put upon the list of foods 
especially healthful for persons troubled with indigestion, the 
juice being especially valuable in such cases. Shred with a 
silver fork, and reject all the indigestible core. The juice 
of a ripe pineapple is an almost invaluable remedy for diph- 
theria, the acid seeming to dissolve the strangling growth in 
the throat. 



TOILET RECIPES. 



COLOGNE WATEK (Superior). 

Oil of lavender, ,two drachms; oil of rosemary, one 
drachm and a half; orange, lemon and bergamot, one 
drachm each of the oil; also two drachms of the essence of 
musk, attar of rose, ten drops, and a pint of proof spirit. 
Shake all together thoroughly three times a day for a week. 

JOCKEY CLUB BOUQUET. 

Mix one pint extract of rose, one pint extract of tuberose, 
half a pint of extract of cassia, four ounces extract of jas- 
mine, and three ounces tincture of civet. Filter the mixture. 

ROSE WATER. 

Preferable to the distilled for a perfume, or for culinary 
purposes: Attar of rose, twelve drops; rub it up with half 
an ounce of white sugar and two drachms carbonate mag- 
nesia; then add gradually one quart of water, and two ounces 
of proof spirit, and filter through paper. 

BAY RUM. 

French proof spirit one gallon; extract bay, six ounces. 
Mix and color with caramel; needs no filtering. 

LAVENDER WATER. 

Oil of lavender, two ounces; orris root, half an ounce; 
spirits of wine, one pint. Mix and keep two or three weeks. 
It may then be strained through two thicknesses of blotting- 
paper and is ready for use. 

CREAM OF LILIES. 

Best white castor oil; pour in a little strong solution of 
sal tartar in water, and shake it until it looks thick and white. 
Perfume with lavender. 

COSMETIC BALM. 

— ' ■ ■" — (For the hands. )''^ 

Half a gill of German cologne, half a gill of alcohol, half 
a giU of glycerine, one-eighth ounce gum tragacanth, one 



384 TOILET RECIPES. 

pint rain-water. Put all except gum in bottle. Heat quarter 
of a pint of rain-water, add the gum, and let stand half a 
day. Then mix all the ingredients and bottle for use. 

HAIE TONIC. 

Tincture of cantharides one-half ounce, glycerine one- 
half ounce, lime water three ounces, distilled water one ounce 
eau de cologne one-half ounce. Mix and bottle. This is from 
a famous English chemist. 

POT-POUEEI. 

The "rose jar" is one of the dainty notions which is 
appreciated by refined taste. For a rose jar (one purchases 
the jar at a china shop) take orris root four ounces; oil of 
cloves or bruised cloves, three ounces ; gum benzoin, ' two 
ounces; calamus root, four ounces; angelica root, six ounces: 
oil of cinnamon (true), ten drops; oil of bitter almonds, forty 
drops; essence of bergamot, one drachm; English oil 
of lavender, forty drops; oil of verbena, thirty drops. Hav- 
ing gathered fresh rose-leaves to nearly fill the jar, sprinkle 
some salt through them and leave to stand for a few days. 
Then pour over them the above mixture. It will perfume the 
air for years. From a famous English chemist. 

CEEAM OF EOSES. 

Olive oil, one pound; attar of roses, fifty drops; oil of 
rosemary, twenty-five drops; mix, and color it with alkanet 
root. 

COLD CEEAM. 

Melt one ounce oil of almonds, half-ounce spermaceti, 
one drachm white wax, and then add two ounces of rose-water, 
and stir it constantly until cold. 

LIP-SALVE. 

Melt one ounce white wax, one ounce sweet oil, one drachm 
spermaceti, and throw in a piece of alkanet root to color it, 
and, when cooling, perfume it with oil rose, and then pour 
it into small white jars or boxes. 



TOILET RECIPES. 



385 



FOR DANDRUFF. 

Take glycerine four ounces, tincture of cantharides five 
©unces, bay rum four ounces, water two ounces. Mix, and 
apply once a day, and rub well down the scalp. 

HAIR INVIGORATOR. 

Bay rum, two pints; alcohol, one pint; castor oil, one 
ounce; carb. ammonia, half an ounce; tincture of cantharides, 
one ounce. Mix well. This compound will promote the 
growth of the hair and prevent it from falling out, 

MACCASSAR OIL FOR THE HAIR. 

Renowned for the past fifty years, is as follows: TaLce a 
quarter of an ounce of the chippings of alkanet root, tie this 
in a bit of coarse muslin, and put it in a bottle containing 
eight ounces of sweet oil; cover it to keep out the dust; let 
it stand several days; add to this sixty drops of tincture of 
cantharides, ten drops of oil of rose, neroli and lemon each 
sixty drops; let it stand one week and you will have one of 
the most powerful stimulants for the growth of the hair ever 
known. 

Another : — To a pint of strong sage tea, a pint of bay rum 
and a quarter of an ounce of the tincture of cantharides, add 
an ounce of castor oil and a teaspoonful of rose, or other per- 
fume. Shake well before applying to the hair, as the oil will 
not mix. 

INSTANTANEOUS HAIR DYE. 

To one ounce of crystallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in 
one ounce of concentrated aqua ammonia, add one ounce of 
gum arable, and six ounces of soft water. Keep in the dark. 
Remember to remove all grease from the hair before applying 
the dye. The simplest form is the expressed juice 
of the bark or shell of green walnuts. To preserve the 
juice a little alcohol is comnionly added to it with a few 
bruised cloves, and the whole digested together, with occa- 
sional agitation for a week or fortnight, when tlie clear por- 
tion is decanted, and. if necessary, filtered. Sometimes a 



386 TOILET RECIPES. 

little common salt is added with the same intention. It 
should be kept in a cool place. The most convenient way of 
application is by means of a sponge. 

DYE FOR WHITE OR LIGHT EYEBROWS. 

Boil an ounce of walnut bark in a pint of water for an 
hour. Add a lump of alum the size of a filbert, and when 
cold apply with a camel's hair brush. 

HAIR WASH. 

One penny worth of borax, half a pint of olive oil, one 
pint of boiling water. Pour the boiling water over the borax 
and oil; let it cool; then put the mixture into a bottle. 
Shake it before using, and apply it with a flannel. Camphor 
and borax, dissolved in boiling water and left to cool, make 
a very good wash for the hair; as also does rosemary water 
r-iixed with a little borax. After using any of these washes, 
when the hair becomes thoroughly dry, a little pomatum or 
oil should be rubbed in to make it smooth and glossy — that 
k, if one prefers oil on the hair. 

OX-MARROW POMADE FOR THE HAIR. 

One marrow bone, half a pint of oil, ten cents' worth of 
citronella. Take the marrow out of the bone, place it in 
warm water, let it get almost to boiling point, then let it 
cool and pour the water away; repeat this three times until 
the marrow is thoroughly " fined.'' Beat the marrow to a 
cream with a silver fork, stir the oil in, drop by drop, beating 
all the time; when quite cold add the citronella, pour into 
jars and cover down. 

TO INCREASE THE HAIR m THE BROWS. 

Clip them and anoint with a little sweet oil. Should the 
liair fall out, having been full, use one of the hair invigo- 

A FAMOUS SHAMPOO. 
Tincture Saponio Yeridis, 8 oz. 

Directions. — Three tablespoonfuls in a glass of hot water; 
use as any shampoo. 

Supplied by Bingham, 100 Yonge St., Toronto. 



DINNER GIVING. 



The chief requisites for a successful dinner party are a 
very carefully selected group of congenial guests, a choice 
and well -assorted menu ; prompt and watchful, but silent and 
unobtrusive servants; lights tastefully adjusted, and a host 
and hostess absolutely at their ease. Even to the folding of 
th'c napkins and the temperature of the wines, the etiquette 
of the dinner party is now exactly prescribed, and the hostess 
v,ho wanders from the limits of the well-ordained rules will 
surely find herself h.'d into profitless and embarrassing ex- 
periments. 

For a ceremonious dinner the company consists of eight, 
twelve, fourteen or eighteen persons; and the guests must be 
eeated at one table. It is a serious, almost an unforgivable, 
error to overestimate the capacity of one's dining-room or the 
powers of one's cook or waitress, and attempt the entertain- 
ment of a greater number of people than can be comfortably 
seated at one's table, and the provision and service of an en- 
tertainment too complicated and elaborate for one's facilities. 
The hour for a dinner, of such formality that the invitations 
have been issued a fortnight in advance of the chosen evening, 
ir usually seven, seven-thirty, or eight o'clock. A dinner so 
elaborate that the actual serving of the many courses will 
cccupy over two hours is a great mistake. A hostess should 
so arrange her menu and drill her servants that one hour and 
a half only will be spent at table, though in one hour a hand- 
some and very complete feast can be dispatched, without 
crowding one course too close upon the heels of another. 
After an hour or an hour and a half the diners are usually 
\^ell satisfied to leave the atmosphere of the dining-room and 
the sight of food. The serving can be successfully accom- 
plished by a butler, a footman and one maid; by a butler and 
a maid, or by two skilful woman servants. For a dinner of 
eighteen covers, at least three servants are necessary ; for one 
of twelve covers, two will manage everjrthing nicely, while at 
one of eight covers a single, capable man or maid, if assisted 
by a well trained helper in the pantry, can expeditiously min- 
ifter to everyone's wants. 



888 DINNER GIVING. 

The temperature of the dining-room should not be allowed 
to rise above seventy-five degrees, nor permitted to fall be- 
low seventy ; and the room should be kept always well venti- 
lated, in order that the air may be always sweet and free of 
odors from the kitchen. Even in the coldest weather one 
window at least may well be kept open an inch at top and 
bottom, until the guests enter. A dining-room heats only too 
rcpidly from the lights, foods and human occupants, and even 
a sumptuous feast is robbed of all its charm when eaten in a 
hot, exhaustive atmosphere. If, by chance, an unoccupied 
rcom opens into the dining-room, continuous ventilation, 
without draughts, may be secured by opening the windows in 
tlie vacant chamber and shielding the doorway between the 
two rooms with screens. Gas jets or electric lights swinging 
above the centre of the table are a tasteless, tactless means of 
illuminating a dining-room. As a matter of fact, saving 
and excepting the table and its immediate environs, the room 
in which a truly enjoyable feast is served must not be lighted 
at all. The light should be concentrated and so directed, 
that, while every part of the cloth is in radiant vision, the 
guests' eyes are at the same time shaded from any painful 
glare and the buffets, side-table and pantry door thrown into 
agreeable shadow. Candles or small lamps, with the flame 
well shaded, produce the softest, steadiest, most comfortable 
and most becoming light. Incomprehensible as it may sound, 
there are hostesses who, in obedience to the behests of fashion, 
provide gorgeous candelabra or lamps for their table, yet 
continue to drown out and neutralize the glow from them by 
turning on the fierce hard light of the gas or electric chande- 
lier. This is simply to convert a fashion, that really origi- 
nated in sense and comfort, into a perfect absurdity, and to 
rob the entertainment of just the refinement and picturesque- 
ness that alone give the private dinner an advantage over a 
blazing feast spread in some hotel restaurant. 'Whether 
lamps or candles are used, they should be lighted at least 
three minutes before the dinner is announced, in order to 
make sure that they are in good condition and will burn freely 
and clearly until the dinner is finished. Candles are far more 
popular than lamps, because they give quite as soft and steady 
a light, with less heat. Eose red, white, pale yellow, and 



DINNER GIVING. 389 

very delicate green shades are recommended as yielding the 
most agreeable reflection. 

A square or round table, measuring nearly or all of five 
feet across, is not at all too extensive for the modern dinner 
party, wherein at least two feet and a half of the circumfer- 
ence is allotted to the cover of each guest. A long narrow 
table never lends itself readily to decoration, even under the 
most skilful hand. In the case of a round table, if the ordin- 
al ry family board is not large enough to accommodate the 
number of guests, a larger separate top can be made, to be 
laid on the fixed smaller one, as special occasions require. 

Before the cloth is laid, a thickness of felt or double- 
faced canton flannel should be placed upon the board; and 
upon this is spread the cloth itself. A handsome dinner cloth 
falls in full, long drapery about the table, its four corners 
almost touching the floor; and as the beauty of a dinner- 
board depends largely upon the almost mathematical exact- 
ness with which all the furnishings are arranged, a good 
point to start from in determining the proper location of 
goblets, decanters, and so on, is the central crease in the cloth. 
At the middle point in this line the large centre doiley finds 
its proper place. A square or circular piece of fine napery, 
lace, or drawn work is best used here ; mirror disks and scarfs 
and circular pieces of linen embroidered in colors are no 
longer the mode. Occasionally a silver tray is placed at the 
centre of the table, and on it is set a crystal or silver bowl, or 
vase filled with flowers. But where the doiley or the tray 
h chosen for the flat centrepiece, the flowers are still the chief 
ornament of every table. White blossoms and maiden-hair 
fern, a sheaf of gorgeous hot-house roses, a flat basket of 
orchids, a bowl of brilliantly-tinted sweet peas, an inexpensive 
dish of ferns, or a pot of blossoming violets are any of them 
appropriate, whether the decoration is built high or kept quite 
flat. It is the commendable taste of most hostesses to use 
pink lamp or candle shades, if pink roses have the post of 
honor, and yellow silk shades when daffodils shed their radi- 
ance of color abroad. 

When the centre ornament has been artistically adjusted; 
the candlesticks or lamps are disposed about it. Four candles 
will thoroughly illuminate a table laid for six or eight. For 



390 DINNER GIVING. 

a table of twelve persons, six sticks of two candelabra, e».cb. 
with three or four branches, will be required. Decanters of 
wine, salt-cellars, pepper-boxes, compotiers of bonbons, and 
platters of salted nuts are then located. 

Individual salt-cellars and pepper-boxes are not often ou 
dinner tables, but large ones stand, one of each, side by side, 
somewhere near the four corners of the table. The trays or 
compotiers of silver, porcelain, or crystal, holding the nuts 
and sweets, are set between the candlesticks, or a little out- 
side the circle of the candlesticks, toward the edge of the table. 

Whatever plan of laying a table is followed, care must be 
taken that one side exactly matches and balances the other in 
the number and placing of the various articles, in order to 
give it a tidy and finished appearance. Care should also be 
taken not to litter the board with useless objects or dishes that 
properly belong on the sideboard. Butter is not served at a 
ceremonious dinner; in fact, at the modern well-appointed 
family dinner table it does not appear. Celery, radishes, 
olives, horseradish, mustard, or any other relish or special 
seasoning, is passed from time to time by the servant ; so also 
are bread and water. Therefore, carafes and menues, favors, 
individual bouquets of flowers, and groups of handsome but 
useless spoons have wisely been banished as clumsy and mean- 
ingless. 

^ The requirements in the arrangement of a dinner cover 
are as follows: The plate should be so placed that if it is 
decorated, the fruit or flowers of the decoration will be in a 
natural position to the eye of the person seated before it; or 
so that if it is adorned with a monogram or crest, this will 
b^ right side up to the view of the sitter. On the plate is 
placed a large white dinner napkin, folded and ironed square, 
with the monogram corner showing, and with a dinner roll 
or a square of bread laid between the folds. To the 
left of the plate three silver forks are laid close to- 
gether, the points of the prongs turned up. To the right of 
the plate lie two large silver-handled, steel-bladed knives and 
one small silver knife, their sharp edges turned toward the 
plate. Beside the silver knife is laid a soup spoon, with its 
bowl turned up, and next to the soup spoon lies the oyster 
fork. Though three forks only are as a rule laid at the left 
cf the plate, a hostess whose supply of silver is equal to almost 



DINNER GIVING. 3iil 

an}- reasonable demand may add yet aucther or lay the covers 
with only two apiece. The additional fourth fork would be 
for the fish and of a special shape, that is, shorter than the 
others, with three flat prongs and the third one on the left 
broader than the others. If the fish that is to be served can 
easily be disposed of without the use of the small silver knife 
at the right of the plate, then this last mentioned utensil 
should not be supplied. 

Nearly touching the tips of the knife-blades stand four 
glasses — one a goblet, or tumbler, for water ; one a small, very 
tapering, vase-like glass, for sherry; one, the conventional 
wine-glass, for claret, and one very tall or very flaring for 
champagne. 

If sauterne or any still white wine is also to be served, to 
the list of glasses must be added one shaped like the one for 
claret and tinted a delicate green. If both still water and 
sparkling water are to be offered, the first mentioned should 
be served in stemmed goblets and the second in tumblers, and 
if whisky and water is to be offered to any of the male guests, 
there must be provided for this clear, thin glass tumblers, 
very much taller than those used for the mineral water, and 
perfect cylinders in shape or flaring slightly at their tops. 
On top of the napkin lies a small gilt-edged card, possibly 
with a tiny water-color decoration in the corner, and bearing 
across its length, in the hostess's handwriting, the name of 
the person for whom the seat is intended. Large dinners 
aeem to require a long list of dishes — ^for eighteen persons, 
as many as ten or twelve or fourteen courses; for eight per- 
sons, eight or nine courses ; six friends meeting round a hos- 
pitable board would be well satisfied Avith six courses. The 
order of a sumptuous dinner would follow this general rou- 
tine: 1. Shell fish — small clams or oysters, one-half dozen 
for each person, laid in their shells on a bed of finely crushed 
ice. With these are offered red and black pepper, grated 
horseradish, small tliin slices of buttered brown bread or tiny 
crisp biscuit and quarters of lemon. 2. Soup, 3. A course 
of hors d'oeuvres, such as radishes, celery, olives, and salted 
almonds. 4. Fish, witli potatoes and cucumbers, the latter 
dressed with oil and vinegar. 5. Mushrooms or sweetbreads. 
6, Asparagus or artichokes. 7. Spring lamb, or roast, witli 
a green vegetable. 8. Roman punch. 9. Game with salad. 



392 DINNER GIVING. 

10. A second entree. 11. A rich pudding. 12. A frozen 
6T;eet. 13. Fresh and cr)^stallized fruit, and bonbons. 14. 
Coffee and liqueurs. 1 

Leaving out the third, fifth and tenth courses, a menu of 
proportions sufficiently dignified for a dinn/er of eight guests 
remains, while for a simple entertainment it would be enough 
to begin with soup, followed by fish, a roast, salad, ices, sweet- 
meats and coffee. Wines are a feature of the greatest im- 
portance in dinner-giving. For a dinner of more than eight 
persons, a white wine, sherry, claret, Burgundy and cham- 
pagne are provided, one wine, preferably claret, for a small 
dinner. 

White wine is drunk with the first course and sherry with 
the soup; champagne is offered with fish, and its glasses are 
replenished throughout the meal. Claret or Burgundy comes 
in with the game. Sherry and claret are usually decanted, 
and the cut crystal and silver bottles form part of the decora- 
tive furniture of the table. The temperature of these liquids 
must not be below sixty degrees, and many persons 
prefer their claret of the same temperature as the dining- 
rcom. White wines and Burgundy are best poured from 
their bottles and served cool but certainly not cold. When a 
very fine Burgundy is poured the bottles are laid on their 
sides, each one in its small individual basket, and for hours 
tb.ey are not disturbed in order that all the sediment may fall 
to the bottom, leaving the rich fluid exceedingly clear. The 
man or maid servant who pours this wine brings each bottle 
in its basket to the table and so handles the whole that the 
bottle may be jostled as little as possible. Champagne is 
never decanted, and must be poured while very cold — in fact, 
directly on leaving a bed of ice and salt in which the bottles, 
as a rule, are packed to their necks for a half hour before 
dinner. The buckets of salt and ice, holding the bottles of 
champagne, are placed conveniently in the pantry, and when 
this wine is to be poured the servant deftly pulls the cork 
and wraps a fringed white napkin spirally about the bottle, 
from neck to base. This napkin absorbs the moisture on the 
bottle's surface and prevents any dripping. An untrained 
servant should never be trusted to pour champagne. Liqueurs 
are served with the coffee, are decanted into cut or gilded 
glass bottles of special shape and drunk from very small 



DINNER GIVING. 393 

stemmed or tumbler shaped glasses. All liqueurs are equally 
agreeable when served at tlie temperature of the drawing- 
room, thougli many persons prefer green mint when it is 
poured into tiny glasses nearly filled with shaved ice. The 
bottles of liqueur and small glasses are arranged on a silver 
tray and carried after dinner into the drawing-room when the 
coffee is taken there. 

The service of a dinner should proceed expeditiously — 
without haste, aoid yet without long pauses between the 
courses. When a dinner commences with oysters or clams 
two plates are laid at each cover, one, a deep plate, contains 
fhe shell fish laid on cracked ice, and this is set upon a second 
plate. If the dinner begins with soup each cover is laid 
with a flat plate, on which is folded a napkin holding a roll. 
These things the guests remove when they are seated and the 
servant then sets upon the first plates, second and deeper ones 
containing soup. At the conclusion of the soup course all 
the soup plates are removed, with the plates on which they 
have stood, and then warm plates for the fish are distributed. 
After this course a clean plate is placed before each guest 
before the serving of any course begins, and when the first 
three forks and knives laid at all the covers, have been used, 
fresh ones must very naturally be given with each plate. A 
question troubling many a hostess is whether the clean 
knives and forks should be put on the fresh plates as they are 
laid before the guests, or whether the plates should be dis- 
tributed first and then the knives and forks laid on the cloth 
beside them. The first course is usually adopted in restau- 
rants and at hotel tables, where rapid service is esteemed 
above noiseless and deliberate elegance. In a private house, 
where servants are well trained, one maid distributes the 
plates and in her rear comes another, to softly lay the knives 
and forks in their proper places. Even if one maid serves the 
dinner she can proceed thus with greater rapidity and silence 
than if required to set plate, knife and fork all down together, 
riates for hot courses must needs be warmed, but hot plates 
that make one's fingers tingle are an inappropriate evidence 
of zeal. A well-trained servant presents the dishes at the left 
hand of every guest in turn, beginning the first course with 
the lady at the right of the host, and then passing in regular 
nrder from gentlemen to ladies as tbev are seated. After the 



394 DINNER GIVING. 

llist course, the dishes are started on their progress about tue 
table at the left hand of a lady, but not always with the lady 
seated at the host's right, for the same person must not in- 
variably be left to be helped last. At a ceremonious dinner 
served k la Russe, the host does not carve any of the meats, 
none of the dishes are set upon the table and the hostess does 
not help her guests to anything. When a dozen or more per- 
sons are dining the serving of a course is expedited by divid- 
ing the whole amount of the course on two dishes, which the 
two servants in waiting would begin to pass simultaneously, 
from opposite sides and different ends of the table. 

When dinner is announced, the host at once offers his 
right arm to the lady who is to sit at his right. If a dinner 
ifs given in honor of a married couple, the host leads the way 
to the table with his guest's wife, the hostess bringing up the 
rear with that lady's husband. If there is no particularly 
distinguished person in the party, the host takes in the eldest 
lady, or the one who has been invited to the house for the first 
t5me. Relatives, or husbands and wives are never sent in 
together. There should, if possible, be an equal number of 
men and women guests. If, liowever, there are eight ladies 
and seven gentlemen, the hostess should bring up in the rear 
walking alone; she should never take the other arm of the last 
gentleman. Those who go into the dining-room together sit 
side by side; and they can move gently about the table, dis- 
cover their places by the cards bearing their names and lying 
at their respective covers. The host waits a moment until the 
ladies are seated, then the dinner proceeds. For a very 
large dinner, the hostess will find it most convenient to pre- 
pare beforehand small cards in envelopes, to be given the 
gentlemen by the butler at the door or in their dressing rooms. 
On each envelope is inscribed the name of the gentleman for 
whom it is intended ; on the card inside is the name of the lady 
whom he is to take in to the table. On investigating his card, 
the recipient can easily identify his table companion, and if 
he knows her not, can appeal to his host or liostess to intro- 
duce him. A plan of the dinner table is often placed in the 
gentlemen's and ladies' tiring rooms, that all may have an 
idea of their location. Should one or more guests arrive after 
the company is seated, the hostess is expected to bow, smile, 
shake hands, and receive apologies amiably; but does not rise 



DINNER GIVING. 3^5 

unless the guest is a woman. The host, however, rises, goes 
forward, assists in seating the delinquent, and endeavors, by 
making general conversation, to distract attention from the 
iijCident. If the arrival is very late, no break is made in serv- 
ing, the guest being expected to take up the dinner at the 
point it has reached when he appears, otherwise great confu- 
sion arises. At the conclusion of the fruit course, the hostess 
looks significantly at the lady at the right of her husband, 
and meeting her glance, nods, smiles and rises. x\t this 
movement the gentlemen rise as well, standing aside to per- 
mit the ladies to pass out toward the drawing-room. The 
doors or portieres of the door communicating between draw- 
ing and dining-room are then closed, and the butler or wait- 
ress carries in the coffee tray to the ladies, following it with a 
tray holding tiny glasses and decanters of various liqueurs. 

In the drawing-room, the ladies resume their gloves at 
their leisure, accepting or refusing the coffee and liqueurs as 
their preferences prompt. 

In the dining-room, the men sit at ease to smoke and sip 
their coffee and wine, drawing down near that end of the 
table at which the host is established. At a sign from that 
gentleman, cigars are put aside, and a general exodus from 
the dining-room takes place. 

Such would be the etiquette for the ceremonious and 
fashionable dinner party; and with a very few changes, a 
small and less fashionable dining would be conducted on prt> 
dsely the same lines. There might be fewer servants and 
fewer courses, simple flowers, and but a quartet of intimate 
friends; but this change of conditions necessitates but slight 
alteration in the method of arranging the table, of offering 
the food, and of arranging the guests. 

A hostess who possesses pretty but simple table furniture, 
and commands the services of but one maid and a cook of 
ordinary capabilities, should select a list of dishes which will 
not be difficult to prepare; oysters, soup, fish, a roast with 
vegetables, salad, dessert and coffee, if well cooked and 
temptingly presented, form a feast fit to set before a king. 
The fish course is completed by potatoes or cucumbers, or 
both ; the salad is possibly preceded by frozen punch and ac- 
companied with game, and for a truly simple dinner the 
hostess should serve the soup, salad, and dessert, and the host 



326 DINNER GIVING. 

strve the fish and carve the joint and game. A white cloth 
:nd centrepiece of flowers, four candles or dinner lamps, one 
decanter of red wine and two or four small crystal or silver 
platters, containing bonbons, olives, salted nuts and celery, 
are the proper furnishings for a board set for a party of six or 
Qght persons. The covers for a simple dinner are, with the ex- 
ception of fewer wine glasses, arranged as for a fashionable 
and formal banquet. 

If the first course consists of oysters or clams, these should 
to ready set on the table. If the dinner begins with soup, 
the hostess should find, when the company enter, the filled 
find covered tureen and a pile of warm soup plates at her 
place. So soon as everyone is seated the maid removes the 
tureen cover and passes the plates of soup and properly re- 
moves the tureen when the last plate has been filled and 
passed. The first is given to the lady seated on the host's 
right hand, then to the other ladies, in the order in which 
they are seated, before the gentlemen are served. A well- 
instructed waitress does not remove the plates of any course 
imtil she sees that every guest has quite finished. The fish 
and fish plates are set before the master of the house and 
when each guest has received a portion the waitress passes on 
her tray a dish of potatoes. If cucumbers are to be eaten 
with the fish, a small glass saucer should be laid at the left 
of every cover, and then the maid passes to each guest a glass 
bowl, in which the cucumber has been prepared. 

The master of the house, at a dinner of the simpler sort, 
carves the roast, and the maid, having deposited the plates 
containing the meat before each guest, passes the vegetables. 
The dishes of vegetables never look well on the table. When 
' veryone has had a helping these dishes should be covered, 
placed on the sideboard and perhaps passed again before the 
meat course is finished. The roast is, however, left before 
the carver, if it be his desire to invite the guests to a second 
helping of meat. 

When a frozen punch is served between the roast and 
islad, the small glass, cups, from which it is eaten, are filled 
in the pantry, each one is set on a dessert plate, on which is 
laid a teaspoon. If game follows the punch it should be 
esrved by the master of the house and the salad passed by the 
waitress, so that each guest helps himself directly from th<» 



DINNER GIVING. Si'7 

arge salad bowl, either on the plates containing the gaiiii, 
r small plates to be set at the right of every guest before the 
-alad goes around. 

WTien neither frozen punch or game are served the bov/L 

of salad and the plates should be set before the hostess f ;r 

serving and the maid then passes the cheese and toasted bis- 

uit. The hostess also serves the ice or pudding that forinii 

he dessert and the waitress passes the cake and finally set;.> 

it on the table. 

Should claret and a white wine or one red wine only j r 
erved with such a meal, the host invites that gentleman whose 
and is nearest the decanter to fill tlie glass of the lady beside 
im, his own, and then pass the decanter on. Sometimes 
!ie waitress, after she has served everyone to soup, fills all 
:he wine glasses and places the decanter near the host, who 
thereafter sees that it is passed about at proper intervals. 

The hostess after the fish course requests her guests to 
help themselves to olives, salted nuts and relishes, and lat.r 
the bonbons. 

If a fruit course succeeds the dessert the waitress place? 

before every guest a plate on which there lies a doiley ; on this 

- quarter finger bowl of water and beside the bowl a small 

ilver knife. Then to everyone she offers the platter of fruit 

nd finally places it on the table before her master ..ir 

.listress. The coffee is usually brought in to the table and 

the hostess pours the beverage. The first duty of the dinner 

guest is to arrive before the hostess' door on the stroke of the 

hour named in her invitation. It is almost as embarrassing 

a blunder to anticipate by ten or twenty minutes the tim? 

indicated on the dinner cards as it is to keep the hostess, her 

delicate viands, and her presumably hungry guests waiting. 

If one be unavoidably detained, an earnest and brief apology 

should be offered the hostess ; and if the company are already 

seated at table, it is best, after a short explanation, to ta':e 

le vacant seat and ignore the subject of the delay. 

Full evening dress is the rule— black swallowtail coat 

! ousers and waistcoat to match, or a waistcoat of white pique. 

cut open to display an immaculate expanse of stiffly-starche i 

"^hite linen, ornamented with two or three small pearl stud>. 

\ high white linen collar, with white lawn or black =ilk or 



3')S DINNER GIVING. 

Batin bow tie, broad cuffs held with link-buttons, and light- 
weight patent-leather ties, or pumps, is the costume de rigueur 
for a dinner in summer or winter. The tailless dinner jacket, 
always worn with a black bow tie, is only permissible when 
dining at home without guests, or in the company of one oi" 
two intimates. 

For women, the essential dinner costume is decollete. 
The hair is elaborately dressed, and jewels are advantageously 
utilized. For a less ceremonious dinner, a high-necked and 
Icng-sleeved gown is suitable, provided the dress is of a light 
color or is a rich dark silk handsomely garnished. .■ 

Guests are privileged to leave at any moment after the 
dinner is concluded. It is not polite or flattering to a host 
and hostess to accept their invitations to a ceremonious diu- 
i;Gi and hurry away to meet another engagement; but in the 
gay season, in a big city, where one or two entertainments 
take place in an evening, a man or woman greatly in demand 
iiiay linger but ten minutes in the drawing-room after dinner, 
!'.nd then, with explanations and adieux, go on to the next 
f< stivity. As a rule, however, at a dinner beginning at seven 
Of* half past seven o'clock, it is well to order one's carriage or 
rise to leave at ten; at an eight o'clock dinner, to leave at 
half past ten would be most discreet, though this rule becomes 
liable to a very elastic interpretation when a dinner is made 
up of brilliant, congenial persons, and the talk in the drawing- 
room is prolonged irresistibly until eleven. The lady makes 
ti £ first motion at departure, when a husband and wife, 
brother and sister, or betrothed couple, dine at the same house. 
No matter how numerous the company, and how engrossed the 
hostess may be, when a guest prepares to retire, he or she 
must seek their entertainer out and bid her adieu, with polit« 
thank? for hospitality. 



INDEX. 



AR nCLES REQUIRED IN THE 

KITCHEN 26 

•AD, BISCUITS, MUFFINS, 

ETC 259 

nread 265 

Bread, Vienna 263 

Hread, Spoon 264 

Bread, Baked Brown 267 

Bread, Graham 268 

Bread, Graham, Quick 268 

Bread, Indian 268 

Bread, Com 266-268 

Bread, Rye 269 

Bread. Oatmeal 269 

Bread and Butter, Rolled 275 

Bread Savory, Fried 277 

Buns, Spanish 265-266-267-277 

Buns, Scotch, Currant 267 

Buns, Hot Cross 272 

Biacuits, Maryland 265 

Biscuits. Hot, Baking Powder 265 

Biscuits, vSoda, without Milk 269 

Biscuits, Buttemiilk 270 

Biscuits, Raised Graham 270 

Combread 266-268 

English Monkey 278 

Fruit Pin Wheels 278 

General Directions . 259 

General Suggestions 261 

Gems, Spiced 266 

Gems, Graham 273-274-278 

Gems, Apple 273 

Gems, Oatmeal 274 

Gems, Wheat 274 

Gems, Rye 275 

Gems, Commeal 277 

I aplands, for Breakfast 278 

Muffins 262-263-264-266-275 

Muffins, Com 265 

Muffins, Milk 267 

Muffins, Rice 275 

Muffins, Commeal 275 

Muffins, Plain 276 

Muflins, Raised 276 

Muffins, English Breakfast j. . 276 

opovers JZ-.*ih . 266 

uffs, Oatmeal 272 

M)U3, to Renew Stale 262 

:<olls. Egg 270 

Rolls, Parker House 264-270- 278 

Rolls, Vienna 271 

Rolls, Bread Twist 271 

Rolls, French, Raised 271 

V usks Yeast 272 

vusks. Dried 273 

1 ■'cial Raisin Loaf 263 



BREAD, }i-tc.— Continued. 

Scones, Soda 264 

Scones 265 

Scones, Potato 274 

Waffles 272 

Yeast. Old-fashioned 267 

BEVERAGES 349 

Beverage 350 

Black Coffee 352 

Blackberry Cordial Beverage 354 

Claret Cup 352 

Cafe au Lait 353 

Cafe Frappe 352 

Choca 351 

Cocoa 353 

Chocolate 353 

Coffee Making 350 

Ginger Beer 350 

• Ginger Cordial 351 

General Remarks 349 

Lemonade 353 

Orangeade 353 

Punch, Milk 351-352 

Raspberry Royal 354 

Raspberry Vinegar 354 

Russian Tea 351 

Tea and Coffee, Healing Properties 349 

BUTTER AND CHEESE 355 

Butter, To Make 355 

Butter, To Make Quickly 356 

Butter, A Brine to Preser\'e 356 

Butter, Putting Up to Keep 356 

Curds and Cream 357 

Cheese. New Jersey Cream 357 

Cheese, Cottage 357 

Cheese, Fonda 358-362 

Cheese, Souffle 358-360-361-362-363 

Cheese, Scalloped 359-361 

Cheese Straws 359-361-362-364 

Cheese, Cream Toast 360 

Cheese, Savory 363 

Cheese, Lemon 363 

Macaroni and Cheese 364 

Pastry, Ramakins 359 

Slip 358 

Spaghetti 362 

Welsh Rarebit 360-361-363-364 

CAKES 231 

Almond Cake 237 

Angel Cake 253 

Bridesmaid's Cake 244 

Bread Sticks 256 

Cake Making Suggestions 23 1 

Cocoanut Puffs 235 



400 



INDEX. 



CAKES — Cuntinued. 

Chocolate Glace 235 

Chocolate Cake 237-238-246 

Clove Cake 238 

Cookies 239-240 

Cookies, Oatmeal 240 

Cookies. Drop 240 

Cookies, Shrewsbury 245 

Cookies, Ginger 249 

Corn Starch Cake 241 

Cheese Straws 242-243 

Corn Cake 246 

Cup Cake 250 

Cornmeal Cake 250 

Crullers 256 

Date Cake 239-251 

Dayton Cake 248 

Easy Cake 247 

Eccles Cake 249 

Fruitcake 242-251 

Frosting 233-237 

Filling, Lemon Jelly 235 

Filling for Cake 242-253-254 

Gingerbread, Soft 235 

Griddle Cake, Rice 238 

Ginger Cake 241 

Gingerbread, Lafayette 246 

Ginger Snaps 247 

Icing for Cakes 233-244-250 

Ice Cream Cake 244 

Imperial Cake 246 

Jam Tarns 239 

Jelly Cake 252 

Lemon Cheese Cake. ..".'. . .'. .'. .2'3'6-255 

Layer Cake 239-252 

Lemon Cake 250 

Loaf Cake, Chocolate 240 

Limch Cake 240-250 

Macaroons 241 

Macaroons, Oatmeal 243-249 

Macaroons, Cocoanut 254 

Mocha Cake 248 

Maple Sugar Cake 250 

Molasses Cake 248 

Nice Peel and Raisin Cake 237 

Neapolitan Cake 251 

Orange Cake 245 

Plum Cake 234-243 

Potato Cake 236 

Plain Cake 242 

Peel Cake 244 

Popovers 246 

Pancakes 257-258 

Puffs 250 

Raisin Layer Cake 245 

Rock Cake 241-251-255 

Ribbon Cake 252 

Raspberry Cake 234 

Rice Cake 258 

Sponge Cake 235-236-239-241 

246-249-252-255-256 

Shortbread 238-243-257 

Suggestions re Cake Making 231 

Spice Cake .240-249 

Shortbread, Scotch 244 

Seed Cake 247 

Short Cake, Apple 237 

Silver Cake 253 



CAK ES —Continued. 

Scotch Cake 254 

Sally Luns 255 

S's 257 

Tea Cake 2.^4-256 

White Rock Cake '^241 

Wedding Cake ' 243 

Wafers, Walnut 248 

Wafers, Oatmeal 253 

Wafers, Vanilla 254 

Waflles 25J 

Walnut Cake 255 

CANDIES 331 

Butter Scotch 332 

Caramels 332-33-3-338 

Caramels, Chocolate j334 

Chocolate Creams 334 

Currant Drops 337 

Cocoanut Cream i333 

Cocoanut '337 

Fudge -338 

General Remarks "331 

Hickory Nut -.333 

Lemon Drops 337 

Molasses ' 333 

Maple Cream 336 

Maple Sugar 335 

Maple Sugar Cream 334 

Nougat .336 

Nut Molasses 337 

Peanut 333 

vSugar Nut 337 

Stuffed Dates 336 

Toffee, Scotch 334 

Turkish Delight ,?36 

Velvet Cream 333 

Yum Yum 333 

CHAFFING DISH 339 

Chicken Croquettes 341 

Chafing Dish 339 

Clams'rSaute 340 

General Remarks 339 

Lobster Celery 341 

Lobster a la Newberge 342 

Mushrooms, Hungarian 341 

Oysters, with Anchovy 339 

Oysters, Deviled 339 

Oysters, Celery 340 

Shrimps, with Anchovy 341 

Sardines, Deviled 340 

Shrimps, with Tomato Sauce 341 

Tartare Sauce, Hot 342 

Welsh Rarebit ,542 

CONTENTS V 

CONTRIBUTORS Vll 

DESSERTS, CUSTARDS, AND 

CREAMS 201 

Apple, Porcupine 204 

Apple, Snow 211 

Apple, Sponge 213 

Apple, Charlotte 203-2 1 5 

Apples, a la Princess Maud 206 

Apples, Baked 2(6 

Apricots, Poached - 1 6 



INDKX. 



401 



DESSERTS. Ere- Cotitimied 

Ambrosia 203 

Almonds, Salted 203-216 

Bananas 217 

Cream, Italian 204 

Cream, Chocolate 204-206 

Cream, Pineapple 204-209-2 1 2 

Cream, Spanish 207-217 

Cream. Stone / • • • -210 

Cream. Ginger 212-215-218 

Cream Russian 212 

Cream, Burnt 215 

Cream. Raspberry 202 

Cremc a la Uuchesse 205 

Chocolate Shape 218 

Cream, Velvet 218 

Chocolate Mange 218 

Charlotte Russe 208 

Cranberry Frappe 208 

Cafe Mousse 208 

Compote of Chestnuts 214 

Custard, Soft Caramel 202 

Custard Caramel 210-214 

Custard, Souffle 210 

Dainty Dessert, A 202 

Gateaux Aux Prunes 205 

General Remarks 201 

Ice Cream, Philadelphia 215 

Ice Cream 209 

Melba Peaches 217 

Maple Mousse 216 

Maple Parfait 207 

Maple Mound 212 

Prunes, Gateaux aux 205 

Prune Shape 203 

Peach Melba 217 

Prince of Wales Dessert 214 

Sherry Flip 205 

Souffle 213 

Sauce , 213 

Strawberry Mould 204 

Sherbet Strawberry 207 

Sponge Treacle 216 

Sherbet, Lemon 207-213 

Sherbet, Muscat 208 

Trifle 209-212 

Trifle. Lemon • 211 

Trifle Fig 211 

Water Ice, Lemon 210-21 1 

DINNER GIVING 387 

EGGS AND OMELETS 289 

Eggs, Curried 293 

Eggs, Anchovy 290 

Eggs 289 

Eggs. To Preserve 289 

Eggs. Savory 29 1 

Eggs. Stewed 292 

Eggs Stewed in Cream 292 

T.ady Gay's Savory Omelet . 293 

Omelet 290-291-294 

Omelet. German 291 

Omelet ot Mushroom 291 

Omelet. Ovster 292 

Omelet, Fish 293 

Omelet. Onion 293 

(5melet of Potato 291 

Omelet, Jelly 293 

26 



FISH 57 

Angles on Horseback 61 

Ale Wives, Smoked 70 

Bass, Boiled 73 

Bass, Baked 78 

Bass, Fillet of 74 

Black Fish, Fillet of 74 

Bloaters, Smoked 70 

Brook Trout 73 

Boiled Fish as 

Broiled Fish 58 

Baked Fish 59-62 

Clams a la Financiere 82 

Codfish, Creamed 79 

Codfish, in Cream 77 

Codfish Balls 69-71 

Codfish, Salt 69 

Codfish, Salt, with Egg Sauce 65 

Codfish Cutlets 64 

Codfish. Baked 64 

Cutlets, Fish 67 

Dressing for Fried Fish 61 

Dressing for Fried Oysters 61 

Dressing for Fish Cutlets 61 

Eels, stewed 65 

Finnan Haddie 70 

Fish Entree 68 

Fish, Left Over 62 

Fish Balls a la Norris 67 

Frying, Modes of 59 

Frogs' Legs 71 

Frogs' Legs, Stewed 71 

General Remarks 57 

Halibut 75 

Halibut, To Collop 75 

Halibut Fillet of 74 

Halibut, To Boil 76 

Herrings, Smoked 70 

Lobster, Escalloped 69 

Lobster, Creamed 82 

Lobster Croquettes 71 

Lobster Curried 72 

Lobster Cutlets 69 

Modes of Frying 59 

Mayonnaise of Fish 65 

Mackerel, Broiled 73 

Oyster Stew 62 

Oysters, Curried 63 

Oyster Cocktail Dressing 68 

Oysters, Scalloped 72-79 

Oysters, Fried 74 

Oyster Cocktail 77-80 

Oyster Kebobbed 81 

Omelet of Fish 76 

Pickerel, Fried 73 

Salmon, Loaf 78 

Salmon. Creamed 77 

Salmon in a Mould 76 

Salmon. Boiled 72 

Salmon. Steamed 68 

Salmon Shape 82 

Salmon Smoked — a Quick Relish.. 70 

Salmon, Smoked 70 

Salmon, Cream 68 

Salmon. Baked, with Cream Sauce 66 

Salmon, Moulded 66 

Salmon, Poached, with Eggs 6t 

Salmon, Cutlets 61 

Sardines au Gratin 70 



402 



INDKX. 



KISH —Co7itinued. 

Sardines on Toast 63 

Sardines, Canapus of 62 

Sardine Savoy 61 

Savory Cream 80 

Smelts 79 

Sturgeon Cutlets 75 

Sturgeon, to Roast 75 

Shrimps, Fricassee of 79 

Soles in Batter 63 

Turbot 80-81 

Whitefish, Scalloped 78 

Whitefish, Broiled 78 

Whitefish, Boiled 77 

FOREIGN RECIPES 343 

Austrian Pudding 348 

Apple Pudding, Swiss 348 

Beet Tops 346 

Curry, Rice 346 

Curry Begums 346 

Coffee Cake 345 

Cauliflower au Gratin 343 

Chocolate Forte 348 

Cauliflower, Stewed 347 

Carrots, Creamed 348 

Entree, Bavarian Style 343 

German Pudding 343 

Gherkin Salat 343 

Heisser Kraut Salat 344 

Hamburg Steak 344 

Kartoffel Salat 344 

Lobster Berliner 345 

Onions, Baked 347 

Peppers, Sweet, Stuffed .' . 347 

Red Cabbage 345 

Rice, To Boil 345 

FOR THE SICK 371 

Broth, Veal 372 

Broth, Mutton 372 

Beefsteak 371 

Beef Tea 372 

Boiled Rice 375 

Bread Panada 376 

Boils, Remedy for 379 

Blackberry Cordial 378 

Calves' Foot Jelly 373 

Chicken Jelly 375 

Cup Custard 376 

Chicken Panada 376 

Crust Coffee 377 

Cough Mixture 379-380 

Cough, Cure for 379 

Cough, Remedy for 380 

Dandelion Wine 380 

Elliman's Embrocation 380 

For Children Teething 377 

General Remarks 371 

Gruel, Oatmeal 372 

Gruel, Egg 373 

Hominy 374 

Jelly, Mulled 376 

Lemonade, Flax Seed 374 

Mutton Chops 371 

Orange Albumen 373 

Porridge, Milk 373 

Porridge, Arrowroot Milk 374 

Powder for Children 377 

Poultices 378 



FOR THE SICK— Continued. 

Remedial Qualities of Fruits. . . . 381 

Ringworm, Cure For 379 

SHppery Elm Tea 374-377 

Soap Liniment 380 

Toast, Soft 375 

Toast, Egg 375 

Toast, Oyster 376 

Toast Water 377 

Tonic 379 

HOW TO CARVE 17 

HOUSEKEEPER'S TIME-TABLE. 24 

INDEX 399 

MEATS 83 

A Dainty Dish 99 

American Fritters 89 

Bacon 109 

Beef Loaf 105 

Beef Roast 86 

Beef, Patty 93 

Beef, Roast, Baked, Cold 91 

Beef, Roulandes of 89 

Beef, Croquettes 88 

Beef, Browned, Mince of 87 

Beef, Breakfast Dish of 87 

Beef Cakes 87 

Beef Olives 90 

Beef Stew 107 

Beef, Hunters' 99 

Brains, Boiled 89 

Chops, Breaded 97 

Dutch Stew 94 

Forcemeat for Veal 106 

Frozen Meats Thawing 85 

General Remarks 83 

Haggis. Scotch 108 

Ham, Boiled, Virginia Style 99 

Ham Pie 95-110 

Ham, Stuffed 104 

Ham, Boiled 104 

Ham, Baked 105 

Ham, To Glaze 106 

Hash. Corfied Beef 105 

Head Cheese 109 

Hungry Boys' Lunch 108 

Irish Stew 98 

Keep Meat from Flies, To 85 

Kidney Berlin 107 

Kidneys. Deviled 100-106 

Kidneys, Stewed with Wine 100 

Kidneys, with Bacon 101 

Kidneys. Toasted 101 

Kidneys, Stuffed 101 

Lamb, Koast Leg of 97 

Lamb, Roast Shoulder of 95 

Lamb, Broiled 91 

Iamb. Minced, with Poached Eggs 88 

Lamb, Stewed Breast of 88 

Lamb, Braised Breast of 96 

Lamb, Haricot 107 

Lamb Chops 96 

Lamb, Stewed, and Green Peas... . 98 

Liver and Mushroonas 100 

Minced bf Beef, Browned 87 

Mousse 107 

Mutton, Boiled 97 



INDEX. 



403 



MKATS— Continued. 

Mutton, Broiled 91 

Mutton Chops, Stuffed 97 

Mutton Chops 96 

Mutton, Stuffed Leg of 96 

Mutton, Curried 92 

Mutton Casserole of Roast 110 

Ox Tails, Stewed 93 

Pork, Roast i^ 102 

Pork Chops 102 

Pork Steaks and Tenderloins 102 

Pork, Spare Rib 102 

Pork and Beans. Boston Style 101 

Pork Pot Pie 103 

Pork Pie, Yorkshire 103 

Paste De Veau 94 

Rabbit, Stewed 107 

Ris de Veau a cas Supreme 105 

Steak. Broiled 87 

Steak, Stewed, and Macaroni 90 

Steak, Smyra 91 

Savory Grill 92 

Sweet Breads 108-109 

Sweetbreads for Timbles 94 

Swiss Pates 91 

Timble Batter 94 

Tongue, To Glaze 106 

Veal Pie 95-110 

Veal, Blanquette of 93 

Veal Loaf 92 

Veal Pattie 92-106 

Veal Chevreux 92 

Veal, Galantine of 109 

Veal Shape 90 

Veal, Jellied 100 

Yorkshire Pudding 86 

MISCELLANEOUS 365 

Bouchees a la Reine 366 

Batter of Timbles 366 

Dinner Engagements 359 

Decorations for a Hot Day 360 

I''umiture Polish 366 

Fancy Cooking 360 

Hard Water, .Softening 366 

How to Stone Olives 360 

How to Cut Bacon 365 

How to Wash Dishes 367 

ICidgrie, or Dry Curry 366 

Polish for Morocco Furniture 365 

Stove Polish 365 

Things to Remember 368 

Washing Fluid, Chinese 365 

PASTRY, PIES AND TARTS 219 

Apple Ginger 230 

Apple Pie. Plain 225 

Apple Tarts 224 

Apricot Tarts 224 

Berry Tarts 224 

Cream Pie 223-226 

Cocoanut Pie 226 

Cranberry Pie 227 

Cream Puffs 229 

Cheese Tartlets 229 

Cheese Pie 230 

Filling for California Pie. . . . 230 

General Remarks , . . . 219 

Icing for Pastry 221 

Lemon Pie 221-222 



PASTRY, Ere— Continued. 

Lemon Filling for Tarts 222 

Lemon Filling for Cakes 222 

Lemon Filling for Pie 228 

Lent Pie 227 

Mince Meat for Pies 222 

Martha Washington's Pie 223 

Mince Meat, with Beef 227 

Mince Meat, without Beef 228 

Mince Meat 223-228 

Orange Pie 225 

Pastry, Plain, for Pies 220 

Pastry, for Tarts 221 

Pastry for Open Pies 221 

Pie Crust 223-221 

Plum Tart 224 

Pumpkin Pie 226-228-240 

Pumpkin Pie, Waldorf 230 

Sweet Potato Custard Pie 222 

Tarts 224 

PICKLES 305 

Chutney 305-306-312-316 

Chutney, Tomato 306 

Chutney, Bengal 307-315 

Catsup, Grape 310-316 

Catsup, Crab Apple 308 

Catsup, Tomato 306 

Catsup, Mustard 310 

Chow-chow 309-313 

Currants, Spiced 314 

Grapes, Spiced 308-31 1 

General Remarks 305 

Lemons. To Pickle 312 

Mustard, Dressing 311 

Mustard, Tomato 307-311 

Pickled Crab Apple 307 

Pickled Mushrooms 307 

Pickled Peaches 311 

Pickles, Yellow 308-315 

Pickles, French 309 

Pickles, Mustard 309-314 

Pickles, Sweet Tomato 313 

Pickles, Green Cucumber 313 

Pickles, Cherry 314 

Pickles, India 314 

Pickles, Lemon 306-315 

Relish, Celery 316 

Sauce, Hollandaise 316 

Sauce, Chili 306-311-313 

Sauce, Chili, with Celery 310 

Sauce, Celery 310 

Sauce, Tomato 306-312 

Tomato, Ripe 312 

POULTRY AND GAME Ill 

Bouchees a la Reine 141 

Chicken, Roasted 116 

Chicken, Boned Roasted 114 

Chicken, Jellied, Boned 114 

Chicken, Braised, Boned 114 

Chicken, Broiled 117-118 

Chicken, Fondu of 129 

Chicken, Braised 118 

Chicken, Creamed 140 

Chicken Fricassee 118 

Chicken, Fried 119 

Chicken, Stuffed 119 

Chicken, Broiled, on Toast 123 

Chicken, Curried 123 



404 



[NDEX. 



POULTRY AND GAME— Continued. 

Chicken Pot Pie 124-125 

Chicken, Stewed, with Biscuit 125 

Chicken, Celeried 126 

Chicken Saute 141 

Chicken, Smothered 126 

Chicken, Maryland 126 

Chicken Croquettes 126-127-128 

Chicken, Creamed 128 

Chicken Jelly 128 

Dressing for Fowls 113 

Ducklings, Roast 130 

Duck. Savory 120 

Duck, Stewed 129 

Duck, Roast 1 29 

Duck, Salmi of 130 

Duck. Canvasback, Broiled 131 

Duck, Redhead Broiled 131 

Duck, Ragout of, and Green Peas. 131 
Forcemeat for Stuffing Boned 

Fowls 115 

Fowl Dressing 140 

Game Pie 141 

Game Sauce 139-142 

General Remarks Ill 

Goose, Roast 123 

Giblet Sauce 117 

Grilled Bones 120 

Grouse, Broiled 132 

Grouse, Salmi of 132 

Hare Jugged 136 

Hare Roast 136 

My Devil 139 

Onion Sauce 141 

Oyster Dressing 113 

Oyster Stuffing 113 

Perdrix aux Choux 127 

Prairie Chicken, Roast 131 

Partridge, Roast 133 

Pigeon, Roast, Wild 133 

Pigeon, Braised, with Mushrooms.: 134 

Pigeon Pie 134 

Pigeon, English, Jugged 134 

Pigeon, Curried 135 

Potato Stuffing 140 

Quail, Roast 132 

Quail, Broiled 133 

Rabbit, Roast 136 

Rabbit. Stewed 135 

Sauce for Wild Duck 142 

Sauce for Port Wine 142 

Souffle De Volaille 139 

Stuffing for Fowls 113-116-140 

Stuffing, Chestnut 117 

Squabs, Broiled 134 

Snipe 135 

Small Birds 135 

Truss a Fowl, To 115 

Timbals 139 

Turkey, Roast 112 

Turkey, Legs 119 

Turkey, Scallop 121 

Turkey, Boiled 121 

Turkey, Hashed 122 

Turkey, Boned 122 

Turkey, Warmed Over 122 

Turkey. Blanquette of 127 

Venison. Baked Saddle of 137 

Venison, Jellied 142 

Venison Pie 138 



POULTRY AND GAME -Cojumwerf. 

Venison, Roast Haunch of 137 

Venison Steak, Broiled 137 

Woodcock 135 

PREFACE Ill 

PRESERVES, JELLIES, ETC 317 

Apple, Leather 321 

Apple Butter 324 

Apple Ginger 324 

Bottling Whole Fruit 329 

Canned Pineapple 326 

Chipped Pears 328 

Canned Fruit 318 

General Remarks 317 

Jam, Ripe, Gooseberry 324 

Jam, Rhubarb. Green 325 

Jam, Rhubarb, Red 325 

Jam. Pear 327 

Jam. Blackberry 328 

Jam, Apple 328 

Jelly, Wine 319 

Jelly, Lemon 319 

Jelly, Aspic 320 

Jelly, Apple 320 

Jelly, Fruit 321 

Jelly, Prune 322-330 

Jelly, Grape 322 

Jelly, Tomato 326 

Jelly, Pear 326 

Jelly, Pine Apple 326 

Jelly, Cranberry 329-330 

Marmalade, Orange 320-322-323-325-329 

Marmalade, Simple Recipe 322 

Marmalade, Pear 323 

Marmalade, Quince 323 

Marmalade, Scotch 327 

Marmalade, Royal 328 

Marmalade, Red Currant 329 

Pineapple, Preserved 330 

Peach. I,eather 321 

Plum, Shape 323 

Presers'e Fruit, whole, without 

Sugar 327 

Quince Leather 321 

PUDDINGS AND SAUCES 169 

Ada Ford's 194 

Agra 190 

Apple Dumpling, Rice 1 80 

Almond. Hot 185 

Almond, Cold 185 

Amber 200 

Apple, Charlotte 189 

Apple, Baked ,188 

Apple, Meringue 1 88 

Apple Fritter 1 89 

Apple Souffle 189 

Apple Lady, T's 200 

Arrat 183 

Arrowroot Charlotte 190 

Arrowroot Creams 190 

Brown 180-187 

Blueberry 1 75 

Banana 196-198 

Batter, English Boiled 1 75 

Betsey 191 

Bachelor's 191 

Bread Fritters 191 



INDKX. 



405 



PUDDINGS, Ktc— Continued 

Bread and Butter 181-182 

Bread and Butter, Boiled 191 

Bon Accord 182 

Brentwood 195 

Currants To Clean 171 

Chocolate 199 

Cold Fruit 172 

Cottage : . . 172 

Caramel 172-174-177-193-200 

Cheese 1 73 

Carrot 173-183-192 

Chocolate Sponge 173-198 

Carita 174 

Cracker 176 

Cake 179 

Cream Sponge 183 

Cold 187 

Custard 177-196 

Caramel Custard 193 

Custard for Caramel Pudding 177 

D'ltalie 199 

Date 181" 

Derbyshire 184- 

Dumplings 197 

Fig 174-178-180-187 

Fruit 192 

Fig Smothered 1*)3 

Frozen 198 

Graham Flour 194 

Ginger, Plain 194 

Ginger 179 

General Remarks 1 69 

Ice 181-199 

Jelly 181 

Lemon Tapioca 181- 

La Parisienne 1 85 

Lemon 185 

Marmalade 172-187 

Macaroni 181 

Madeira 1 74 

May's 196 

Orange 184 

Plum 172-173-178-180-186 

Paradise 1 73 

Plum, John Bull's Own 1 75 

Prune 175-193-199 

Polka 178 

Plum. Cheap 179-193 

Pineapple and Tapioca 183 

Patterdale 183 

Pie Plant 197 

Preserve Dumpling 197 

Rice 197 

Rhubarb 197 

Raisins, To Stone 1 72 

Roly Poly, Steamed 186 

Raisin Puff 196 

Syrup from Orange Peel 177 

Suet, Baked 1 79 

Sponge 180-186-192-195 

Sago. Steamed 187 

Suet. Steamed 192 

Suet, To Chop 171 

Sauce Cream 1 76 

Sauce, Chocolate 176 

Sauce, Hot Chocolate 176 

Sauce for a Pudding 1 76- 1 77 

Sauce, Foam 177-194 

Sauce, Creamy 1 79 



PUDDINGS, Etc.— Continued. 

Snow 198 

Tapioca and Pineapple 183 

Tapioca, Fruit 178-184 

Wheat Fig 180 

Xmas Plum, English 186 

Xmas Glenedyth 194 

Yorkshire 182-192 

SALADS AND SAUCES 295 

Beet Salad 304 

Bean Salad 302 

Celery Salad 299 

ChifTonade Salad 303 

Cabbage and Celery Salad 299 

Chicken Salad 297 

Delicious Salad 295 

Egg Salad 300 

Fruit Salad 301 

Lobster Salad 296 

Mayonnaise . . .295-296-300-301-303-304 

Mayonnaise Sauce 296 

Normandy Salad 301 

Nut Salad 301 

Orange and Walnut Salad 302 

Orange Salad 304 

Oyster Salad 298-303 

Potato Salad 299 

Pineapple Salad 295 

Russian Salad 296 

Sweet Bread Salad 300 

Sardine Salad 300 

Salad Dressing 295-296-297-298 

299-300-302-303 

Sweet Potato Salad ^02 

Tomato Salad 298 

Waldorf Salad 304 

Winter Salad 295 

SANDWICHES 281 

Alexandra Roll McConkey's) 282 

Chicken Sandwiches 283 

Cheese and Honey 281 

Cheese aud Mustard 281 

Cheese Sandwiches 284 

Cream -Cheese Sandwiches 285 

Celery and Cheese 288 

Celery Sandwiches 286 

Crimson 282 

Cress Sandwiches 286 

Egg Sandwiches 284 

General Remarks 281 

Green 287 

Habitant 288 

Ham and Chutney 281 

Ham Sandwiches 283 

Ham Sandwiches, Plain 283 

Jam 287 

Lettuce 282-286 

Lettuce Sandwiches 282 

Mushroom Sandwiches 284 

Oyster 282 

Olive 282 

Pignaut Sandwiches 285 

Peanut Sandwiches 286 

Raw Beef 288 

Salmon 287 

Sardine Sandwiches 283 

Savory Sandwiches 282-2S5 

Smart 287 



406 



INDEX. 



SANDWICHES— Con<mtt«d. 

Swiss Cheese 288 

Toast 287 

Tongue Sandwiches 285 

Walnut 288 

Watercress Sandwiches 284 

Yellow 287 

SOUPS 31 

Asparagus, Cream of 35 

Broth for Invalids 51 

Barley, Cream of 42 

Brown Soup, Clear 44 

Bean Soup 38-49 

Broth, Made Quickly 51 

Carrot Soup 37 

Clam Soup Mock 38 

Clear Soup 40 

Chicken Broth 43-50 

Corn Chowder 46 

Com Broth 43 

Cauliflower Broth 45 

Chicken Soup. Plain 48 

Calf's Head Soup 51 

Clam Soup 52 

Consomme 52 

Celery, Cream of 53-55 

Duchess Soup 53 

Giblet Soup 40-46 

Goose Bone 42 

Gumbo Soup 41 

Herbs Used in Soup 33 

Highlanders' Delight 43 

Kidney Soup 36-38 

Lettuce, Cream of 45 

Liver Soup 47 

Marrowball Soup 42 

Mulligatawny Soup 48 

Mutton Broth 50 

Mock Turtle Soup 51 

Mock Turtle 56 i 

Mushroom Soup 55 

Old Hare Soup 47 

Oyster, Cream of 50 

Oyster Soup 51-56 

Ox Tail Soup 52 

Onion Soup 40-54 

Pea Green Soup 37 

Potato Soup 38-54 

Pea SpHt Soup 49 

Peanut Soup 54 

Quenelles for Clear Soup 35 

Rabbit Soup 47 

Stock 34 

Stock, White 34 

Stock, To Clarify 35 

Stock, Brown 35 

Salmon Soup 39 

Summer Soup 41 

Squash and Goose Bone Soup 42 

Spaghetti Soup 44 

Scotch Broth 45-54 

Tomato Bouillon 37 

Tomato, Cream of 56 

Turkish Soup 39 

Tripe Soup 39 

Tomato Soup 39-40 

Tapioca Soup 44 

Turnip Soup 45 

Tomato Puree 48 



80VPS— Continued. 

Tomato Bisque Soup 53 

Vegetable used in Soup 33 

Vegetable Soup 48 

Vegetable Puree 49 

Vermicelli Soup 44 

Veal Soup 54 

White Soup 36 

TOAST 279 

American Toast 280 

' Cream Toast 279 

Creamed Oysters on Toast 280 

French Toast 280 

Ham Toast 280 

Milk Toast 279 

Nuns' Toast 280 

TOILET RECIPES 383 

Bay Rum 383 

Cosmetic Balm 383 

Cream of Lilies 383 

Cream of Roses 384 

Cold Cream 384 

Cologne Water 383 

Dandruflf, For 385 

Eyebrows, Dye 386 

Hair Tonic 384 

Hair Invigorator 385 

Hair Oil 385 

Hair Dye 385 

Hair Wash 386 

Hair on the Brows, To Increase. . . 386 

Jockey Club Bouquet 383 

Lavender Water 383 

Lip Salve 384 

Ox Marrow Pomade 386 

Pot Pourri 384 

Rose Water 383 

Shampoo 386 

VEGETABLES 143 

Artichokes, Boiled 166 

Asparagus Tips 144-151 

Asparagus, Boiled 150 

Asparagus a la Vinaigrette 150 

Asparagus, Scalloped 151 

Asparagus Pates 151 

Banana Croquettes 167 

Bananas, Fried 1 66 

Beans, Lima 144 

Beans, Lima, Stewed 160 

Beans, Kidney 160 

Beans, Kidney, a la Lyonnaise. ... 160 

Beets, Young Boiled 150 

Beets, Old, Boiled 150 

Cabbage, Ways of Cooking 149 

Carrots, Young, a la Parisienne... . 164 

Carrots, Stewed 1 64 

Cauliflower au Gratin 152-168 

Caidiflower, Boiled 161 

Cauliflower, Boiled, with Tomato 

Sauce 161 

Cauliflower, Pariseau Style 161 

Cauliflower, Baked 161 

Celery, Savory 167 

Celery, Creamed 167 

Com Fritters 154-155 

Com, Canned 155 

Com and Tomatoes. Stewed 154 



INDEX. 



407 



VEGETABLES— ContiuKcd. 

Corn, Stewed 154 

Corn, Boiled 15* 

Egg-Plant. Fried 163 

Egg-Plant, Boiled 163 

General Remarks 143 

Horseradish Sauce 168 

Leeks i. . 168 

Onions, Creamed 148 

Onions, Baked 145 

Onions, Bermuda, Stuffed 152 

Onion Souffle 153 

Onion Fritters 155 

Ovster Plant, Baked 153 

Oyster Plant (see Salsify) 153 

Parsnips, Buttered 165 

Parsnip Cake 165 

Parsnips, Creamed 165 

Parsnips, Fried 165 

Potato Rice 144 

Potatoes, Baked 144 

Potatoes. Lyonnaise 146 

Potatoes, Fried 146 

Potatoes, Saratoga 146 

Potatoes, Puffed or Souffle 147 

Potatoe, Rissoles 149 

Potatoes, Fried Balls and Straws.. 146 

Potatoes. Sweet, Puree 144 

Potato Croquettes 168 

Potatoes, Sweet, Browned 148 

Potatoes, Sweet, Baked 147 

Potatoes, Sweet . 147 

Peas, Oreen 159 

Peas. Canned 159 

Peas. Puree of. Green ... 159 

Peas, Plain Puree of. Green 159 

Peas. G'-een, Pancakes 160 

Peas. Black-eyed 1 60 



VEGETABLES -Con«mM«d 

Peppers, Sweet, Fried 164 

Peppers, Green, Stuffed 153 

Rice Croquettes 148 

Rice, Boiled 152 

Salsify 153 

Salsify Fritters 164 

Salsify, Stewed 165 

Saratoga Chips 146 

Spinach, Souffle 149-162 

Spinach, Boiled, Plain 162 

Succotash 155 

Squash, Boiled 162 

Squash Fritters 163 

Squash. Baked 163 

Savory. Cold 168 

Tomatoes. Stewed 155 

Tomatoes, Scalloped 157 

Tomatoes Stuffed 144- 

Tomatoes Roasted 145 

Tomatoes. Broiled 145 

Tomato, Pilaff 148 

Tomato. Butter 151 

Tomatoes and Cheese 152 

Tomatoes au Gratin 156 

Tomatoes. Broiled, with Sauce. . . . 156 

Tomatoes, Baked 157 

Tomatoes, Fried in Batter 157 

Tomatoes, Fried, Plain 158 

Tomatoes, Deviled 158 

Tomatoes. East Indian, Ragout of 158 

Tomatoes, on Toast 167 

Turnips, Young, Stewed 166 

Turnips, a la Creme 149 

Turnips, Fried 166 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



29 



REMARKS 



O 



,,■>■■■ .X 



t ^vf. 



TX Denison, Grace E (ed.) 
715 The new book. Rev.* ed. 

1906 



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